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Networ ks . Local Telephones . .
Long Distance Telephones Cable Radio & TV Internet Wireless
Conver gence and Change
Local Telephone Ser vice Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k Ef fects
Local Ser vice B A C Geog r aphic Division of Mar kets .
Re gulation FCC. Utilities Commissions. Local Franchise Boards Open Access Rules .Local Telephone Ser vice Common Car rier Status “Reasonable and nondiscriminatory rates” Limited liability.
Histo ry Local Telephone Ser vice 1876 1878 1889 1895 Telephone patented Exchanges Automated Exchanges Main AT&T Patents expire. 451 had at least two providers 1900s Bell Labs created. competitors decline . rates fall 50% by 1907 1902 1002 cities had service. company develops long distance. company patents improvements.
local service. States introduce regulation Consent decree: telegraph. long distance separate monopolies Bell Labs wins Nobel Prize FCC created Bell Labs invents transistor & wins second Nobel Prize First government antitrust suit First antitrust suit ends: AT&T blocked from competing outside telephony.Histo 1910 ry 1913 1920s 1934 1947 1949 1956 1950s Local Telephone Ser vice Telephones become “common carriers” – but not of each other. Snapshot: “Ma Bell” .
long distance Second government antitrust suit Breakup.Histo r y 1960s 1960s 1974 1984 1996 Local Telephone Ser vice Bell Labs discovers cosmic microwave background. competition in long distance and equipment. Telecommunications Act introduces “Local Competition” . wins third Nobel Prize Competitors fight AT&T on right to compete on equipment. Baby Bells.
Competitor s' Costs .Does "Open Access" Create "Competition"? Re gulating Consumer Prices v s Re gulating .
Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Congestion ! Long Distance Ser vice Right-of-Way Issues Networ k .
Long Distance B A C .
Cable Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k Ef fects .
Cable B A Geog r aphic Division of Mar kets Neighborhood-by .
Consensus Agreement becomes unmanageable Court challenges erode FCC’s ability to require cable to carry local signals. and fund public service programs Consensus Agreement liberalizes restrictions while micromanaging what cable stations can do. prevent siphoning. prevent siphoning.Cable 1940s 1950s – 1960s Local service for rural areas FCC regulates cable to carry local stations. protect UHF. Deregulation 1972 1970s 1977-79 1980 .
Local government cannot grant exclusive licenses. Open access: Must carry content from competitors on common carrier basis. . Local governments cannot charge exorbitant fees.Cable 1984 Cable Communications Policy Act lets FCC waive rate regulation where “effective competition” exists. 1992 Cable TV Consumer Protection & Competition Act lets local authorities set prices for basic service in most cases. Act ends state regulation of nonbasic service.
TV & Radio Natur al Monopol y? Limited Spectr um Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k .
T he Inter net B A .
. City of Por tland States Cannot Demand “Open Access” of Broadband FCC is studying the issue.Inter net Ser vice Natur al Monopol y? Just Like Long Distance? Networ k Ef fects? ATT v.
B A Networ k .
Backbo ne Middle Mile Last Mile Last 100 Feet Chokepoi nts .
T he Last 100 feet Telephones Wireless Cable Satellite .
Does T his Woman Look Familiar? W ireles s Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000) .
” Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000) .Inventor & Movie Star Frequency Hopping Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid.
Cellular.Wires vs. & Time Division Multiplexing W ir eles s Technolog y Frequency Hopping Smart Transmitters . Broadcast Radio.
Networ k Exter nalities? W ithin Countries? Acr oss Countries? .
Issues Picking Winners -.Reaching Equilibrium Efficiently .Duplicated Development .Fragmented/Technically Inferior Winners .Orphaned Users -.
Issues Picking Winners.Choosing Wrong -. -. ctd.Network Effects -.Antitrust Dangers .
Issues Schumpeterian Competition Expor t Mar kets .
First Generation W ir eles s US A FCC Regulation Advanced Mobile Phone Standard (“AMPS”) Second Generation GSM. DAMPS/TDMA Qualcomm CDMA .
Third Generation CDMA 2000 and W-CDMA W ir eles s US A .
