Project Planning 1


Development Project Planning Overview

Overview of this session
 What is Development Planning?  Project Cycle Management  Planning Tools

 Comments on Project Planning

“If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there”

Development Planning Theory

 Development Planning has become a special field of study  Lets look at some of the ideas and concepts of modern Development Planning

Development Planning Theory
Some of the ideas  What ‘just happens’ vs. intentional acts
o  a planned process

 Development as Vision  Can be Positive or Negative  Trusteeship (act for other people)

Development Planning Theory
Some of the ideas  Development Administration & Management
o Structure of the country
 social,

cultural, political relationships

o Agency
 the

ability of people and groups to influence events

o Agencies (organisations at all levels) o Institutions (laws, codes)

Development Planning Theory
Some of the ideas  All this is done by simplifying – called ‘Reductionism’: to look at complex systems
with simple principles examples o power o capacity

Plans, Programmes, Projects
 Plan: a statement of forward looking decisions, how they work together and the criteria used in making them  Programme: usually a long-term series of interventions, sometimes with no defined end point  Project: a discrete activity aimed at a specific objective with a defined budget and limited timeframe

Aspects of Project Cycle Management
      Credibility “Ownership” Efficiency Monitoring and control Formal contingency planning Participatory, flexible, … but … you need some form of rule book to keep to budgets and timeframes

‘Reductionist’ Project Approach
 Scientific Management o Simplifies and reduces management to a series of inter-related and quantifiable components  Inputs  Outputs  Outcomes  Defined processes and relationships  Has serious problems, but used in all development work

Generic Project Cycle
Evaluation Identification

Implementation & Monitoring


Negotiation and Approval

Generic Project Cycle Exercise: Who does each stage?
Evaluation Identification

Implementation & Monitoring


Negotiation and Approval

Some examples of project cycle methods

Asian Development Bank

World Bank

International Fund for Agricultural Development

Logical Framework Approach
 ZOPP (Zielorientierte Projektplanung)
o GOPP - Goal Oriented Project Planning o OOPP - Objective Oriented Project Planning

 Planning, by a participatory process,  aimed at the needs of target groups,  the key parts of a project are agreed with those concerned

Logical Framework Approach
 Use a planning matrix – the logical framework – which:
o summarises the main parts of a project, and o highlights logical lines between  intended inputs,  planned activities and  expected results.

ZOPP and the Project Cycle
GTZ - 5 ZOPP Stages

1. Identification 2. Appraisal 3. Partner Negotiation - Plan Finalization 4. Implementation and Monitoring 5. Evaluation

1. Identification:
 Identify need  Problem Analysis
o Stakeholder consultations

 Preliminary feasibility study
o Identification of funding agencies o Consideration of possible approaches o Site consultation

 Possible outputs
o Concept note/paper o Proposal o Preliminary feasibility report

Pre-project planning
 In-house exercise by agency  Participatory Action Research  Situation Analysis
o o o o o Problem Identification: Problem Tree Stakeholder Analysis Objectives Analysis Alternatives Analysis Strategies Analysis

Problem Tree
 A process of putting a lot of problems on cards, and then sorting
o causes o effects

 By sorting these you will find a natural focal point (or points) – the core problem  Note: this is different to Visualisation in Participatory Processes where the core problem has already been identified

Example: Problem Tree
Sufficient Funds

Not Enough Works Funds

Bureaucratic Water Best Practice Water Administration Administration


Broken Down Water System No Access to CLEAN WATER

Few Houses Connected


Low much Too Rate of Disease Disease

High Low Infant Infant Mortality Mortality

High Low Worker Productivity



High Incomes Low Incomes

Stakeholder Analysis
1. Consider appropriate level for analysis 2. Identify & list key stakeholders 3. Look at their needs, characteristics, circumstances 4. Identify relationships between stakeholders 5. Assess power (influence) and potential (importance) 6. Create a Matrix

Stakeholder Analysis: List
Stakeholders Key Interests Importance to Influence on Project project Participation



Stakeholder Analysis: List
Example: School Attendance
Stake-holders Key Interests Importance to Project Influence on project Participation

School Age Get work Children

The target groupSmall – they Involved at do what they various stages are told Maybe small


Child’s future Have authority High – over the children control children


Their job, High – Medium – May be high role, respect implementers? depends on approach

Stakeholder Analysis: Matrix
High Potential Significance or Importance
May need special initiatives if needs are to be met. The Target Group should be here Project Managers will need good working relationships with these stakeholders to ensure support for project activities

High Influence

Low Influence

The interests of these should be Influential stakeholders but with monitored to ensure that they less importance for outputs. They affect outcome of activities are not negatively affected and need careful management

Low Importance

Stakeholder Analysis: Matrix
High Potential Significance or Importance
Children Teachers Dept of Education

