Networ ked Wor lds: Telepho ny, Broadban d & W ir eless

Networ ks . Local Telephones . .

Introdu ction

Long Distance Telephones Cable Radio & TV Internet Wireless

Conver gence and Change

Local Telephone Ser vice Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k Ef fects

Local Ser vice B A C Geog r aphic Division of Mar kets .

Re gulation FCC. Utilities Commissions. Local Franchise Boards Open Access Rules .Local Telephone Ser vice Common Car rier Status “Reasonable and nondiscriminatory rates” Limited liability.

competitors decline . company develops long distance.Histo ry Local Telephone Ser vice 1876 1878 1889 1895 Telephone patented Exchanges Automated Exchanges Main AT&T Patents expire. company patents improvements. 451 had at least two providers 1900s Bell Labs created. rates fall 50% by 1907 1902 1002 cities had service.

States introduce regulation Consent decree: telegraph.Histo 1910 ry 1913 1920s 1934 1947 1949 1956 1950s Local Telephone Ser vice Telephones become “common carriers” – but not of each other. local service. long distance separate monopolies Bell Labs wins Nobel Prize FCC created Bell Labs invents transistor & wins second Nobel Prize First government antitrust suit First antitrust suit ends: AT&T blocked from competing outside telephony. Snapshot: “Ma Bell” .

competition in long distance and equipment.Histo r y 1960s 1960s 1974 1984 1996 Local Telephone Ser vice Bell Labs discovers cosmic microwave background. wins third Nobel Prize Competitors fight AT&T on right to compete on equipment. Baby Bells. long distance Second government antitrust suit Breakup. Telecommunications Act introduces “Local Competition” .

Does "Open Access" Create "Competition"? Re gulating Consumer Prices v s Re gulating . Competitor s' Costs .

Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Congestion ! Long Distance Ser vice Right-of-Way Issues Networ k .

Long Distance B A C .

Cable Natur al Monopol y? Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k Ef fects .

Cable B A Geog r aphic Division of Mar kets Neighborhood-by .

protect UHF. Deregulation 1972 1970s 1977-79 1980 . prevent siphoning. Consensus Agreement becomes unmanageable Court challenges erode FCC’s ability to require cable to carry local signals.Cable 1940s 1950s – 1960s Local service for rural areas FCC regulates cable to carry local stations. prevent siphoning. and fund public service programs Consensus Agreement liberalizes restrictions while micromanaging what cable stations can do.

Local government cannot grant exclusive licenses. . Act ends state regulation of nonbasic service. Local governments cannot charge exorbitant fees. Open access: Must carry content from competitors on common carrier basis. 1992 Cable TV Consumer Protection & Competition Act lets local authorities set prices for basic service in most cases.Cable 1984 Cable Communications Policy Act lets FCC waive rate regulation where “effective competition” exists.

TV & Radio Natur al Monopol y? Limited Spectr um Declining Avera ge Costs Low Mar ginal Costs Right-of-Way Issues Networ k .

T he Inter net B A .

.Inter net Ser vice Natur al Monopol y? Just Like Long Distance? Networ k Ef fects? ATT v. City of Por tland States Cannot Demand “Open Access” of Broadband FCC is studying the issue.

B A Networ k .

Backbo ne Middle Mile Last Mile Last 100 Feet Chokepoi nts .

T he Last 100 feet Telephones Wireless Cable Satellite .

Does T his Woman Look Familiar? W ireles s Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000) .

” Hedy Lamarr (1913-2000) .Inventor & Movie Star Frequency Hopping Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid.

& Time Division Multiplexing W ir eles s Technolog y Frequency Hopping Smart Transmitters . Cellular.Wires vs. Broadcast Radio.

Networ k Exter nalities? W ithin Countries? Acr oss Countries? .

Fragmented/Technically Inferior Winners .Duplicated Development .Issues Picking Winners -.Reaching Equilibrium Efficiently .Orphaned Users -.

Issues Picking Winners.Network Effects -. ctd.Antitrust Dangers .Choosing Wrong -. -.

Issues Schumpeterian Competition Expor t Mar kets .

First Generation W ir eles s US A FCC Regulation Advanced Mobile Phone Standard (“AMPS”) Second Generation GSM. DAMPS/TDMA Qualcomm CDMA .