W ireles s First Generation: National Bodies National Systems: Eur ope TACS (UK). Netz B (Germany). NMT-450 (everywhere else). . RTMS (Italy). RC-2000 (France).
Second Generation: European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Standard for Mobile (GSM). W ir eles s Europe .
W ir eles s Europe GSM Conquers The World !!! 105 countries Not Western Hemisphere 60% of Worldwide sales. .
More Interference! .Third Generation: W-CDMA W ir eles s Europe Backward Compatible to GSM Incompatible With Qualcomm CDMA Less Capacity.
Third Generation: W ir eles s Europe QualComm/Ericcson “Treaty” Standards vs. Patents Ericcson Buys QualComm’s Hardware Business .
Third Generation: W ir eles s Europe QualComm/Ericcson “Treaty” Wasteful Patents Are Cross-Licenses Good for Consumers? .
W-CDMA: China Korea Japan Is it a Small World (After All)? .W ir eles s Wor ld Third Generation: CDMA2000 vs.
Tipping Time . Court Dockets .Innovation Cycle vs.Innovation Cycle vs.W ir eles s Implicati ons Antitrust Policy: .Schumpeterian Competition .
Evolution of Cellular Systems • Introduction • 1st Generation cellular systems • 2nd Generation cellular systems • 3rd Generation cellular systems • • Ben Slimane firstname.lastname@example.org .
Multiple Access/Multiplexing Methods • Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • Frequency-Hop Code Division Multiple Access (FH-CDMA) • Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) .
Cellular System Evolution .
1G Cellular Systems • Appeared in late 1970s and deployed in early 1980s • All based on analog techniques – All used FDMA and FM modulation • Date rate: 8-10 kbps • Low system capacity (reuse N=7) • Large cells with omni-directional base station antennas .
1977 – Network open 1981 in Sweden and Norway • • • • Based on FDMA Channel bandwidth: 25/12.1G: NMT • 1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone • First generation analog technology – NMT450 and NMT900 – Free standard ready 1973. digital control channel .5 kHz Total number of channels: 1999 Analog traffic channel.
South America. China. US.1G: AMPS • Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) • Appeared late 1970s. • First deployed in 1983. and Australia • Based on FDMA • Channel bandwidth: 30 kHz • Total number of channels: 832 channels .
1G: AMPS .
second-generation systems are digital • Encryption – all second generation systems provide encryption to prevent eavesdropping • Error detection and correction – second-generation digital traffic allows for detection and correction. giving clear voice reception • Channel access – second-generation systems allow channels to be dynamically shared by a number of users .1G versus 2G • Digital traffic channels – first-generation systems are almost purely analog.
2G Cellular Systems • Deployed in mid 1990s • 2G cellular systems all use digital voice coding and digital modulation • Can provide advanced call capabilities and a better system capacity – More users per unit bandwidth • Designed before the widespread of the Internet – Voice services and limited data services (SMS. FAX) – Data rate: on the order 10 kbps .
2G cellular Systems .
2G: GSM • Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) • Based on TDMA • Channel bandwidth: 200 kHz • Traffic channels (slots) per RF channel: 8 • Maximum cell radius (R): 35 km • Frequency: 900/1800 MHz • Maximum vehicle speed (Vm): 250 km/hr • Maximum coding delay: approx. 20 .
Steps in Design of TDMA Timeslot .
833 kbps .GSM Frame Format • Transmission bit rate = 156.577 = 270.25/0.
Time Slot Fields • Trail bits: allow synchronization of transmissions from mobile units • Encrypted bits: encrypted data (ciphertext bits) • Training sequence – A known bit pattern – used to estimate the multi-path radio channel • Stealing bit: block contains data or ”stolen” for control • Guard bits – used to avoid overlapping with other bursts • Speech information – The actual information data .
GSM Signal Processing .
GSM Network Architecture .
