Networ ked Wor lds: Telepho ny, Broadban d & W ir eless

Networ ks . Local Telephones . .

Introdu ction

Long Distance Telephones Cable Radio & TV Internet Wireless

Conver gence and Change

Local Telephone Ser vice Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k Ef fects

Local Ser vice B A C Geog r aphic Division of Mar kets .

Re gulation FCC. Utilities Commissions.Local Telephone Ser vice Common Car rier Status “Reasonable and nondiscriminatory rates” Limited liability. Local Franchise Boards Open Access Rules .

competitors decline . company patents improvements. 451 had at least two providers 1900s Bell Labs created.Histo ry Local Telephone Ser vice 1876 1878 1889 1895 Telephone patented Exchanges Automated Exchanges Main AT&T Patents expire. company develops long distance. rates fall 50% by 1907 1902 1002 cities had service.

Snapshot: “Ma Bell” .Histo 1910 ry 1913 1920s 1934 1947 1949 1956 1950s Local Telephone Ser vice Telephones become “common carriers” – but not of each other. local service. long distance separate monopolies Bell Labs wins Nobel Prize FCC created Bell Labs invents transistor & wins second Nobel Prize First government antitrust suit First antitrust suit ends: AT&T blocked from competing outside telephony. States introduce regulation Consent decree: telegraph.

competition in long distance and equipment. long distance Second government antitrust suit Breakup.Histo r y 1960s 1960s 1974 1984 1996 Local Telephone Ser vice Bell Labs discovers cosmic microwave background. Baby Bells. Telecommunications Act introduces “Local Competition” . wins third Nobel Prize Competitors fight AT&T on right to compete on equipment.

Competitor s' Costs .Does "Open Access" Create "Competition"? Re gulating Consumer Prices v s Re gulating .

Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Congestion ! Long Distance Ser vice Right-of-Way Issues Networ k .

Long Distance B A C .

Cable Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k Ef fects .

Cable B A Geog r aphic Division of Mar kets Neighborhood-by .

Cable 1940s 1950s – 1960s Local service for rural areas FCC regulates cable to carry local stations. Consensus Agreement becomes unmanageable Court challenges erode FCC’s ability to require cable to carry local signals. and fund public service programs Consensus Agreement liberalizes restrictions while micromanaging what cable stations can do. protect UHF. prevent siphoning. Deregulation 1972 1970s 1977-79 1980 . prevent siphoning.

Act ends state regulation of nonbasic service. Open access: Must carry content from competitors on common carrier basis. . 1992 Cable TV Consumer Protection & Competition Act lets local authorities set prices for basic service in most cases. Local governments cannot charge exorbitant fees. Local government cannot grant exclusive licenses.Cable 1984 Cable Communications Policy Act lets FCC waive rate regulation where “effective competition” exists.

TV & Radio Natur al Monopol y? Limited Spectr um Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k .

T he Inter net B A .

Inter net Ser vice Natur al Monopol y? Just Like Long Distance? Networ k Ef fects? ATT v. City of Por tland States Cannot Demand “Open Access” of Broadband FCC is studying the issue. .

B A Networ k .

Backbo ne Middle Mile Last Mile Last 100 Feet Chokepoi nts .

T he Last 100 feet Telephones Wireless Cable Satellite .

Does T his Woman Look Familiar? W ireles s Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000) .

” Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000) .Inventor & Movie Star Frequency Hopping Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid.

Wires vs. & Time Division Multiplexing W ir eles s Technolog y Frequency Hopping Smart Transmitters . Cellular. Broadcast Radio.

Networ k Exter nalities? W ithin Countries? Acr oss Countries? .

Orphaned Users -.Duplicated Development .Reaching Equilibrium Efficiently .Fragmented/Technically Inferior Winners .Issues Picking Winners -.

Antitrust Dangers .Choosing Wrong -. ctd.Network Effects -.Issues Picking Winners. -.

Issues Schumpeterian Competition Expor t Mar kets .

First Generation W ir eles s US A FCC Regulation Advanced Mobile Phone Standard (“AMPS”) Second Generation GSM. DAMPS/TDMA Qualcomm CDMA .

Third Generation CDMA 2000 and W-CDMA W ir eles s US A .