Third Generation CDMA 2000 and W-CDMA W ir eles s US A .

NMT-450 (everywhere else). RC-2000 (France).W ireles s First Generation: National Bodies National Systems: Eur ope TACS (UK). . Netz B (Germany). RTMS (Italy).

W ir eles s Europe .Second Generation: European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Standard for Mobile (GSM).

.W ir eles s Europe GSM Conquers The World !!! 105 countries Not Western Hemisphere 60% of Worldwide sales.

Third Generation: W-CDMA W ir eles s Europe Backward Compatible to GSM Incompatible With Qualcomm CDMA Less Capacity. More Interference! .

Third Generation: W ir eles s Europe QualComm/Ericcson “Treaty” Standards vs. Patents Ericcson Buys QualComm’s Hardware Business .

Third Generation: W ir eles s Europe QualComm/Ericcson “Treaty” Wasteful Patents Are Cross-Licenses Good for Consumers? .

W-CDMA: China Korea Japan Is it a Small World (After All)? .W ir eles s Wor ld Third Generation: CDMA2000 vs.

Court Dockets .W ir eles s   Implicati ons Antitrust Policy: .Schumpeterian Competition . Tipping Time .Innovation Cycle vs.Innovation Cycle vs.

Evolution of Cellular Systems • Introduction • 1st Generation cellular systems • 2nd Generation cellular systems  • 3rd Generation cellular systems • •     Ben Slimane .

Multiple Access/Multiplexing  Methods • Frequency Division Multiple Access  (FDMA) • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) • Frequency-Hop Code Division Multiple  Access (FH-CDMA) • Direct Sequence-Code Division Multiple  Access (DS-CDMA) .

Cellular System Evolution .

1G Cellular Systems • Appeared in late 1970s and deployed in  early 1980s • All based on analog techniques – All used FDMA and FM modulation • Date rate: 8-10 kbps • Low system capacity (reuse N=7) • Large cells with omni-directional base  station antennas .

 1977 – Network open 1981 in Sweden and Norway • • • • Based on FDMA Channel bandwidth:                25/12.1G: NMT • 1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone  • First generation analog technology – NMT450 and NMT900 – Free standard ready 1973. digital control channel .5 kHz Total number of channels:      1999 Analog traffic channel.

  China. and Australia • Based on FDMA • Channel bandwidth:           30 kHz • Total number of channels: 832 channels .  • First deployed in 1983.1G: AMPS • Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) • Appeared late 1970s. US. South America.

1G: AMPS .

 second-generation  systems are digital • Encryption – all second generation systems  provide encryption to prevent eavesdropping • Error detection and correction – second-generation  digital traffic allows for detection and  correction. giving clear voice reception • Channel access – second-generation systems allow  channels to be dynamically shared by a number  of users .1G versus 2G • Digital traffic channels – first-generation systems  are almost purely analog.

2G Cellular Systems • Deployed in mid 1990s • 2G cellular systems all use digital voice coding  and digital modulation • Can provide advanced call capabilities and a better  system capacity – More users per unit bandwidth • Designed before the widespread of the Internet – Voice services and limited data services (SMS.  FAX) – Data rate: on the order 10 kbps .

2G cellular Systems .

 20  .2G: GSM • Global Systems for Mobile Communications  (GSM) • Based on TDMA • Channel bandwidth:                                     200  kHz • Traffic channels (slots) per RF channel:      8 • Maximum cell radius (R):                    35 km • Frequency:                                            900/1800  MHz • Maximum vehicle speed (Vm):              250 km/hr • Maximum coding delay:                       approx.

Steps in Design of TDMA  Timeslot .

833 kbps .577 = 270.25/0.GSM Frame Format • Transmission bit rate = 156.

Time Slot Fields • Trail bits: allow synchronization of transmissions  from mobile units • Encrypted bits: encrypted data (ciphertext bits) • Training sequence – A known bit pattern – used to estimate the multi-path radio channel • Stealing bit: block contains data or ”stolen” for  control • Guard bits  – used to avoid overlapping with other bursts • Speech information – The actual information data .

GSM Signal Processing .

GSM Network Architecture .