• Mobile station communicates across Um interface (air interface) with base station transceiver in same cell as mobile unit • Mobile equipment (ME) – physical terminal, such as a telephone or PCS
– ME includes radio transceiver, digital signal processors and subscriber identity module (SIM)
• GSM subscriber units are generic until SIM is inserted
– SIMs roam, not necessarily the subscriber devices
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
• BSS consists of a base station controller and one or more base transceiver stations (BTS) • Each BTS defines a single cell
– Includes radio antenna, radio transceiver and a link to a base station controller (BSC)
• BSC reserves radio frequencies, manages handoff of mobile unit from one cell to another within BSS, and controls paging
Network Subsystem (NS)
• NS provides link between cellular network and public switched telecommunications networks
– Controls handoffs between cells in different BSSs – Authenticates users and validates accounts – Enables worldwide roaming of mobile users
• The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is the central element of the NS
– The MSC controls four databases
holds encryption keys • Equipment identity register database (EIR) – keeps track of the type of equipment that exists at the mobile station .The MSC Databases • Home location register (HLR) database – stores information about each subscriber that belongs to it • Visitor location register (VLR) database – maintains information about subscribers currently physically in the region • Authentication center database (AuC) – used for authentication activities.
2 kbit/s – Multiple Time slots allocated to user – Link adaptations. • EDGE: Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution – Data rates up to 384 kbit/s – Two modulation schemes (GMSK.05 to 171. 8PSK) – Link adaptations • .2.5G • GPRS: General Packet Radio Service – Bitrates from 9.
Cellular CDMA • Frequency diversity – resolve multi-paths by means of the RAKE receiver • Multipath resistance – chipping codes used for CDMA exhibit low cross-correlation and low autocorrelation • Privacy – privacy is inherent since spread spectrum is obtained by use of noise-like signals • Graceful degradation – system only gradually degrades as more users access the system .
Cellular CDMA • Self-jamming – non-orthogonal codes create interference between users • Near-far problem – weak users jammed by strong users • Soft handoff – smooth handoff from one cell to the next – more complex than hard handoff • Frequency reuse of 1 – No frequency planning needed (N=1) .
Cellular CDMA • The RAKE receiver – Resolves multi-path components and combine them coherently – A diversity gain with order equals to the number of resolved paths is obtained • Soft Handoff – Mobile station temporarily connected to more than one base station simultaneously – Require more radio resources .
The RAKE Receiver • • Spreading codes with low correlation properties allow the separation of the different radio paths The RAKE receiver uses this property and locks on the different paths .
The RAKE Receiver .
Soft handoff in CDMA • When a mobile unit is in soft handover – Two codes are needed on the downlink – Only one code is needed on the uplink .
Spreading in Cellular CDMA .
2G: IS-95 .
channel estimation – Synchronization (32) – identification information – Paging (1-7) – messages to mobiles – Traffic (8-31.2G: IS-95 • Downlink – Pilot (0) – cell detection. 33-63) – 55 traffic channels with data rate of 9600 bps • A unique channel for each user – Uplink • Access channels • Traffic channels .
ITU’s View of 3G • Voice quality comparable to the public switched telephone network • 144 kbps data rate available to users in high-speed motor vehicles over large areas • 384 kbps available to pedestrians standing or moving slowly over small areas • Support for 2.048 Mbps for office use • Symmetrical / asymmetrical data transmission rates • Support for both packet switched and circuit switched data services .
ITU’s View of 3G • An adaptive interface to the Internet to reflect efficiently the common asymmetry between inbound and outbound traffic • More efficient use of the available spectrum in general • Support for a wide variety of mobile equipment • Flexibility to allow the introduction of new services and technologies .
Alternative Interfaces .
and bandwidth limitations. need for error control. 3 Mcps or more is reasonable • Multi-rate – advantage is that the system can flexibly support multiple simultaneous applications from a given user and can efficiently use available capacity by only providing the capacity required for each service .CDMA Design Considerations • Bandwidth – limit channel usage to 5 MHz • Chip rate – depends on desired data rate.
4-5 MHz HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet Access – Data rates: 1.6.UMTS • • • • • Wideband CDMA Uplink 1920-1980 MHz Downlink 2110-2170 MHz Bandwidth 4.8.4 Mbit/s . 3.2 and 14. 7.
LTE • • • • Long Term Evolution (LTE) Advanced OFDM for downlink Single carrier FDMA for uplink Data rates exceeding 100 Mbps in the downlink with full mobility • Scalable bandwidth (1.25 to 20 MHz) • Frequency-reuse 1 • Multiple transmit and receive antennas • .
