-,

W SunL caLallzaLorl al reacLlllor chlmlce care au loc in
oraanlsmele vll
W lnsuslrl comune cu ale caLallzaLorllor chlmlclť
AcLloneazá in concenLraLll foarLe mlcl
-u se consumá in cursul reacLlel
-u modlflcá consLanLele de echlllbru ale reacLlllor pe
care le caLallzeazá cl doar arábesc aLlnaerea sLárll de
echlllbru
W lnsuslrl caracLerlsLlce enzlmelorť
Ŷ SunL proLelne (excepLle fac rlbozlmll Ŷ forme de A8-%
Ŷ ÞrezlnLá speclflclLaLe
Ŷ Scad enerala de acLlvare
Ŷ AcLlvlLaLea lor poaLe fl modulaLá de aaenLl realaLorl
,ecanlsmul caLallzel enzlmaLlce
SLrucLura enzlmelor
W nzlme cu sLrucLurá sLrlcL proLelcá Ŷ
chlmoLrlpslnaţ rlbonucleazaţ llzozlmul dln lacrlml
sl mucusul nazal
W nzlme cu sLrucLurá heLeroproLelcá Ŷ
ÞarLea proLelcá ƹ apoenz|må
ÞarLea neproLelcá ƹ nofanor
W oenz|må ƹ componenLá oraanlcáţ care se leaaá slabţ
necovalenL de apoenzlmáţ frecvenL derlvaLá dlnLrŴo vlLamlná
hldrosolubllá
W rupare prose|nå ƹ componenLá oraanlcá care se leaaá de
apoenzlmá puLernlcţ chlar covalenL (exŦhemul%
SpeclflclLaLea enzlmelor
Ŧ pen|f|n|ae de rean|e Ŷ unel reacLll il corespunde o
enzlm፠pe baza acesLul Llp de speclflclLaLe se face
claslflcarea enzlmelor
2Ŧ pen|f|n|ae de subsra Ŷ selecLlvlLaLe in aleaerea
subsLraLulul
Ŵ pen|f|n|ae abso|uå Ŷ enzlma uLlllzeazá un slnaur
subsLraLŤ exŦ ureazaţ anhldraza carbonlcáţ aceLll
collnesLeraza
Ŵ pen|f|n|ae re|a|vå de grup Ŷ enzlmele poL caLallza un
anumlL aen de reacLleţ inLrŴo famllle de compusl inrudlLlŤ
exŦ alcool dehldroaenaza
Ŵ pen|f|n|ae |argå Ŷ enzlmele poL avea o aama laraá de
subsLraLe dar acLlunea lor esLe aceeaslŤ exŦ enzlmele
proLeollLlce dlaesLlveţ allcozldazele
SpeclflclLaLea enzlmelor
Ŧ pen|f|n|ae sereon|m|nå Ŷ enzlmele poL
dlsLlnae inLre un enanLlomer levoalr sl unul
dexLroalr sau inLre un lzomer cls sl unul LransŤ
exŦ LacLaL dehldroaenaza Ŷ subsLraLul esLe
numal acldul LŴlacLlcŤ succlnaL
dehodroaenaza Ŷ se obLlne numal lzomerul
Lrans ƹ acldul fumarlc
laslflcarea sl denumlrea enzlmelor
W -ume|e unel enzlme se formeazá prln adáuaarea
suflxulul Ŷazå la numele subsLraLulul (exŦ
zaharazáţ ureazá% sau dupá acLlunea speclflcá a
enzlmel (exŦ adenllaL clclazáţ lacLaL
dehldroaenazáţ aluLaLlon reducLazá%
W lecare enzlmá esLe nod|f|naå de 4 n|fre care
deflnesc clasaţ subclasaţ subŴsubclasaţ numárul
de ordlne al enzlmel dln slr
W SunL n|ase de enz|me dupá Llpul de reacLle
caLallzaL
laslflcarea enzlmelor
Ŧ |doredunaze|e Ŷ caLallzeazá reacLll redoxţ
de Lransfer de elecLronl sau de hldroaen
Ŵ uehldroaenaze
Ŵ ,onooxlaenaze (hldroxllaze%
Ŵ Cxldaze
SH
2
¹
Co Sox
¹
CoH
2
SH
2
¹
1/2 O
2
Sox
¹
H
2
O
SH
2
¹ O
2
Sox
¹
H
2
O
2
R - H
¹
O
2
¹
(NADPH ¹ H
¹
) R - OH
¹
H
2
O
¹
NADP
¹
laslflcarea enzlmelor
2Ŧ 1ransferaze|e Ŷ caLallzeazá reacLll de Lransfer
a unel arupárl de la un donor cáLre un
accepLor
Ŵ AmlnoLransferaze (Lransamlnaze%
Ŵ osforll Lransferaze
Ŵ ,eLll Lransferaze
@ransamlnaze (amlnoLransferaze%
O
COOH
CH
3
C
COOH
NH
2
CH
3
CH
CH
2
CH
2
CH
COOH
NH
2
COOH
CH
2
CH
2
COOH
O
COOH
C
CH
2
CH
2
CH
COOH
NH
2
COOH
O
COOH
COOH
CH
2
C
CH
2
CH
2
COOH
O
COOH
C
CH
2
COOH
NH
2
COOH
CH
¹
GPT
¹
Glutamic
acid
Pyruvic
acid
--ketoglutarate Alanine
¹
GOT
¹
Glutamic
acid
Oxaloacetate --ketoglutarate Aspartic
acid
laslflcarea enzlmelor
Ŧ |dro|aze|e Ŷ caLallzeazá reacLll de hldrollzá
Ŵ sLeraze
Ŵ Cllcozldaze
