# Particle Swarm Optimization

Speaker: Lin, Wei-Kai 2008.10.28

What is Swarm ?  A large number of small animals or insects: A swarm of bees -Webster  Swarming is the natural means of reproduction of honey bee colonies -Wikipedia .

the social behavior  Related to the game of life . self-organized systems  Introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989. that is. in the context of cellular robotic systems  Emphasis on the interactions between agents.Swarm Intelligence  Based on the collective behavior of decentralized.

The Family of Swarm Intelligence  Ant colony optimization  Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)  Stochastic Diffusion Search (SDS) ± First described by Bishop in 1989 ± Partial evaluation on the hypotheses ± One-to-one communication between agents ± Share information about hypotheses (diffusion) .

Eberhart  Two assertions ± Mind is social ± Particle swarms are a useful computational intelligence (soft computing) methodology  Provides a useful paradigm  It is an extension of cellular automata .Particle Swarm Optimization  Was first described in 1995 by James Kennedy and Russell C.

which is a candidate solution to the problem to solve. which is the rate of position changing  The velocity is updated according to the particle s best solution and the population s best solution .  And a velocity.The Concepts of The Algorithm  Each particle has a position.

each component of the velocity vector is bounded by a constant Vmax .The Particle Swarm in Real-Number Space  A population of particles (individuals)  With position xi and velocity vi T T T xi (t ) ! xi (t  1)  vi (t )  Updates the velocity according to the individual s previous best pi and the neighborhood s best pg T T T T T T vi (t ) ! vi (t  1)  N1 ( pi  xi (t  1))  N 2 ( p g  xi (t  1))  The weights 1 and 2 are random numbers bounded by a constant  To prevent explosion.

i = 1 : n .Schwefel's function n f ( x) ! § ( xi )  sin( xi ) i !1 where  500 e xi e 500 global minimum f ( x) = n  418.9687.9829. xi = 420.

Initial State .

After 5 Generations .

After 10 Generations .

After 15 Generations .

After 20 Generations .

After 25 Generations .

After 100 Generations .

After 500 Generations .

1].A Model of Binary Search Space  Similar concept. corresponds to the probability of changing the string vid (t ) ! vid (t  1)  N1 ( pid  xid (t  1))  N 2 ( p gd  xid (t  1)) 1 ® V id s (vid (t )) xid (t ) ! ¯ 0 otherwise °  Where id is a uniform random number in [0. or predisposition. but xi is a binary string  The velocity vector vi. and s(x) is the sigmoid function s ( x ) ! (1  exp( x)) 1 .

Conclusions & Discussions  Observations in social science applied to optimization problems  The global communication and velocity properties plays an important role .

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