How Cell Phones Work .
An Important Technology l Cellular telephony is one of the fastest growing technologies on the planet. New phones allow users to do much more than hold phone conversations. l l l l . Presently. we are starting to see the third generation of the cellular phones coming to the market.
Beyond Voice l l l l l l l l l l Store contact information Make task/to-do lists Keep track of appointments Calculator Send/receive email Send/receive pictures Send/receive video clips Get information from the internet Play games Integrate with other devices (PDA’s. MP3 Players. etc.) .
Also. l l l l .Outline for Today l Today. we will review the design of cellular system: what are its key components. we will look at how cellular networks support multiple cell phone users at a time. and why. we will review the important generations of cellular systems and start looking at the design of the first generation of cell phones. Finally. what it is designed like.
The Cellular Concept .
MO. l l l l .Basic Concept l Cellular system developed to provide mobile telephony: telephone access “anytime. This was a simplified version of the system used today. in 1945 in St.” First mobile telephone system was developed and inaugurated in the U. Louis.S. anywhere.
System Architecture l A base station provides coverage (communication capabilities) to users on mobile phones within its coverage area. The base station itself is connected to the wired telephone network. Users within the coverage area transmit and receive signals from the base station. Users outside the coverage area receive/transmit signals with too low amplitude for reliable communications. l l l l l l l .
First Mobile Telephone System One and only one high power base station with which all users communicate. Norma l Teleph one System Entire Coverage Area Wired connection .
e..Problem with Original Design l Original mobile telephone system could only support a handful of users at a time…over an entire city! With only one high power base station. l l l l .g. police car phones. Car phones were therefore much more feasible than handheld phones. users phones also needed to be able to transmit at high powers (to reliably transmit signals to the distant base station).
it was not until the 80’s that electronic equipment became available to realize a cellular system. researchers at AT&T Bell Labs developed the core ideas for today’s cellular systems.Improved Design l Over the next few decades. In the mid 80’s the first generation of cellular systems was developed and deployed. Although these core ideas existed since the 60’s. l l l l .
Together base stations tessellate the system coverage area. l .The Core Idea: Cellular Concept l l The core idea that led to today’s system was the cellular concept. The cellular concept: multiple lower-power base stations that service mobile users within their coverage area and handoff users to neighboring base stations as users move.
or smaller coverage areas. User phones in one cell communicate with the base station in that cell. instead of one base station covering an entire city. the city was broken up into cells. l l l l .Cellular Concept l Thus. Each of these smaller coverage areas had its own lower-power base station.
Users handoff as they move from one cell to another.3 Core Principles l l l Small cells tessellate overall coverage area. l l . Frequency reuse.
l l . There are only three regular polygons that tessellate any given region.Tessellation l Some group of small regions tessellate a large region if they over the large region without any gaps or overlaps.
Tessellation (Cont’d) l Three regular polygons that always tessellate: l Equilateral triangle l Square l Regular Hexagon l Triangles Squares Hexagons .
e. Result: base station has circular coverage area. l l signa k Wea n ro St g al ign s Users located outside some distance to the base station receive weak signals. i.Circular Coverage Areas l Original cellular system was developed assuming base station antennas are omnidirectional. they transmit in all directions equally. ..
Problem: Circles do not tessellate. Thus.Circles Don’t Tessellate l l l l Thus. ideally base stations have identical. circular coverage areas.e. i.. early researchers started using hexagons to represent the coverage area of a base station. The most circular of the regular polygons that tessellate is the hexagon. a cell. l l l .
Thus the Name Cellular l With hexagonal coverage area. . a cellular network is drawn as: l l l l l l Base Station Since the network resembles cells from a honeycomb. the name cellular was used to describe the resulting mobile telephone network.
When they move from one cell to another. . This is not a problem when users move within the same cell. Thus. the network should be able to give them continuous access as they move. Mobile phone users are by definition mobile. they move around while using the phone..Handoffs l l l l l A crucial component of the cellular concept is the notion of handoffs. i. a handoff is needed.e.