NMT-450 (everywhere else). Netz B (Germany). .W ireles s First Generation: National Bodies National Systems: Eur ope TACS (UK). RTMS (Italy). RC-2000 (France).

W ir eles s Europe .Second Generation: European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Standard for Mobile (GSM).

.W ir eles s Europe GSM Conquers The World !!! 105 countries Not Western Hemisphere 60% of Worldwide sales.

Third Generation: W-CDMA W ir eles s Europe Backward Compatible to GSM Incompatible With Qualcomm CDMA Less Capacity. More Interference! .

Third Generation: W ir eles s Europe QualComm/Ericcson “Treaty” Standards vs. Patents Ericcson Buys QualComm’s Hardware Business .

Third Generation: W ir eles s Europe QualComm/Ericcson “Treaty” Wasteful Patents Are Cross-Licenses Good for Consumers? .

W ir eles s Wor ld Third Generation: CDMA2000 vs. W-CDMA: China Korea Japan Is it a Small World (After All)? .

Innovation Cycle vs. Tipping Time .Schumpeterian Competition .Innovation Cycle vs. Court Dockets .W ir eles s   Implicati ons Antitrust Policy: .

se .Evolution of Cellular Systems • Introduction • 1st Generation cellular systems • 2nd Generation cellular systems  • 3rd Generation cellular systems • •     Ben Slimane slimane@kth.

Multiple Access/Multiplexing  Methods • Frequency Division Multiple Access  (FDMA) • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • Frequency-Hop Code Division Multiple  Access (FH-CDMA) • Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple  Access (DS-CDMA) .

Cellular System Evolution .

1G Cellular Systems • Appeared in late 1970s and deployed in  early 1980s • All based on analog techniques – All used FDMA and FM modulation • Date rate: 8-10 kbps • Low system capacity (reuse N=7) • Large cells with omni-directional base  station antennas .

1G: NMT • 1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone  • First generation analog technology – NMT450 and NMT900 – Free standard ready 1973. 1977 – Network open 1981 in Sweden and Norway • • • • Based on FDMA Channel bandwidth:                25/12.5 kHz Total number of channels:      1999 Analog traffic channel. digital control channel .

  • First deployed in 1983.1G: AMPS • Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) • Appeared late 1970s. US. South America.  China. and Australia • Based on FDMA • Channel bandwidth:           30 kHz • Total number of channels: 832 channels .

1G: AMPS .

 second-generation  systems are digital • Encryption – all second generation systems  provide encryption to prevent eavesdropping • Error detection and correction – second-generation  digital traffic allows for detection and  correction. giving clear voice reception • Channel access – second-generation systems allow  channels to be dynamically shared by a number  of users .1G versus 2G • Digital traffic channels – first-generation systems  are almost purely analog.

  FAX) – Data rate: on the order 10 kbps .2G Cellular Systems • Deployed in mid 1990s • 2G cellular systems all use digital voice coding  and digital modulation • Can provide advanced call capabilities and a better  system capacity – More users per unit bandwidth • Designed before the widespread of the Internet – Voice services and limited data services (SMS.

2G cellular Systems .

 20  .2G: GSM • Global Systems for Mobile Communications  (GSM) • Based on TDMA • Channel bandwidth:                                     200  kHz • Traffic channels (slots) per RF channel:      8 • Maximum cell radius (R):                    35 km • Frequency:                                            900/1800  MHz • Maximum vehicle speed (Vm):              250 km/hr • Maximum coding delay:                       approx.

Steps in Design of TDMA  Timeslot .

833 kbps .GSM Frame Format • Transmission bit rate = 156.25/0.577 = 270.

Time Slot Fields • Trail bits: allow synchronization of transmissions  from mobile units • Encrypted bits: encrypted data (ciphertext bits) • Training sequence – A known bit pattern – used to estimate the multi-path radio channel • Stealing bit: block contains data or ”stolen” for  control • Guard bits  – used to avoid overlapping with other bursts • Speech information – The actual information data .

GSM Signal Processing .

GSM Network Architecture .