Mobile Station
• Mobile station communicates across Um interface  (air interface) with base station transceiver in  same cell as mobile unit • Mobile equipment (ME) – physical terminal, such  as a telephone or PCS
– ME includes radio transceiver, digital signal  processors and subscriber identity module (SIM)

• GSM subscriber units are generic until SIM is  inserted
– SIMs roam, not necessarily the subscriber devices

Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
• BSS consists of a base station controller and  one or more base transceiver stations  (BTS) • Each BTS defines a single cell
– Includes radio antenna, radio transceiver and  a link to a base station controller (BSC)

• BSC reserves radio frequencies, manages  handoff of mobile unit from one cell to  another within BSS, and controls paging

Network Subsystem (NS)
• NS provides link between cellular network and  public switched telecommunications networks
– Controls handoffs between cells in different BSSs – Authenticates users and validates accounts – Enables worldwide roaming of mobile users

• The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) is the central  element of the NS
– The MSC controls four databases

 holds encryption  keys • Equipment identity register database (EIR) –  keeps track of the type of equipment that exists  at the mobile station .The MSC Databases • Home location register (HLR) database – stores  information about each subscriber that belongs  to it • Visitor location register (VLR) database –  maintains information about subscribers  currently physically in the region • Authentication center database (AuC) – used  for authentication activities.

• EDGE: Enhanced data rates for GSM  evolution – Data rates up to 384 kbit/s – Two modulation schemes (GMSK.2 kbit/s  – Multiple Time slots allocated to user  – Link adaptations. 8PSK) – Link adaptations • .2.05 to 171.5G • GPRS: General Packet Radio Service – Bitrates from 9.

Cellular CDMA • Frequency diversity – resolve multi-paths by  means of the RAKE receiver • Multipath resistance – chipping codes used for  CDMA exhibit low cross-correlation and low  autocorrelation • Privacy – privacy is inherent since spread  spectrum is obtained by use of noise-like signals • Graceful degradation – system only gradually  degrades as more users access the system .

Cellular CDMA • Self-jamming – non-orthogonal codes  create interference between users • Near-far problem – weak users jammed by  strong users • Soft handoff – smooth handoff from one  cell to the next – more complex than hard handoff  • Frequency reuse of 1 – No frequency planning needed (N=1) .

Cellular CDMA • The RAKE receiver  – Resolves multi-path components and combine them  coherently – A diversity gain with order equals to the number of  resolved paths is obtained • Soft Handoff  – Mobile station temporarily connected to more than one  base station simultaneously – Require more radio resources .

The RAKE Receiver • • Spreading codes with low correlation properties allow the separation  of the different radio paths The RAKE receiver uses this property and locks on the different paths .

The RAKE Receiver .

Soft handoff in CDMA • When a mobile unit is in soft handover – Two codes are needed on the downlink – Only one code is needed on the uplink .

Spreading in Cellular CDMA .

2G: IS-95 .

 channel estimation – Synchronization (32) – identification  information – Paging (1-7) – messages to mobiles – Traffic (8-31. 33-63) – 55 traffic channels with  data rate of 9600 bps • A unique channel for each user – Uplink • Access channels • Traffic channels .2G: IS-95 • Downlink – Pilot (0) – cell detection.

ITU’s View of 3G • Voice quality comparable to the public switched  telephone network • 144 kbps data rate available to users in high-speed  motor vehicles over large areas • 384 kbps available to pedestrians standing or  moving slowly over small areas • Support for 2.048 Mbps for office use • Symmetrical / asymmetrical data transmission  rates • Support for both packet switched and circuit  switched data services .

ITU’s View of 3G • An adaptive interface to the Internet to reflect  efficiently the common asymmetry between  inbound and outbound traffic • More efficient use of the available spectrum in  general • Support for a wide variety of mobile equipment • Flexibility to allow the introduction of new services  and technologies .

Alternative Interfaces .

 need for  error control. and bandwidth limitations.CDMA Design Considerations • Bandwidth – limit channel usage to 5 MHz • Chip rate – depends on desired data rate. 3  Mcps or more is reasonable • Multi-rate – advantage is that the system can  flexibly support multiple simultaneous  applications from a given user and can  efficiently use available capacity by only  providing the capacity required for each service .

