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Biswajit Panda 0701227457 7CS2A

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING C.V.RAMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING BHUBANESWAR

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR AUTOMATON

First proposed by Von Neumann in 1950·s Advanced version by Stephen Wolfram in 1990·s Automata theory applied to cellular structures A set of rules are applied on the present state of the cells generating the next state The production rules are applied repeatedly for some finite steps to produce a specific pattern Each cell has 1>two states ON(1) or OFF(0) 2>two neighbours 3>a rule to determine the next state

application of non-linear CA in pattern recognition Analysis and synthesis of 1. application of fuzzy CA in pattern recognition .non-linear boolean CA (GMACA) ²CA with all possible logic 2.fuzzy CA (FMACA) ²CA with fuzzy logic 2.CONTRIBUTION OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA Analysis and synthesis of 1. application of MACA in pattern recognition data mining image compression fault diagnosis of electronic circuit Analysis and synthesis of 1. linear boolean CA (MACA) ²CA with only XOR logic 2.

then P(t + 1) = T P(t) After d no of steps P(t + d) = T d P(t) T is a 2-dimensional n×n matrix known as Dependency Matrix (DM) . A production rule 2. The next state of a cell depends on 1. present state of its neighbouring cells 3.BASICS OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA Present state of each cell is represented by P(t). its own state If the next state is represented by P(t + 1) .

252> that is < (qi + qi+1).DEPENDENCY MATRIX EXAMPLE: A 4-cell null boundary hybrid FCA with rule vector <238. (qiî1 + qi) > being applied from left to right.254. may be represented as follows P(t + 1) = T P(t) where T corresponds to the Dependency Matrix . (qi + qi+1).238. (qiî1 + qi+ qi+1).

e. 256 possible next state functions (rules) for a cell.PRODUCTION RULES For 3 consecutive cells there are 23=8 combinations and 28 i. .

The simulation results of such model should be similar to the real behaviour. The generalized structure is called fuzzy cellular automata (FCA). . Because of this reason fuzzy logic was introduced.EVOLUTION OF FUZZY LOGIC The main characteristics of the work from eighties was analytical approach to CA. There were not a lot of results from synthesis approached results.

FUZZY MULTIPLE ATTRACTOR CA (FMACA) .

If d is the depth of a FMACA with dependency matrix T.FMACA Depth Of Attractor Basin: The depth d of a FMACA is defined as the number of clock cycles required to reach the attractor state from any non reachable state in the state transition diagram of the FMACA. then Td+1 = Td FMACA is a special class of FCA that can efficiently model an associative memory to perform pattern classification/recognition problems. .

.Compares input patterns with each of the stored patterns learn. A Comic Sans MS A B C .Study how machines can learn to distinguish patterns of interest Conventional Approach . . .PATTERN RECOGNITION PROBLEM Pattern Recognition . Z Bookman Old Style .

THE PROBLEM: A A B Grid by Grid Comparison 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 No of Mismatch = 3 .

SOLUTION: FCA based associative memory for pattern recognition .Time to recognize a pattern .Proportional to the number of stored patterns ( Too costly with the increase of number of patterns stored ).

. 2: after d no of steps we reach at the attractor pattern. Steps for pattern classification and recognition: 1: following the respective production rule repeat the level of production for d (where d is the depth of the attractor basin) no of steps. 3: the attractor yields the address of the memory that stores the class information. 4: All patterns that can be produced to reach the same attractor constitute a class whose required information is present at the address pointed by the attractor. We can recognize the pattern belonging to a class. The attractor represents the class.FMACA BASED PATTERN CLASSIFIER An n-cell FMACA with k attractor basins can be viewed as a natural classifier.

0.5.75.0.00 0.5.00 0.00 < 0.0.00> 0.00> <0.00.5 0.0.EXAMPLE OF FMACA CLASSIFICATION: Suppose we have to classify five patterns into respective classes.0.0.75.00 > 0.00> <0.25.5.0.0.50.00.0. Let the five patterns<0.0.00 1.00.0.00.00 0.0.00> <0.75.25 1.0.0.0.00 0.00>.0.0.25> <1.0.0.00 0.0.0.25.0.00> .00.00. After following the corresponding rule for d no of times we get Attribute 1 Attribute 2 Attribute 3 0.25 0.0.75.00.00.1.00 0.25.0.00.00> <0.25 .75.0.0.25.25 1.0.50.50.25.00><0.00> < 0.0.75> In the above figure there are five attractor basins namely <0.25 <0.00.00> <1.25><1.0.50 0.00><1.75 Attractor <0.00.75.00.