Mobile Station
• Mobile station communicates across Um interface  (air interface) with base station transceiver in  same cell as mobile unit • Mobile equipment (ME) – physical terminal, such  as a telephone or PCS
– ME includes radio transceiver, digital signal  processors and subscriber identity module (SIM)

• GSM subscriber units are generic until SIM is  inserted
– SIMs roam, not necessarily the subscriber devices

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
• BSS consists of a base station controller and  one or more base transceiver stations  (BTS) • Each BTS defines a single cell
– Includes radio antenna, radio transceiver and  a link to a base station controller (BSC)

• BSC reserves radio frequencies, manages  handoff of mobile unit from one cell to  another within BSS, and controls paging

Network Subsystem (NS)
• NS provides link between cellular network and  public switched telecommunications networks
– Controls handoffs between cells in different BSSs – Authenticates users and validates accounts – Enables worldwide roaming of mobile users

• The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is the central  element of the NS
– The MSC controls four databases

The MSC Databases • Home location register (HLR) database – stores  information about each subscriber that belongs  to it • Visitor location register (VLR) database –  maintains information about subscribers  currently physically in the region • Authentication center database (AuC) – used  for authentication activities. holds encryption  keys • Equipment identity register database (EIR) –  keeps track of the type of equipment that exists  at the mobile station .

2.05 to 171. • EDGE: Enhanced data rates for GSM  evolution – Data rates up to 384 kbit/s – Two modulation schemes (GMSK.5G • GPRS: General Packet Radio Service – Bitrates from 9.2 kbit/s  – Multiple Time slots allocated to user  – Link adaptations. 8PSK) – Link adaptations • .

Cellular CDMA • Frequency diversity – resolve multi-paths by  means of the RAKE receiver • Multipath resistance – chipping codes used for  CDMA exhibit low cross-correlation and low  autocorrelation • Privacy – privacy is inherent since spread  spectrum is obtained by use of noise-like signals • Graceful degradation – system only gradually  degrades as more users access the system .

Cellular CDMA • Self-jamming – non-orthogonal codes  create interference between users • Near-far problem – weak users jammed by  strong users • Soft handoff – smooth handoff from one  cell to the next – more complex than hard handoff  • Frequency reuse of 1 – No frequency planning needed (N=1) .

Cellular CDMA • The RAKE receiver  – Resolves multi-path components and combine them  coherently – A diversity gain with order equals to the number of  resolved paths is obtained • Soft Handoff  – Mobile station temporarily connected to more than one  base station simultaneously – Require more radio resources .

The RAKE Receiver • • Spreading codes with low correlation properties allow the separation  of the different radio paths The RAKE receiver uses this property and locks on the different paths .

The RAKE Receiver .

Soft handoff in CDMA • When a mobile unit is in soft handover – Two codes are needed on the downlink – Only one code is needed on the uplink .

Spreading in Cellular CDMA .

2G: IS-95 .

2G: IS-95 • Downlink – Pilot (0) – cell detection. channel estimation – Synchronization (32) – identification  information – Paging (1-7) – messages to mobiles – Traffic (8-31. 33-63) – 55 traffic channels with  data rate of 9600 bps • A unique channel for each user – Uplink • Access channels • Traffic channels .

ITU’s View of 3G • Voice quality comparable to the public switched  telephone network • 144 kbps data rate available to users in high-speed  motor vehicles over large areas • 384 kbps available to pedestrians standing or  moving slowly over small areas • Support for 2.048 Mbps for office use • Symmetrical / asymmetrical data transmission  rates • Support for both packet switched and circuit  switched data services .

ITU’s View of 3G • An adaptive interface to the Internet to reflect  efficiently the common asymmetry between  inbound and outbound traffic • More efficient use of the available spectrum in  general • Support for a wide variety of mobile equipment • Flexibility to allow the introduction of new services  and technologies .

Alternative Interfaces .

 need for  error control.CDMA Design Considerations • Bandwidth – limit channel usage to 5 MHz • Chip rate – depends on desired data rate. 3  Mcps or more is reasonable • Multi-rate – advantage is that the system can  flexibly support multiple simultaneous  applications from a given user and can  efficiently use available capacity by only  providing the capacity required for each service . and bandwidth limitations.

4-5 MHz HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet  Access – Data rates: 1. 3.8.6.UMTS • • • • • Wideband CDMA Uplink 1920-1980 MHz Downlink 2110-2170 MHz Bandwidth 4.4 Mbit/s . 7.2 and 14.