 3.2 and 14.8.4-5 MHz HSDPA: High Speed Downlink Packet  Access – Data rates: 1.6.4 Mbit/s .UMTS • • • • • Wideband CDMA Uplink 1920-1980 MHz Downlink 2110-2170 MHz Bandwidth 4. 7.


25 to 20 MHz) • Frequency-reuse 1 • Multiple transmit and receive antennas • .LTE • • • • Long Term Evolution (LTE) Advanced OFDM for downlink Single carrier FDMA for uplink Data rates exceeding 100 Mbps in the  downlink with full mobility • Scalable bandwidth (1.

How Cell Phones Work .

An Important Technology l Cellular telephony is one of the fastest growing technologies on the planet. l l l l . we are starting to see the third generation of the cellular phones coming to the market. New phones allow users to do much more than hold phone conversations. Presently.

etc.Beyond Voice l l l l l l l l l l Store contact information Make task/to-do lists Keep track of appointments Calculator Send/receive email Send/receive pictures Send/receive video clips Get information from the internet Play games Integrate with other devices (PDA’s. MP3 Players.) .

and why. we will look at how cellular networks support multiple cell phone users at a time. Finally. we will review the design of cellular system: what are its key components.Outline for Today l Today. what it is designed like. we will review the important generations of cellular systems and start looking at the design of the first generation of cell phones. Also. l l l l .

The Cellular Concept .

This was a simplified version of the system used today.S. l l l l . MO. Louis.” First mobile telephone system was developed and inaugurated in the U.Basic Concept l Cellular system developed to provide mobile telephony: telephone access “anytime. anywhere. in 1945 in St.

System Architecture l A base station provides coverage (communication capabilities) to users on mobile phones within its coverage area. l l l l l l l . Users outside the coverage area receive/transmit signals with too low amplitude for reliable communications. Users within the coverage area transmit and receive signals from the base station. The base station itself is connected to the wired telephone network.

First Mobile Telephone System One and only one high power base station with which all users communicate. Norma l Teleph one System Entire Coverage Area Wired connection .

g.Problem with Original Design l Original mobile telephone system could only support a handful of users at a time…over an entire city! With only one high power base station. l l l l . police car phones.. Car phones were therefore much more feasible than handheld phones. users phones also needed to be able to transmit at high powers (to reliably transmit signals to the distant base station). e.

In the mid 80’s the first generation of cellular systems was developed and deployed. researchers at AT&T Bell Labs developed the core ideas for today’s cellular systems.Improved Design l Over the next few decades. l l l l . Although these core ideas existed since the 60’s. it was not until the 80’s that electronic equipment became available to realize a cellular system.

The Core Idea: Cellular Concept l l The core idea that led to today’s system was the cellular concept. Together base stations tessellate the system coverage area. The cellular concept: multiple lower-power base stations that service mobile users within their coverage area and handoff users to neighboring base stations as users move. l .

the city was broken up into cells. instead of one base station covering an entire city. or smaller coverage areas. Each of these smaller coverage areas had its own lower-power base station.Cellular Concept l Thus. l l l l . User phones in one cell communicate with the base station in that cell.

Users handoff as they move from one cell to another. Frequency reuse. l l .3 Core Principles l l l Small cells tessellate overall coverage area.

There are only three regular polygons that tessellate any given region. l l .Tessellation l Some group of small regions tessellate a large region if they over the large region without any gaps or overlaps.

Tessellation (Cont’d) l Three regular polygons that always tessellate: l Equilateral triangle l Square l Regular Hexagon l Triangles Squares Hexagons .

they transmit in all directions equally.. i. . Result: base station has circular coverage area. l l signa k Wea n ro St g al ign s Users located outside some distance to the base station receive weak signals.Circular Coverage Areas l Original cellular system was developed assuming base station antennas are omnidirectional.e.

a cell. l l l . Problem: Circles do not tessellate. early researchers started using hexagons to represent the coverage area of a base station. The most circular of the regular polygons that tessellate is the hexagon. ideally base stations have identical. Thus.e.Circles Don’t Tessellate l l l l Thus. circular coverage areas. i..

. a cellular network is drawn as: l l l l l l Base Station Since the network resembles cells from a honeycomb.Thus the Name Cellular l With hexagonal coverage area. the name cellular was used to describe the resulting mobile telephone network.