LINK TO MEMORY .

FMACA BASED TREE STRUCTURED CLASSIFIER To break down a complex decision making process into a collection of simpler decisions. . thus providing a solution which is easier to interpret.

4.An intermediate node represents the instance to design another FMACA .The basin of attractor covers the elements belonging to a specific class. 3.Each node of tree is either a leaf node or intermediate node.A leaf node represents an attractor basin of the FMACA designated as a specific class.FMACA BASED TREE STRUCTURED CLASSIFIER 1. 2.

Stop. Output a tree that acts as pattern classifier.. where Si is the set of elements of class i. Let S/ be the set of elements in an attractor basin. then repeat the steps 1 to 4. less time to run .Sk} into K classes. The elements of the training set S get distributed into k attractor basins/nodes. 4. then mark it as a leaf node and label that attractor basin/node as that class.««. 3.Si. all patterns of S/ are covered by an attractor basin/node belonging to only one particular class). A FMACA with k attractor basins is generated. 1. Otherwise if S/ belongs to more than one class. Output tree as small as possible less memory requirement.e. 5.Algorithm for FMACA tree building: Suppose we want to design a FMACA based tree structured classifier to classify a training set S={S1.. 2. If S/ belongs to any one particular class (i.«.

. To identify an attractor basin of FMACA in O(n) time complexity. the Dependency Vector (DV) is used.TIME COMPLEXITY characteristic equation of FMACA P(t + 1) = T P(t) For d no of steps P(t + d) = Td P(t) time complexity O(n3).

3««n then there exists m no of dependency relations (DR) among all the vectors of each attractor basin. The dependency vector (DV) represents each individual dependency relation satisfied by all the vectors of each attractor basin.2.DEPENDENCY VECTOR k No of attractor basins K No of fuzzy states Where k=Km And m=1. .x2. For K=3 and n=3 The vectors of any attractor basin is conceived as a system of equations with three variables (x1.x3).

3«. a FMACA having k no of attractor basins can be characterized by m no of DV·s if k=Km.DEPENDENCY VECTOR then x2 and x3 are dependent variables And x1 is dependent variable DV <011>. where m=1. Thus in an n-demensional vector space with K fuzzy states. .n.2.

then The Pivot Cell (PC) of an attractor of a basin is in between First Cell and Last Cell of the DR.. The kth bit of DV is given by Let qm denotes a fuzzy state where qm=m/(K-1). Pivot cell (PC) ²represents an attractor basin uniquely .For a n-cell K-attractor basin FMACA DV of the form <000«.11111«000> which contains 1·s from ith position (FCP) to jth (LSP) position.11111«. The region from FCP to LCP Dependent Region (DR).

IDENTIFICATION OF ATTRACTOR BASINS Employing Dependency Vector (DV) we Can reduce the time complexity to O(n). .

Pattern classification is an important research area used in several systems such as database systems. statistics. machine learning.CONCLUSION An efficient and cost effective pattern classification algorithm was introduced. The time complexity of pattern recognition algorithm from O(n3) to O(n). and expert systems. intelligent information systems. .

´Fuzzy Cellular Automata Based Associative Memory for Pattern Recognitionµ .M.Bajec. 6.Pradipta Maji and P.I.2002 Heather Betel and Paola Flocchini. ´Fuzzy Cellular Automata for Modeling Pattern Classifierµ.I.Stephen Wolfram. Sikdar and P.Pal Chaudhuri.Pradipta Maji. ´A New Kind of Scienceµ ISBN 1-57955-0088.Mraz. Biplab K.Pal Chaudhuri.Pal Chaudhuri. µOn The Relationship Between Boolean and Fuzzy Cellular Automataµ 2.Zimic.Pal Chaudhuri.Pradipta Maji and P.N.Lapanja. Chandrama Shaw.Pradipta Maji and P.REFERENCES 1. ´Fuzzy Cellular Automata From Theory To applicationµ 3. ´Theory and Application of Cellular Automata for Pattern Classificationµ 5. Niloy Ganguly. ´Basins of Attraction of Cellular Automata Based Associative Memory and its Rule Spaceµ 4.

THANK YOU .

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