LTE • • • • Long Term Evolution (LTE) Advanced OFDM for downlink Single carrier FDMA for uplink Data rates exceeding 100 Mbps in the  downlink with full mobility • Scalable bandwidth (1.25 to 20 MHz) • Frequency-reuse 1 • Multiple transmit and receive antennas • .

How Cell Phones Work .

l l l l . Presently. New phones allow users to do much more than hold phone conversations. we are starting to see the third generation of the cellular phones coming to the market.An Important Technology l Cellular telephony is one of the fastest growing technologies on the planet.

Beyond Voice l l l l l l l l l l Store contact information Make task/to-do lists Keep track of appointments Calculator Send/receive email Send/receive pictures Send/receive video clips Get information from the internet Play games Integrate with other devices (PDA’s. MP3 Players. etc.) .

Also. we will review the design of cellular system: what are its key components. we will look at how cellular networks support multiple cell phone users at a time. and why.Outline for Today l Today. l l l l . Finally. we will review the important generations of cellular systems and start looking at the design of the first generation of cell phones. what it is designed like.

The Cellular Concept .

This was a simplified version of the system used today.Basic Concept l Cellular system developed to provide mobile telephony: telephone access “anytime.S. anywhere. Louis.” First mobile telephone system was developed and inaugurated in the U. MO. l l l l . in 1945 in St.

Users outside the coverage area receive/transmit signals with too low amplitude for reliable communications. Users within the coverage area transmit and receive signals from the base station. l l l l l l l .System Architecture l A base station provides coverage (communication capabilities) to users on mobile phones within its coverage area. The base station itself is connected to the wired telephone network.

First Mobile Telephone System One and only one high power base station with which all users communicate. Norma l Teleph one System Entire Coverage Area Wired connection .

e..Problem with Original Design l Original mobile telephone system could only support a handful of users at a time…over an entire city! With only one high power base station. users phones also needed to be able to transmit at high powers (to reliably transmit signals to the distant base station). l l l l .g. police car phones. Car phones were therefore much more feasible than handheld phones.

it was not until the 80’s that electronic equipment became available to realize a cellular system.Improved Design l Over the next few decades. Although these core ideas existed since the 60’s. l l l l . researchers at AT&T Bell Labs developed the core ideas for today’s cellular systems. In the mid 80’s the first generation of cellular systems was developed and deployed.

The cellular concept: multiple lower-power base stations that service mobile users within their coverage area and handoff users to neighboring base stations as users move. l .The Core Idea: Cellular Concept l l The core idea that led to today’s system was the cellular concept. Together base stations tessellate the system coverage area.

User phones in one cell communicate with the base station in that cell. or smaller coverage areas. Each of these smaller coverage areas had its own lower-power base station. l l l l .Cellular Concept l Thus. the city was broken up into cells. instead of one base station covering an entire city.

Frequency reuse.3 Core Principles l l l Small cells tessellate overall coverage area. Users handoff as they move from one cell to another. l l .

l l .Tessellation l Some group of small regions tessellate a large region if they over the large region without any gaps or overlaps. There are only three regular polygons that tessellate any given region.

Tessellation (Cont’d) l Three regular polygons that always tessellate: l Equilateral triangle l Square l Regular Hexagon l Triangles Squares Hexagons .

.. Result: base station has circular coverage area. i. they transmit in all directions equally.Circular Coverage Areas l Original cellular system was developed assuming base station antennas are omnidirectional.e. l l signa k Wea n ro St g al ign s Users located outside some distance to the base station receive weak signals.

. circular coverage areas. l l l . ideally base stations have identical.e. i. The most circular of the regular polygons that tessellate is the hexagon. early researchers started using hexagons to represent the coverage area of a base station. Problem: Circles do not tessellate. a cell. Thus.Circles Don’t Tessellate l l l l Thus.

Thus the Name Cellular l With hexagonal coverage area. . a cellular network is drawn as: l l l l l l Base Station Since the network resembles cells from a honeycomb. the name cellular was used to describe the resulting mobile telephone network.