B2 notices that the signal from this user is improving. B1 notices that the signal from this user is degrading. B2. Assume the user moves from the coverage area of one base station into the coverage area of a second base station. say B1.A Handoff l A user is transmitting and receiving signals from a given base station. l l l l l .
l l . B1. and B2 so that communication to/from the user is transferred from B1 to B2. messages are exchanged between the user.A Handoff (Cont’d) l At some point. Specifically. the user’s signal is weak enough at B1 and strong enough at B2 for a handoff to occur.
l l l l . A cell is assigned one of these bands.Frequency Reuse l Extensive frequency reuse allows for many users to be supported at the same time. This means all communications (transmissions to and from users) in this cell occur over these frequencies only. Total spectrum allocated to the service provider is broken up into smaller bands.
More on frequency reuse a bit later. This ensures that nearby transmissions do not interfere with each other. l l . The same frequency band is reused in another cell that is far away. This large distance limits the interference caused by this co-frequency cell.Frequency Reuse (Cont’d) l l l l l Neighboring cells are assigned a different frequency band.
Example of Frequency Reuse Cells using the same frequencies .
Multiple Access in Cellular Networks .
Multiple Transmitters, One Receiver
In many wireless systems, multiple transmitters attempt to communicate with the same receiver. For example, in cellular systems. Cell phones users in a local area typically communicate with the same cell tower. How is the limited spectrum shared between these local transmitters?
Multiple Access Method
In such cases, system adopts a multiple access policy. Three widely-used policies:
l l l
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
In FDMA, we assume that a base station can receive radio signals in a given band of spectrum, i.e., a range of continuous frequency values. The band of frequency is broken up into smaller bands, i.e., subbands. Each transmitter (user) transmits to the base station using radio waves in its own subband.
Cell Phone User 1 Cell Phone User 2 : : TimeCell Phone User N
When a users is assigned a subband.g. it transmits to the base station using a sine wave with the center frequency in that band. 824 MHz to 824. l l l l l . The width of this subband is 0.05 MHz. e.1 MHz = 100 KHz.. 824..1 MHz. e.FDMA (Cont’d) l A subband is also a range of continuous frequencies.g.
FDMA (Cont’d) l When the base station is tuned to the frequency of a desired user. the multiple local transmitters within a cell do not interfere with each other. This way. it receives no portion of the signal transmitted by another in-cell user (using a different frequency). l l l l .
i.TDMA l In pure TDMA. Rather it communicates with the users one-at-atime. base station does not split up its allotted frequency band into smaller frequency subbands..e. l l User 1 User 2 User 3 Frequency Bands … Time User N . “round robin” access.
g.e.. equallength intervals. Assume there are some n users in the cell. l l l l l . i. This slot assignment stays fixed as long as the user communicates with the base station (e.. length of the phone conversation). Each user is assigned one slot per frame. Base station groups n consecutive slots into a frame. small.TDMA (Cont’d) l l Time is broken up into time slots.
TDMA (Cont’d) l l l l l l l l User User 1 2 Example of TDMA time slots for n = 10. … User 10 User 1 … User 10 User 1 … Time Slot Frame In each time slot. the assigned user transmits a radio wave using a sine wave at the center frequency of the frequency band assigned to the base station. .
Base station also divides time into slots and frames. Each user is now assigned a frequency and a time slot in the frame.Hybrid FDMA/TDMA l The TDMA used by real cellular systems (like AT&T’s) is actually a combination of FDMA/TDMA. Base station breaks up its total frequency band into smaller subbands. l l l l l l l l .
Hybrid FDMA/TDMA (Cont’d) Assume a base station divides its frequency band into 4 subbands and time into 10 slots per frame. User 31 User 32 User 40 User 31 User 32 Frequency Subband 4 … … … … Frame User 40 … … … … … … … … Time User 21 User 22 User 30 User 21 User 22 Frequency Subband 3 User 12 User 20 User 12 Frequency Subband 2 User 10 Frequency Subband 1 User 10 User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 20 User 11 User 11 User 30 .