.Handoffs l l l l l A crucial component of the cellular concept is the notion of handoffs. the network should be able to give them continuous access as they move. Thus. they move around while using the phone.. Mobile phone users are by definition mobile.e. This is not a problem when users move within the same cell. a handoff is needed. When they move from one cell to another. i.

say B1. B1 notices that the signal from this user is degrading. B2 notices that the signal from this user is improving. l l l l l . B2. Assume the user moves from the coverage area of one base station into the coverage area of a second base station.A Handoff l A user is transmitting and receiving signals from a given base station.

the user’s signal is weak enough at B1 and strong enough at B2 for a handoff to occur. B1. l l .A Handoff (Cont’d) l At some point. and B2 so that communication to/from the user is transferred from B1 to B2. messages are exchanged between the user. Specifically.

Frequency Reuse l Extensive frequency reuse allows for many users to be supported at the same time. Total spectrum allocated to the service provider is broken up into smaller bands. l l l l . This means all communications (transmissions to and from users) in this cell occur over these frequencies only. A cell is assigned one of these bands.

This large distance limits the interference caused by this co-frequency cell. The same frequency band is reused in another cell that is far away. l l . This ensures that nearby transmissions do not interfere with each other. More on frequency reuse a bit later.Frequency Reuse (Cont’d) l l l l l Neighboring cells are assigned a different frequency band.

Example of Frequency Reuse Cells using the same frequencies .

Multiple Access in Cellular Networks .

Multiple Transmitters, One Receiver

In many wireless systems, multiple transmitters attempt to communicate with the same receiver. For example, in cellular systems. Cell phones users in a local area typically communicate with the same cell tower. How is the limited spectrum shared between these local transmitters?

l l

l l

Multiple Access Method

In such cases, system adopts a multiple access policy. Three widely-used policies:
l l l


Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)




In FDMA, we assume that a base station can receive radio signals in a given band of spectrum, i.e., a range of continuous frequency values. The band of frequency is broken up into smaller bands, i.e., subbands. Each transmitter (user) transmits to the base station using radio waves in its own subband.
Cell Phone User 1 Cell Phone User 2 : : TimeCell Phone User N

Frequency Subbands

1 MHz.05 MHz. 824. e. 824 MHz to 824.1 MHz = 100 KHz.g. The width of this subband is 0. l l l l l .FDMA (Cont’d) l A subband is also a range of continuous frequencies.. When a users is assigned a subband. e. it transmits to the base station using a sine wave with the center frequency in that band.g..

the multiple local transmitters within a cell do not interfere with each other. l l l l . This way. it receives no portion of the signal transmitted by another in-cell user (using a different frequency).FDMA (Cont’d) l When the base station is tuned to the frequency of a desired user.

“round robin” access. l l  User 1 User 2 User 3 Frequency Bands … Time User N . i. base station does not split up its allotted frequency band into smaller frequency subbands. Rather it communicates with the users one-at-atime..TDMA l In pure TDMA.e.

Each user is assigned one slot per frame. This slot assignment stays fixed as long as the user communicates with the base station (e..g. l l l l l . equallength intervals.. Base station groups n consecutive slots into a frame.e.TDMA (Cont’d) l l Time is broken up into time slots. length of the phone conversation). small. i. Assume there are some n users in the cell.

.TDMA (Cont’d) l l l l l l l l User User 1 2 Example of TDMA time slots for n = 10. the assigned user transmits a radio wave using a sine wave at the center frequency of the frequency band assigned to the base station. … User 10 User 1 … User 10 User 1 … Time Slot Frame In each time slot.

Base station breaks up its total frequency band into smaller subbands. l l l l l l l l . Each user is now assigned a frequency and a time slot in the frame.Hybrid FDMA/TDMA l The TDMA used by real cellular systems (like AT&T’s) is actually a combination of FDMA/TDMA. Base station also divides time into slots and frames.

