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Introduction to Operational Amplifier Op-Amp input modes and parameters Negative feedback Op-Amp with negative feedback

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**Introduction To Operational Amplifiers
**

The operational amplifier or op-amp is a circuit of components integrated into one chip. A typical op-amp is powered by two dc voltages and has an inverting ( ) and a noninverting (+) input and an output.

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The Ideal Op-Amp and Practical Op-Amp Ideal op-amp infinite voltage gain infinite bandwidth infinite input impedance (open) zero output impedance Practical op-amp very high voltage gain very high input impedance very low output impedance wide bandwidth 4 .

a differential amplifier 2. a voltage amplifier 3.Internal Block Diagram of an Op-Amp A typical op-amp is made up of three type of amplifier circuit: 1. a push-pull amplifier 5 .

Internal Model of a Real Op-Amp Zin is the input impedance (very large 2 M ) Zout is the output impedance (very small 75 ) Aol is the open-loop gain 6 .

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Op-Amp Circuits perform Operations Op-Amps circuits can perform mathematical operations on input signals: Addition and Subtraction Multiplication and Division Differentiation and Integration Other common uses include: Impedance buffering Active filters Active controllers Analog-digital interfacing 8 .

Applications of Op-Amps Amplifiers provide gains in voltage or current Op-Amps can convert current to voltage Op-Amps can provide a buffer between two circuits Op-Amps can be used to implement integrators and differentiators Lowpass and bandpass filters 9 .

Therefore. A loudspeaker typically needs a voltage of 20 V to produce an audible sound.Applications of Amplifiers Example: Microphone Speaker The output voltage signal from a microphone is very small. in the order of milli-volts (mV). there needs to be a way of boosting (amplifying) the voltage signal of a microphone in order for the sound to be heard on the speaker. 10 .

The Differential Amplifier 11 .

Common Mode 12 . Differential Mode 3. Single Ended Mode 2.The Differential Amplifier 1.

Single Ended Mode In single ended mode one input is grounded and a signal voltage is applied only to the other input. 13 .

Single Ended Input Operation 14 .

This type of operation is also referred to as double-ended. 15 . two out-of-phase (opposite polarity) signals are applied to the input.Differential Mode In the differential mode. The amplified between the two inputs appears on the output.

Differential Input Operation 16 .

This type of mode is used for removal of unwanted noise signals. and amplitude are applied to the inputs which results in no output.Common Mode With common mode. This is called common-mode rejection. frequency. two signals of same phase. 17 .

Common Mode Input Operation 18 .

Common-Mode Rejection Ratio 19 .

Example 20 .

Negative Feedback 21 .

3. 4. 2. Inverting amplifier Non-inverting amplifier Buffer amplifier (voltage follower) Differential amplifier Summing amplifier 22 .Application circuits 1. 5.

Inverting Amplifier 23 .

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Non-Inverting Amplifier 25 .

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Buffer Amplifier 27 .

Impedances of Feedback Amplifiers 28 .

29 . It has two or more inputs. and its output voltage is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of its input voltages.Summing amplifier Summing Amplifier Circuit (Adder) The summing amplifier is a variation of the inverting op-amp configuration.

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Solution : Vout = .13 Volts 32 .(4 V +2 V +7 V) = .EXAMPLE 1 : Determine the output voltage for the summing amplifier in figure below.(V1 + V2 +V3 ) = .

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