Here all users communicate to the receiver at the same time and using the same set of frequencies. A desired user’s signal is deciphered using a unique code assigned to the user. This means they may interfere with each other. There are two types of CDMA methods. .CDMA l l l l l l l l CDMA is a more complicated scheme. The system is designed to control this interference.
i. Time is divided into slots. a given user transmit to the base station using the first frequency in its frequency hopping sequence.CDMA Method 1: Frequency Hopping l l First CDMA technique is called frequency hopping. In the first time slot. l l l l l . In this method each user is assigned a frequency hopping pattern..e. a fixed sequence of frequency values.
the transmit frequency keeps changing in time. l l l l . it transmits using the second frequency value in its frequency hop sequence. We will look at frequency hopping in greater detail in an exercise (in a bit). and so on. This way.Frequency Hopping (Cont’d) l In the next time interval.
at the same time. Others cannot decipher this language. Here signals from different users interfere with each other. l l . each in-cell user transmits its message to the base station using the same frequency. Basically. unique code. But the user distinguishes its message by using a special. This code serves as a special language that only the transmitter and receiver understand.Second Type of CDMA: Direct Sequence l l l This is a more complicated version of CDMA.
Direct Sequence CDMA l l l l l l l Because of the complexity of this second type of CDMA. . Specifically. think of this access scheme like a group of conversations going on in a cocktail party. Rather we will give an intuitive understanding of it. we will not describe it in detail.
we require that all partiers must talk at the same volume level. l l . To keep this interference in control.Cocktail Party Analogy l l l In this cocktail party. no one partier shouts above anybody else. to make sure that each speaking partier is heard correctly by his/her intended listener (and nobody else can listen in). Also. people talk to each other at the same time and thus “interfere” with other. we require each speaker to use a different language to communicate in.
Thus. then all non-English conversations would sound like gibberish to you. l l l l l . if you were at this party and only understood one language. coming from your intender speaker (transmitter). Similar methodology is used by Direct Sequence CDMA transmitters/receivers. The only signal you would understand is English.Cocktail Party (Cont’d) l The caveat in this analogy is that if you speak in one language. it is assumed that only your desired listener can understand this language. say English.
Exercise on Frequency Hopping CDMA l Assume you are the receiver (base station) in a frequency hopping cellular system. l l l l . There are a total of 10 users in your cell. They are each assigned their own unique frequency hopping pattern.
the user will use the second frequency value in the hopping sequence. l In the first time slot. . l In the second time slot. and so on. the user will transmit using the first frequency value in the frequency hopping sequence.Exercise Description (Cont’d) Recall: l A user will use its frequency hopping pattern to transmit messages to the base station.
l l l l l . the designers have divided time into 1 millisecond (1 millisecond = 0.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l Assume that the base station (you) can receive signals in the range of 824 MHz to 825 MHz. This means that you have 1 MHz of frequency available for use to communicate with local users. Additionally.. i. The network designers decided to divide the total 1 MHz = 1000 KHz of frequency assigned to you into 100 KHz subbands.001 second) time slots. into 10 subbands.e.
l l l l . These sequences represent the messages that the base station determines from the received radio waves (after demodulation) at the different frequency and time values.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l In the handout. you will see a sequence of bits for different frequency and time value.
Exercise Description (Cont’d) l In each handout. to determine the bit sequence of the desired user. l l l . a desired user’s frequency hopping pattern is given. Please use this hopping pattern.
break up the bit sequence into sequence of bytes. . Recall. 1 byte = 8 bits.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l l l l l l l l l Now. To do so. assume that each user is sending a text message to the base station. We wish to determine this message.
In the handout..Exercise Description (Cont’d) l Computers use a standard method to convert letters we use to write text messages. l l l l . into bits (sequences of 0’s and 1’s). This standard method is called ASCII coding. i. the letters of the alphabet. we show a part of the ASCII codebook.e.
l l . String the letters together to get the text message.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l l l The codebook can be used to determine the text message sent by the user. For each byte. we lookup the byte sequence in the codebook (chart) to determine the letter that it corresponds to.
a user transmits 3 bytes in 6ms. l l l l l l . This means the user has a data rate of 24 bits/6ms = 4000 bits/sec.Important Parameter in Exercise l In the system described in the exercise. where 1ms = 0. There are 8 bits in a byte. so the user transmits 24 bits in 6ms.001 seconds.
or codes available to share between users in a cell. l l l l . the system uses FDMA/TDMA/CDMA to give them access. or use too many time slots. But there are only so many frequencies.Final Points on FDMA/TDMA/CDMA l When users are in the middle of a phone call. or too many codes. time-slots. the quality of speech heard by the end user will be unsatisfactory. If we divide the frequency into too many bands.
a base station has a fixed number of channels and can support only that many simultaneous users. a timeslot/frequency combination in TDMA.Channels l Channel is a general term which refers to a frequency in an FDMA system. l l This . or a code in CDMA. way.
