Project Planning 3

The Logical Framework

Overview of this session
 Review project cycle  The LFA process  The Logical Framework  Preparing LF  Using LF to guide M&E

Generic Project Cycle
Evaluation Identification

Implementation & Monitoring


Negotiation and Approval

Project Cycle Stages: Identification Appraisal Negotiation and Approval Implementation and Monitoring Evaluation and Closure

Developing the Logical Framework

Logical Framework Approach
 In German: ZOPP (Zielorientierte Projektplanung)  In English: GOPP- Goal Oriented Project Planning OOPP- Objective Oriented Project Planning

Organisations Using the Logframe
• • • • • • • • • • USAID, USA GTZ, Germany DfID, Great-Britain NORAD, Norway DANIDA, Denmark AUSAID, Australia Intercooperation, Switzerland Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France DGCD, Belgium European Commission

• DGCS - Min. of For. Aff., Italy • ICAX - Min. of Industry, Spain • SIDA, Sweden • UNIDO, Vienna • FINNIDA - Min. of For. Aff., Finland • HELLASCO, Greece • WWF • Int. Federation of Red Cross • UNDP • FAO

Logical Framework Approach
 “ a quality-based understanding of planning.. based on a participatory and transparent .. planning process, aimed towards the needs of partners and target groups, in which the key elements of a project are agreed on step by step, in teams, with those concerned, and recorded transparently” (GTZ, 2005)

Logical Framework Approach
 provides a systematic structure for identification, planning, and management of projects o developed in a workshop setting o with principal interest groups.

Advantages of the logical framework
 Problems are analysed systematically  The objectives are clear, logical and measurable  The risks and conditions for success of a project are taken into account  There is an objective basis for monitoring and evaluation

Your project proposal will be coherent

The logical framework approach
Analysis phase Decide what you will do 1. Problem 2. Objectives 3. Strategy Planning phase
Decide how you will do it 4. Logframe 5. Activity planning 6. Resources planning

The logical framework approach
Analysis phase 1. Problem analysis: stakeholders, problems, constraints, opportunities, causes and effects. 2. Analysis of objectives: objectives from the problems, relationships from means to ends. 3. Analysis of the strategy: identify the different strategies to achieve objectives (overall objectives and project purpose or specific objective).

The logical framework approach
Planning phase
4. Logframe: define the project structure, test its logic and set measurable objectives, determine means and cost. 5. Activity planning: plan sequence of activities, time, main stages in the process, responsibility. 6. Resources planning: from the activities, develop inputs and budget.

Logical Framework Approach
 The output is a planning matrix, the logical project framework, which: summarizes and structures the main elements of a project, and: highlights logical linkages between intended inputs, planned activities and expected results.

Pre-project planning
 In-house exercise by agency  Participatory Action Research  Situation Analysis
o o o o Stakeholder Analysis Problem Identification: Problem Tree Objectives Analysis Alternatives Analysis

Problem Tree

Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders Key Interests Importance to Influence on Project project Participation



Project Planning Matrix (PPM)
 Logframe, Logical Framework (Analysis), LFA  Table 4 rows and 4 columns: “4x4 matrix”
o Ensures clear statement of objectives (distinction between purpose and objectives) o Introduces indicators of progress o Focuses attention on the assumptions and risks involved

Activity-Oriented Logical Framework
Goal Purpose Outputs Activities (Inputs) Indicators
Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs)

Means of Verification

Assumptions Risks

Indicators Indicators


Indicators MOVs “Milestones”

What makes the Logical Framework “logical” and how does this help plan a project?

 Something we take to be true.  We expect it will happen
o e.g. we expect the sun to rise each morning o assumption: the sun will be in the sky every day o This is a safe assumption

 Assumption: “we can buy from Thailand supplies like pickups”
o Is this safe?

‘Logic Model’
 The core of the Logical Framework is the "logic model".  This takes the form of a series of statements: o If these Activities are done, and these Assumptions are true, then these Outputs will be delivered o If these Outputs are delivered, and these Assumptions are true, then this Purpose will be achieved. o If this Purpose is achieved, and these Assumptions are true, then this Goal will be achieved.

Logic of the Framework
We must make some assumptions


Purpose leads to Goal IF… Outputs lead to Purpose IF…

Activities lead to outputs IF…

Logic of the Framework
Overall objective Project Purpose Results Activities

+ + +





Take a break

Writing a Log Frame

 Choose a project  Volunteer(s) to write on flip chart

 We will write a Logframe as we go
o Just one sample point in each box o Write when you see

Step One
 Top Down  Write the o o o o o Goal Purpose Outputs Activities Inputs


Step One

 Goal o also Development Objective, Development Purpose or effective objective o A high ideal, resulting from development vision o Fits the wider context of the programme structure o Beyond control of project but project contributes directly to it


Step One

 Purpose (Objective) o Statement of specific achievement for the project o Within project scope o Should be realistic given available resources o Should be measurable: who will be reached, what will change, when and where it will occur o Verbs: decrease, increase, improve, enhance, strengthen… Adjectives for measurable change: more, longer, greater…


Step One

 Outputs – specific project outputs  Activities – the project strategy  Inputs – what is needed (include a summary of the budget)

Step Two

 Work Across  Measurable Indicators  Means of Verification

Indicators and Verification
 Measurable Indicators
o QQT: Quality, Quantity and Timing o what, how much, when o Don’t confuse indicators with outputs
• •

Step Two

Output –TBAs trained in new method Indicator - number of TBAs correctly using new method

 Means of Verification
o How will you measure the indicator

Step Three
 Work Up  Assumptions and Risks o All the external factors out of your control

Assumptions and Risks Step Three
 Assumption: “we can get permission to visit villages 6 times”
o Is this a safe assumption? o If not, it becomes a Risk.

 A Risk requires analysis:
o Is it likely? o How much will it impact our project?

 Contingency Plan

Logical Framework

Basic Principles
 It should be concise. Normally not more than two sides of paper.  It should be a free-standing document - clear when you read it for the first time. Avoid acronyms, jargon &c.  If beneficiaries are included in the project, they should also help design the Logical Framework.  It is a basis for monitoring and evaluation later. So it must be kept under regular review and amended whenever the project changes course.

 Customer for the project (Who pays?)  Agents for the project (who does what?)  Transformation the project intends to achieve  Worldview or major assumption of the change
(development hypothesis)

 Owner of the project (who are the beneficiaries)  Environmental Constraints (natural, social, political,
economic) facing the project

A New Method you may see
 Results-Oriented Logical Framework

 Results-Based Management (RBM)
 modify the logical framework to be more "results-oriented" and less input-oriented.
o Change some columns

Results-Oriented Logical Framework
Narrative Summary Goal Purpose Resources Expected Results Impact Outcome Outputs
More detail on a PMF (next slide)

Performance Measurement Indicators

Assumptions/ Risk

Performance Monitoring Framework
Outcome Output Performance Method of Indicator Verification

 Questions and follow ups  Feedback

Thank you


Produced by Tony Hobbs Health Unlimited, Ratanakiri, Cambodia
With the support of Australian Volunteers International
© 2009 HU. Use with Acknowledgement

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