Mobile phone users are by definition mobile. they move around while using the phone. the network should be able to give them continuous access as they move.Handoffs l l l l l A crucial component of the cellular concept is the notion of handoffs. When they move from one cell to another. Thus. a handoff is needed.. This is not a problem when users move within the same cell. . i.e.

l l l l l . say B1. B1 notices that the signal from this user is degrading. Assume the user moves from the coverage area of one base station into the coverage area of a second base station.A Handoff l A user is transmitting and receiving signals from a given base station. B2 notices that the signal from this user is improving. B2.

messages are exchanged between the user. the user’s signal is weak enough at B1 and strong enough at B2 for a handoff to occur. Specifically. l l .A Handoff (Cont’d) l At some point. and B2 so that communication to/from the user is transferred from B1 to B2. B1.

Frequency Reuse l Extensive frequency reuse allows for many users to be supported at the same time. Total spectrum allocated to the service provider is broken up into smaller bands. This means all communications (transmissions to and from users) in this cell occur over these frequencies only. l l l l . A cell is assigned one of these bands.

More on frequency reuse a bit later. This ensures that nearby transmissions do not interfere with each other. This large distance limits the interference caused by this co-frequency cell. The same frequency band is reused in another cell that is far away. l l .Frequency Reuse (Cont’d) l l l l l Neighboring cells are assigned a different frequency band.

Example of Frequency Reuse Cells using the same frequencies .

Multiple Access in Cellular Networks .

Multiple Transmitters, One Receiver

In many wireless systems, multiple transmitters attempt to communicate with the same receiver. For example, in cellular systems. Cell phones users in a local area typically communicate with the same cell tower. How is the limited spectrum shared between these local transmitters?

l l

l l

Multiple Access Method

In such cases, system adopts a multiple access policy. Three widely-used policies:
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Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)




In FDMA, we assume that a base station can receive radio signals in a given band of spectrum, i.e., a range of continuous frequency values. The band of frequency is broken up into smaller bands, i.e., subbands. Each transmitter (user) transmits to the base station using radio waves in its own subband.
Cell Phone User 1 Cell Phone User 2 : : TimeCell Phone User N

Frequency Subbands

e.05 MHz. 824 MHz to 824. When a users is assigned a subband.1 MHz = 100 KHz. l l l l l . The width of this subband is 0..1 MHz.g.g. 824. e. it transmits to the base station using a sine wave with the center frequency in that band.FDMA (Cont’d) l A subband is also a range of continuous frequencies..

the multiple local transmitters within a cell do not interfere with each other. This way. l l l l .FDMA (Cont’d) l When the base station is tuned to the frequency of a desired user. it receives no portion of the signal transmitted by another in-cell user (using a different frequency).

. base station does not split up its allotted frequency band into smaller frequency subbands.e. l l  User 1 User 2 User 3 Frequency Bands … Time User N .TDMA l In pure TDMA. “round robin” access. Rather it communicates with the users one-at-atime. i.

small.TDMA (Cont’d) l l Time is broken up into time slots... Base station groups n consecutive slots into a frame. length of the phone conversation). Each user is assigned one slot per frame.g. l l l l l .e. equallength intervals. i. This slot assignment stays fixed as long as the user communicates with the base station (e. Assume there are some n users in the cell.

. the assigned user transmits a radio wave using a sine wave at the center frequency of the frequency band assigned to the base station. … User 10 User 1 … User 10 User 1 … Time Slot Frame In each time slot.TDMA (Cont’d) l l l l l l l l User User 1 2 Example of TDMA time slots for n = 10.

Base station also divides time into slots and frames.Hybrid FDMA/TDMA l The TDMA used by real cellular systems (like AT&T’s) is actually a combination of FDMA/TDMA. Each user is now assigned a frequency and a time slot in the frame. Base station breaks up its total frequency band into smaller subbands. l l l l l l l l .

Hybrid FDMA/TDMA (Cont’d) Assume a base station divides its frequency band into 4 subbands and time into 10 slots per frame. User 31 User 32 User 40 User 31 User 32 Frequency Subband 4 … … … … Frame User 40 … … … … … … … … Time User 21 User 22 User 30 User 21 User 22 Frequency Subband 3 User 12 User 20 User 12 Frequency Subband 2 User 10 Frequency Subband 1 User 10 User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 20 User 11 User 11 User 30 .