Random Access: Another Important Multiple Access Method .
timeslot.Motivating Random Access Channels l As mentioned earlier.. Before being assigned a frequency. or code (i. In other words. the user has to have some other way of communicating with the base station. a channel).e. a user has to ask the base station if it has a channel leftover to assign this user. FDMA/TDMA/CDMA are used when users are engaged in a phone call. l l l l .
as opposed to the rest of the frequencies in cell. which are called voice channels. a prescribed portion of them are set aside for this purpose. “I’m here and I’d like to talk to you.” l l l l . A user will transmit a signal to the base station on a control channel basically saying.Motivating Random Access l Of all the frequencies available at a base station. These frequencies are called control channels.
If they do. when this happens.Random Access: Failure l l l l l There maybe other users who do this at the same time using the same frequency. Since they backoff for a random amount of time. the signals will interfere with each other and the base station will not receive anything. chances are they won’t retry at the same time. . This indicates a failure (aka collision). each user will backoff for some random amount of time and try again.
Random Access: Success l l If only one user transmits. l . “Okay you can talk to me.” l l The user will then tune this channel and be able to exclusively transmit and receive signals to the base station. tune into this other channel and tell me what you want. then the base station will receive the user’s signals and respond to it by saying.
Random Access: Success (Cont’d)
This new channel assigned to the user is also a control channel. Using this channel the user can then send a signal that says for example “I want to make a phone to this phone number.” To which the base station will respond by assigning the user a voice channel, if there are some available.
Random Access Summary
This type of competing access method is called random access. There are different rules followed by users participating in random access. We will return to this notion when looking at wi-fi systems.
Standards: Rules for a Cellular Network
These licenses allow the service provider to setup cellular towers in that region which can transmit over a prescribed band of frequencies.The Inner Workings l Government agencies (FCC) give licenses to companies (service providers) to provide cellular access in a particular geographic region. l l .
These standards described the air interface. how cell phones and base stations must communicate with each other..Standards l The service providers must use one of the approved cellular standards for developing the cellular network in that region.e. These standards are mutually agreed upon rules adopted by the industry on how the cell phone system operates. l l l l . i.
S. adhered to a standard called Analog Mobile Phone System (AMPS). as technology progresses. We describe this system in detail a bit later. speech was converted to an FM signal and transmitted back and forth from user phones. Specifically. This system existed in the mid 80’s to early 90’s. The first cellular network used analog technology. The first cellular systems deployed in the U.More on Standards l l These mutually agreed upon standards change over time. l l l l l .
S.. messaging. there were two 2G standards that service providers could choose between. In the U. l l .Second Generation of Cellular l l l The second generation (2G) of cellular networks were deployed in the early 90’s.g..). etc. caller-id. 2G cellular phones used digital technology and provided enhanced services (e.
Second Generation (Cont’d) l The two standards used in U.5G) of cellular. l l Most present systems are what is called the 2.S. Second is called IS-95 and is based on CDMA (code-division multiple access).S. are different from the 2G system used in Europe (called GSM) and the system used in Japan.5 generation (2. standard is called Interim Standard 136 (IS-136) and is based on TDMA (timedivision multiple access). l l First U. .
5G. l l l l . Presently. service providers are setting up third generation (3G) cellular systems.Present Cellular Systems l Most present cell systems are 2.5G systems (such as AT&T’s) are compatible with the European system. Global System Mobile (GSM). etc. They offer enhanced services over second generation systems (emailing.). Some 2. web-browsing.
video clips. This service is starting to become more and more available in the U. l l l l l l . There are two standards for 3G. Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) and cdma2000. Both are based on CDMA principles. This allows users to send/receive pictures. These two standards have been adopted world-wide.5G.Present Systems (Cont’d) l l 3G offers higher data rates than 2. etc.S.