Ŵ ÞepLldaze
4Ŧ |aze|e Ŷ caLallzeazá reacLll de adlLle
reverslblleţ la leaáLurl mulLlple
laslflcarea enzlmelor
Ŧ Izomeraze|e Ŷ caLallzeazá reacLll de
lzomerlzare
Ŵ plmeraze
Ŵ zomerazele clsŴLrans
Ŵ ,uLazele
O
O-UDP O H
OH
OH
CH
2
OH
O
O-UDP
OH
OH
OH
CH
2
OH
&P - galactose &P - glucose
O
OH OH
OH
OH
CH
2
OPO
3
H
2
O
OPO
3
H
2
OH
OH
OH
CH
2
OH
Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose-1-phosphate
laslflcarea enzlmelor
W Ŧ |gaze|e Ŷ caLallzeazá reacLll de condensare
cuplaLe cu sclndarea de A@Þ
CH
2
CH
2
CH
COOH
NH
2
COOH
CH
2
CH
2
CH
COOH
NH
2
NH
3 ¹
Glutamine
synthase
Glutamic
acid
Glutamine
ATP ADP¹Pi
COOH
enLrul acLlv al enzlmel
W sLe o realune resLrânsá dln enzlmá cu sLrucLurá
chlmlcá sl aeomeLrlcá blne deLermlnaLe
W -u esLe o suprafaLá planá cl o enLlLaLe
Lrldlmenslonalá
W sLe formaL dln cenLrul de leaare sl cenLrul
caLallLlc
W el mal frecvenL in slLusurlle caLallLlce se aásesc
resLurl de lsţ Serţ Plsţ @rţ Cluţ Asp având arupárl
funcLlonale ŶCPţ ŴSPţ Ŵ-P
3
+
ţ ŴCC
Ŵ
ţ lmldazol
omplexul enzlmáŴsubsLraL
W Leaarea subsLraLulul la enzlmá se face prln
fore s|abeţ nenova|ene (leaáurl de hldroaenţ
lnLeracLlunl hldrofobeţ lnLeracLlunl
elecLrosLaLlce% sau nova|ene revers|b||e
W lnLre subsLraL sl cenLrul acLlv al enzlmel exlsLá
nomp|emenar|ae geomer|nå s| n|m|nå
ormarea complexulul S
W xlsLá 2 modele cu prlvlre la leaarea
subsLraLulul la cenLrul acLlv al enzlmelť
,ode|u| n|as|nţ lacáLŴchele al lul mll lscher
,ode|u| d|nam|nţ mâná in mánusáţ numlL sl ºal
cenLrul lndus" ţ propus de koshland
aLallza enzlmaLlcá
W aLallza sLudlazá vlLeza reacLlllor chlmlce sl
facLorll care o lnfluenLeazá
W I|eza une| rean|| ƹ varlaLla in Llmp a
concenLraLlllor reacLanLllor sau a produsllor de
reacLle
AcLlvlLaLea unel enzlme
W n|v|ae mo|enu|arå ƹ numárul de molecule de
subsLraL care sunL LransformaLe in produs de
cáLre o moleculá de enzlmá inLrŴo secundá
W n|aea Inerna|ona|å (UI) ƹ acLlvlLaLea enzlmel
care Lransformá 1 3mol de subsLraL pe mlnuL in
condlLll sLandard de pPţ LemperaLurá sl prezenLa
cofacLorllor adecvaLl
W n|v|aea spen|f|nå ƹ numár de u$ma proLelná
LoLalá
W aa| ƹ acLlvlLaLea enzlmel care Lransformá un
mol de subsLraL pe secundá
@eorla clneLlcá ,lchaellsŴ,enLen
1Ŧ nfluenLa żŽ asupra vlLezel de reacLle
2Ŧ nfluenLa żSŽ asupra vlLezel
8eprezenLarea LlneweaverŴ8urk
lneLlca enzlmaLlcá
3Ŧ nfluenLa LemperaLurll asupra acLlvlLáLll
enzlmaLlce
10 30 50 70
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

o
f

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
Temperature
(
o
C)
lneLlca enzlmaLlcá
4Ŧ nfluenLa pP asupra acLlvlLaLll enzlmelor
1 2 7 8 9 10 14
Tripsin Pepsin
Choline esterase
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

o
f

p
r
o
d
u
c
t

f
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
pH
nhlblLla acLlvlLaLll enzlmelor
1Ŧ nhlblLla lreverslbllá
NH CH CO
CH
2
OH
HC
CH
3
O P O
F
O
CH
CH
3
CH
3
NH CH CO
CH
2
O
HC
CH
3
O P O
O
CH
CH
3
CH
3
¹
CH
3
- HF
CH
3
nhlblLla acLlvlLaLll enzlmelor
2Ŧ nhlblLla reverslbllá
AŦ nhlblLla compeLlLlvá
¹
S S
¹
P
¹
I
I
S
I
nhlblLla compeLlLlvá
nhlblLla acLlvlLaLll enzlmelor
8Ŧ nhlblLla necompeLlLlvá
nhlblLla necompeLlLlvá
nhlblLla acLlvlLaLll enzlmelor
3Ŧ nhlblLla uncompeLlLlvá

¹
S S
¹
P
SI
¹
I

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