CDMA l l l l l l l l CDMA is a more complicated scheme. Here all users communicate to the receiver at the same time and using the same set of frequencies. The system is designed to control this interference. There are two types of CDMA methods. A desired user’s signal is deciphered using a unique code assigned to the user. . This means they may interfere with each other.

a fixed sequence of frequency values. a given user transmit to the base station using the first frequency in its frequency hopping sequence. In this method each user is assigned a frequency hopping pattern.e. l l l l l . i. Time is divided into slots.CDMA Method 1: Frequency Hopping l l First CDMA technique is called frequency hopping.. In the first time slot.

l l l l . and so on. the transmit frequency keeps changing in time. This way.Frequency Hopping (Cont’d) l In the next time interval. it transmits using the second frequency value in its frequency hop sequence. We will look at frequency hopping in greater detail in an exercise (in a bit).

at the same time. This code serves as a special language that only the transmitter and receiver understand. Others cannot decipher this language. Basically.Second Type of CDMA: Direct Sequence l l l This is a more complicated version of CDMA. Here signals from different users interfere with each other. unique code. l l . But the user distinguishes its message by using a special. each in-cell user transmits its message to the base station using the same frequency.

.Direct Sequence CDMA l l l l l l l Because of the complexity of this second type of CDMA. Rather we will give an intuitive understanding of it. Specifically. we will not describe it in detail. think of this access scheme like a group of conversations going on in a cocktail party.

to make sure that each speaking partier is heard correctly by his/her intended listener (and nobody else can listen in). we require each speaker to use a different language to communicate in. no one partier shouts above anybody else. we require that all partiers must talk at the same volume level. To keep this interference in control. l l .Cocktail Party Analogy l l l In this cocktail party. Also. people talk to each other at the same time and thus “interfere” with other.

it is assumed that only your desired listener can understand this language. The only signal you would understand is English. then all non-English conversations would sound like gibberish to you. l l l l l . say English.Cocktail Party (Cont’d) l The caveat in this analogy is that if you speak in one language. Similar methodology is used by Direct Sequence CDMA transmitters/receivers. Thus. coming from your intender speaker (transmitter). if you were at this party and only understood one language.

There are a total of 10 users in your cell.Exercise on Frequency Hopping CDMA l Assume you are the receiver (base station) in a frequency hopping cellular system. l l l l . They are each assigned their own unique frequency hopping pattern.

Exercise Description (Cont’d)  Recall: l A user will use its frequency hopping pattern to transmit messages to the base station. and so on. l In the second time slot. the user will transmit using the first frequency value in the frequency hopping sequence. l In the first time slot.  . the user will use the second frequency value in the hopping sequence.

l l l l l . into 10 subbands.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l  Assume that the base station (you) can receive signals in the range of 824 MHz to 825 MHz.. the designers have divided time into 1 millisecond (1 millisecond = 0. i. This means that you have 1 MHz of frequency available for use to communicate with local users.001 second) time slots.e. The network designers decided to divide the total 1 MHz = 1000 KHz of frequency assigned to you into 100 KHz subbands. Additionally.

you will see a sequence of bits for different frequency and time value.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l In the handout. These sequences represent the messages that the base station determines from the received radio waves (after demodulation) at the different frequency and time values. l l l l .

to determine the bit sequence of the desired user. l l l . Please use this hopping pattern.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l In each handout. a desired user’s frequency hopping pattern is given.

Recall. To do so.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l l l l l l l l l Now. assume that each user is sending a text message to the base station. We wish to determine this message. 1 byte = 8 bits. break up the bit sequence into sequence of bytes. .

. In the handout. This standard method is called ASCII coding. l l l l . i.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l Computers use a standard method to convert letters we use to write text messages. into bits (sequences of 0’s and 1’s). we show a part of the ASCII codebook.e. the letters of the alphabet.