High Influence

Low Influence

Women’s Association

Elders Monks

Low Importance

Objectives Analysis
 Change the Problem Tree into an Objectives Tree  Change the negative problems into positive outcomes
o “no staff in clinic’ becomes “fully staffed clinic”

Example: Problem Tree
Sufficient Funds

Not Enough Works Funds

Bureaucratic Water Best Practice Water Administration Administration


Broken Down Water System No Access to CLEAN WATER

Few Houses Connected


Low much Too Rate of Disease Disease

High Low Infant Infant Mortality Mortality

High Low Worker Productivity



High Incomes Low Incomes

Becomes: Objective Tree
Sufficient Funds Sufficient Funds

Best Practice Water Best Practice Water Administration Administration


Good Water System Adequate Clean WATER

All Houses Connected


Low Rate of Low Rate of Disease Disease

Low Infant Low Infant Mortality Mortality

High Productivity High Productivity


If necessary, revise statements, delete objectives that appear unrealistic and add new objectives.

High Incomes High Incomes

Exercise: Problem Tree & Stakeholder Analysis
• Choose a problem in our work area • Divide into groups 1. Do a problem tree 2. Do a stakeholder analysis

Take a Break

Exercise: Problem Tree & Stakeholder Analysis
• Share 1. problem tree 2. stakeholder analysis

2. Starting Appraisal:
 Appraisal (ex-ante)
o Full feasibility study o Baseline study, needs assessment

 Possible outputs
o o o o o o Needs assessment report Baseline data Detailed set of indicators Amended proposal Project plan, Gantt chart etc. Project Planning Matrix - Logframe

Gantt Chart

Project Planning Matrix (PPM)
 Logframe, Logical Framework (Analysis), LFA  4x4 matrix
o Ensures clear statement of objectives (distinction between purpose and objectives) o Introduces indicators of progress o Focuses attention on the assumptions and risks involved

Goal OVIs
Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Means of Verification

Assumptions Risks

Purpose Outputs Activities (Inputs) Milestones

More detail in the Logframe session

3. Partner Negotiation:
 Negotiation with finance provider  Possible outputs
o Project memorandum o Signed contract o (or go back and redesign)

Plan Finalisation:

Detail of the activities  work plans,  staff structures, terms of reference  budgets

4. Implementation and Monitoring :
 Team selection and startup o Person specification/job allocation o Interviews and selection o Terms of engagement o Lines of responsibility o Briefing

4. Implementation and Monitoring :
 Do the work o Implementation of project plan o Regular reports, meetings, workshops o Monitoring: systematic documentation of performance - indicating whether project is performing as intended

(Performance Measurement )
 Monitoring – of the Process
o o o o Inputs Outputs Outcomes (Results Based Management ) Logical framework approach

 Tools:
o Progress reports o Team meetings, team briefing reports o Mid term review

Quick Exercise
 List all the forms of monitoring used in your project

 Share

Take a break

(Performance Measurement )

 Levels of Indicators o Strategic o Sustainability o Attainment o Performance

Quality, Quantity, Time

5. Evaluation and Closure
 Obtain “sign off” from project participants  Project evaluation (Ex-post ) o When possible to assess full effects o External evaluator may be necessary/appropriate o Record lessons learned o Formulate recommendations for next phase  Submission of completion report and evaluation o Donors may demand closing activities

Evaluation: Impact Assessment
 Approach
o o o o o o o o Baseline, (midterm?) and End of Project Impact from beneficiaries’ point of view What do they think is significant? To whom is it important? Efficiency – relate inputs to outputs Effectiveness- extent to which achieved objectives Consistency- methods/approaches with objectives Impact – change to lives/environment

 Criteria

Evaluation: Feedback to Planning
 Lessons Learned
o Used to replan the project o Used to plan the next project

 Most useful in development of LFA Discussion: How we use feed back
When? Method? Who? Lessons learned

Limits to Rational Planning and Systematic Management

Trade Offs: Too much project planning?

Amount of planning

Things that Limit using the process
 Costly and ineffective analysis  Full planning vs. flexible interaction  Inflexibility and unnecessary constraints on managers,  Delegation to experts and inappropriate intervention  No involvement of intended beneficiaries in planning and management  Reluctance to engage in evaluation and error detection

(that limit effectiveness)
 Difficulty in precise definition of objectives and goals  Lack of appropriate or adequate data  Not understand social and cultural activities  Weak ways to guide behaviour  Low administrative capacity

 Questions and follow ups  Feedback

Thank you

Produced by Tony Hobbs Health Poverty Action
Ratanakiri, Cambodia

With the support of

Australian Volunteers International
© 2011 HPA. Use with Acknowledgement

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