AMPS: A Model for Learning about Cellular Networks .
MSC is connected to the rest of the world (normal telephone system). MS C Public (Wired) Telephone Network MS C MS C MS C .Complete Cellular Network A group of local base stations are connected (by wires) to a mobile switching center (MSC).
Mobile Switching Centers
Mobile switching centers control and coordinate the cellular network. They serve as intermediary between base stations that may be handing off users between each other. Base stations communicate with each via the MSC. MSC keep track of cell phone user subscription. MSC connects to the wired phone network (rest of the world).
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The AMPS System
AMPS uses FDMA: a service provider is given license to 832 frequencies to use across a geographic region, say a city. Service provider chops up the city into cells. Each cell is roughly 10 square miles. Each cell has a base station that consists of a tower and a small building containing radio equipment.
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The AMPS System (Cont’d)
AMPS uses frequency duplexing, i.e., each cell phone uses one frequency to transmit on and another frequency to receive on. Total 832 channels are divided into half. One half is used on the uplink, i.e., used by cell phones to transmit to the base station. The other half is used on the downlink, i.e., used by the base to transmit to cell phone users.
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Now. 21 of them used as control channels.Voice and Control Channels l l l l l Of the 832/2 = 416 channels. . This means that there are 416-12=395 voice channels. these voice channels are divided up among the cells based on the frequency reuse.
AMPS: Voice Channels Control Channels Voice Channels Control Channels .
a group of local cells use different frequencies to transmit/receive signals in their cell. This group of local cells is referred to as a cluster. l l l l .Frequency Reuse in AMPS l In frequency reuse.
each cell has about 56 voice channels. l l l l . roughly 10 square miles in normal environments. Thus.Clustersize of 7 l Assume a clustersize of 7. This is the most number of users that can be supported in a cell.. This may/may not be sufficient based on the distribution of users.e. This means that the total 395 voice channels are divided into groups of seven. i.
Now repeat this rule to get the overall “reuse pattern. This cell (if drawn as a hexagon) has 6 neighbors.Clustersize of 7 (Cont’d) l To see what a system with clustersize of 7 looks like.” l l l l . Color each of the seven neighbors using a different color (also different from each other). color a cell with color 1.
Reuse Pattern .Clustersize of 7.
What if we had a smaller cluster? l l l l l l l Now consider a system with a cluster of 4. But there is a problem with a clustersize. which is roughly 98. in theory. Then the number of voice channels per cell is 395/4. Thus. we can hold more users per cell if this were true. .
.Problem with Smaller Clustersize Interfering cells are closer by when clustersize is smaller.
we can make the cells larger. With larger cell. the gain (total number of users supported) of a smaller clustersize is not as high as we think. the quality of the speech signal will deteriorate. the number of users covered per unit area reduces. With higher interference power. then the total interference power will be larger. l l l l l . To reduce the interference power.Problem with Smaller Clustersize (Cont’d) l l If interfering cells are closer. So.
Directional Antenna l One way to get more capacity (number of users) while maintaining cell size is to use directional antenna. l l l . Assume antenna which radiates not in alldirections (360 degrees) but rather in 120 degrees only.
Directional Antenna at Base Station With 120 degree antenna. we draw the cells as: l l l l l .
With less interference power. the amount of interference power they receive assuming a clustersize of 7 is reduced by 1/3. the speech quality is much better than it needs to be.Directional Antenna (Cont’d) l Because these directional antenna only receive signals in particular direction. So we can reduce the clustersize (increase interference power) and still have good speech quality. l l l l .
the clustersize can be as small as 3. l l l l . these are most readily used by base station towers. This allows more users to be supported. Because of the benefits offered by 120 degree antenna. while keeping cell size fixed.Directional Antenna l Trials show that in systems with 120 degree antenna.
120 Degree Antenna Towers .
we will continue discussing the AMPS system.Next Time l Next time. l l . We will also look at how digital cellular systems differ from AMPS and look at what’s inside a cell phone and what a base station looks like.