String the letters together to get the text message. For each byte. we lookup the byte sequence in the codebook (chart) to determine the letter that it corresponds to. l l .Exercise Description (Cont’d) l l l The codebook can be used to determine the text message sent by the user.

l l l l l l .001 seconds. There are 8 bits in a byte. so the user transmits 24 bits in 6ms. This means the user has a data rate of 24 bits/6ms = 4000 bits/sec. where 1ms = 0.Important Parameter in Exercise l In the system described in the exercise. a user transmits 3 bytes in 6ms.

l l l l . But there are only so many frequencies. or too many codes. If we divide the frequency into too many bands. time-slots. or codes available to share between users in a cell. the system uses FDMA/TDMA/CDMA to give them access.Final Points on FDMA/TDMA/CDMA l When users are in the middle of a phone call. the quality of speech heard by the end user will be unsatisfactory. or use too many time slots.

Channels l Channel is a general term which refers to a frequency in an FDMA system. l l This . way. a base station has a fixed number of channels and can support only that many simultaneous users. a timeslot/frequency combination in TDMA. or a code in CDMA.

Random Access: Another Important Multiple Access Method .

timeslot. Before being assigned a frequency. the user has to have some other way of communicating with the base station. l l l l . or code (i.Motivating Random Access Channels l As mentioned earlier.e. In other words. a channel).. a user has to ask the base station if it has a channel leftover to assign this user. FDMA/TDMA/CDMA are used when users are engaged in a phone call.

” l l l l . as opposed to the rest of the frequencies in cell. A user will transmit a signal to the base station on a control channel basically saying. “I’m here and I’d like to talk to you.Motivating Random Access l Of all the frequencies available at a base station. which are called voice channels. These frequencies are called control channels. a prescribed portion of them are set aside for this purpose.

This indicates a failure (aka collision). Since they backoff for a random amount of time. . chances are they won’t retry at the same time.Random Access: Failure l l l l l There maybe other users who do this at the same time using the same frequency. when this happens. each user will backoff for some random amount of time and try again. If they do. the signals will interfere with each other and the base station will not receive anything.

l .Random Access: Success l l If only one user transmits. tune into this other channel and tell me what you want. then the base station will receive the user’s signals and respond to it by saying. “Okay you can talk to me.”  l l The user will then tune this channel and be able to exclusively transmit and receive signals to the base station.

Random Access: Success (Cont’d)

This new channel assigned to the user is also a control channel. Using this channel the user can then send a signal that says for example “I want to make a phone to this phone number.” To which the base station will respond by assigning the user a voice channel, if there are some available.

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Random Access Summary

This type of competing access method is called random access. There are different rules followed by users participating in random access. We will return to this notion when looking at wi-fi systems.

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Standards: Rules for a Cellular Network

These licenses allow the service provider to setup cellular towers in that region which can transmit over a prescribed band of frequencies. l l .The Inner Workings l Government agencies (FCC) give licenses to companies (service providers) to provide cellular access in a particular geographic region.

. These standards described the air interface. i. l l l l .Standards l The service providers must use one of the approved cellular standards for developing the cellular network in that region.e. These standards are mutually agreed upon rules adopted by the industry on how the cell phone system operates. how cell phones and base stations must communicate with each other.

l l l l l .S. Specifically. This system existed in the mid 80’s to early 90’s. The first cellular systems deployed in the U. speech was converted to an FM signal and transmitted back and forth from user phones. adhered to a standard called Analog Mobile Phone System (AMPS). as technology progresses.More on Standards l l These mutually agreed upon standards change over time. We describe this system in detail a bit later. The first cellular network used analog technology.

2G cellular phones used digital technology and provided enhanced services (e.Second Generation of Cellular l l l The second generation (2G) of cellular networks were deployed in the early 90’s. etc.).. caller-id. there were two 2G standards that service providers could choose between. l l . In the U..S. messaging.g.

Second Generation (Cont’d) l The two standards used in U. are different from the 2G system used in Europe (called GSM) and the system used in Japan.5 generation (2. l l Most present systems are what is called the 2. l  l First U. .S.S.5G) of cellular. standard is called Interim Standard 136 (IS-136) and is based on TDMA (timedivision multiple access). Second is called IS-95 and is based on CDMA (code-division multiple access).

l l l l . Some 2. Presently. They offer enhanced services over second generation systems (emailing.).5G.Present Cellular Systems l Most present cell systems are 2. Global System Mobile (GSM).5G systems (such as AT&T’s) are compatible with the European system. service providers are setting up third generation (3G) cellular systems. web-browsing. etc.

l l l l l l . video clips. This allows users to send/receive pictures.Present Systems (Cont’d) l l 3G offers higher data rates than 2. Both are based on CDMA principles.5G. There are two standards for 3G.S. These two standards have been adopted world-wide. etc. Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) and cdma2000. This service is starting to become more and more available in the U.

AMPS: A Model for Learning about Cellular Networks .

MSC is connected to the rest of the world (normal telephone system).Complete Cellular Network  A group of local base stations are connected (by wires) to a mobile switching center (MSC). MS C Public (Wired) Telephone Network MS C MS C MS C .

Mobile Switching Centers

Mobile switching centers control and coordinate the cellular network. They serve as intermediary between base stations that may be handing off users between each other. Base stations communicate with each via the MSC. MSC keep track of cell phone user subscription. MSC connects to the wired phone network (rest of the world).


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The AMPS System

AMPS uses FDMA: a service provider is given license to 832 frequencies to use across a geographic region, say a city. Service provider chops up the city into cells. Each cell is roughly 10 square miles. Each cell has a base station that consists of a tower and a small building containing radio equipment.

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The AMPS System (Cont’d)

AMPS uses frequency duplexing, i.e., each cell phone uses one frequency to transmit on and another frequency to receive on. Total 832 channels are divided into half. One half is used on the uplink, i.e., used by cell phones to transmit to the base station. The other half is used on the downlink, i.e., used by the base to transmit to cell phone users.

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Voice and Control Channels l l l l l Of the 832/2 = 416 channels. This means that there are 416-12=395 voice channels. Now. 21 of them used as control channels. . these voice channels are divided up among the cells based on the frequency reuse.

AMPS: Voice Channels Control Channels Voice Channels Control Channels .

This group of local cells is referred to as a cluster.Frequency Reuse in AMPS l In frequency reuse. a group of local cells use different frequencies to transmit/receive signals in their cell. l l l l .

This may/may not be sufficient based on the distribution of users.e.. roughly 10 square miles in normal environments.Clustersize of 7 l Assume a clustersize of 7. This means that the total 395 voice channels are divided into groups of seven. each cell has about 56 voice channels. Thus. This is the most number of users that can be supported in a cell. l l l l . i.

Clustersize of 7 (Cont’d) l To see what a system with clustersize of 7 looks like. Now repeat this rule to get the overall “reuse pattern. Color each of the seven neighbors using a different color (also different from each other).” l l l l . This cell (if drawn as a hexagon) has 6 neighbors. color a cell with color 1.

Reuse Pattern .Clustersize of 7.

which is roughly 98. in theory. we can hold more users per cell if this were true. .What if we had a smaller cluster? l l l l l l l Now consider a system with a cluster of 4. Thus. But there is a problem with a clustersize. Then the number of voice channels per cell is 395/4.

Problem with Smaller Clustersize Interfering cells are closer by when clustersize is smaller. .

the quality of the speech signal will deteriorate. To reduce the interference power. With higher interference power. So.Problem with Smaller Clustersize (Cont’d) l l If interfering cells are closer. we can make the cells larger. With larger cell. l l l l l . the number of users covered per unit area reduces. the gain (total number of users supported) of a smaller clustersize is not as high as we think. then the total interference power will be larger.

l l l .Directional Antenna l One way to get more capacity (number of users) while maintaining cell size is to use directional antenna. Assume antenna which radiates not in alldirections (360 degrees) but rather in 120 degrees only.

we draw the cells as: l l l l l .Directional Antenna at Base Station  With 120 degree antenna.

the amount of interference power they receive assuming a clustersize of 7 is reduced by 1/3. So we can reduce the clustersize (increase interference power) and still have good speech quality. l l l l . the speech quality is much better than it needs to be. With less interference power.Directional Antenna (Cont’d) l Because these directional antenna only receive signals in particular direction.

This allows more users to be supported. l l l l . Because of the benefits offered by 120 degree antenna. the clustersize can be as small as 3.Directional Antenna l Trials show that in systems with 120 degree antenna. while keeping cell size fixed. these are most readily used by base station towers.

120 Degree Antenna Towers .

we will continue discussing the AMPS system. l l .Next Time l Next time. We will also look at how digital cellular systems differ from AMPS and look at what’s inside a cell phone and what a base station looks like.

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