Hybrid FDMA/TDMA (Cont’d) Assume a base station divides its frequency band into 4 subbands and time into 10 slots per frame. User 31 User 32 User 40 User 31 User 32 Frequency Subband 4 … … … … Frame User 40 … … … … … … … … Time User 21 User 22 User 30 User 21 User 22 Frequency Subband 3 User 12 User 20 User 12 Frequency Subband 2 User 10 Frequency Subband 1 User 10 User 1 User 2 User 1 User 2 User 20 User 11 User 11 User 30 .

There are two types of CDMA methods.CDMA l l l l l l l l CDMA is a more complicated scheme. A desired user’s signal is deciphered using a unique code assigned to the user. . This means they may interfere with each other. Here all users communicate to the receiver at the same time and using the same set of frequencies. The system is designed to control this interference.

CDMA Method 1: Frequency Hopping l l First CDMA technique is called frequency hopping. i. Time is divided into slots. l l l l l . a given user transmit to the base station using the first frequency in its frequency hopping sequence..e. a fixed sequence of frequency values. In this method each user is assigned a frequency hopping pattern. In the first time slot.

it transmits using the second frequency value in its frequency hop sequence.Frequency Hopping (Cont’d) l In the next time interval. This way. l l l l . the transmit frequency keeps changing in time. and so on. We will look at frequency hopping in greater detail in an exercise (in a bit).

l l . at the same time. This code serves as a special language that only the transmitter and receiver understand. But the user distinguishes its message by using a special. Basically. Here signals from different users interfere with each other.Second Type of CDMA: Direct Sequence l l l This is a more complicated version of CDMA. each in-cell user transmits its message to the base station using the same frequency. Others cannot decipher this language. unique code.

Rather we will give an intuitive understanding of it. think of this access scheme like a group of conversations going on in a cocktail party. Specifically. .Direct Sequence CDMA l l l l l l l Because of the complexity of this second type of CDMA. we will not describe it in detail.

to make sure that each speaking partier is heard correctly by his/her intended listener (and nobody else can listen in). people talk to each other at the same time and thus “interfere” with other. l l .Cocktail Party Analogy l l l In this cocktail party. Also. we require each speaker to use a different language to communicate in. we require that all partiers must talk at the same volume level. no one partier shouts above anybody else. To keep this interference in control.

then all non-English conversations would sound like gibberish to you. say English. coming from your intender speaker (transmitter). Similar methodology is used by Direct Sequence CDMA transmitters/receivers. Thus.Cocktail Party (Cont’d) l The caveat in this analogy is that if you speak in one language. l l l l l . it is assumed that only your desired listener can understand this language. The only signal you would understand is English. if you were at this party and only understood one language.

There are a total of 10 users in your cell. l l l l .Exercise on Frequency Hopping CDMA l Assume you are the receiver (base station) in a frequency hopping cellular system. They are each assigned their own unique frequency hopping pattern.

and so on. l In the second time slot. the user will transmit using the first frequency value in the frequency hopping sequence.  . the user will use the second frequency value in the hopping sequence.Exercise Description (Cont’d)  Recall: l A user will use its frequency hopping pattern to transmit messages to the base station. l In the first time slot.

l l l l l .Exercise Description (Cont’d) l  Assume that the base station (you) can receive signals in the range of 824 MHz to 825 MHz.. The network designers decided to divide the total 1 MHz = 1000 KHz of frequency assigned to you into 100 KHz subbands. into 10 subbands. This means that you have 1 MHz of frequency available for use to communicate with local users. i. Additionally.001 second) time slots. the designers have divided time into 1 millisecond (1 millisecond = 0.e.

These sequences represent the messages that the base station determines from the received radio waves (after demodulation) at the different frequency and time values. you will see a sequence of bits for different frequency and time value. l l l l .Exercise Description (Cont’d) l In the handout.

Exercise Description (Cont’d) l In each handout. l l l . a desired user’s frequency hopping pattern is given. Please use this hopping pattern. to determine the bit sequence of the desired user.

Recall.Exercise Description (Cont’d) l l l l l l l l l Now. 1 byte = 8 bits. We wish to determine this message. . break up the bit sequence into sequence of bytes. To do so. assume that each user is sending a text message to the base station.

Exercise Description (Cont’d) l Computers use a standard method to convert letters we use to write text messages. we show a part of the ASCII codebook.. l l l l . into bits (sequences of 0’s and 1’s).e. This standard method is called ASCII coding. i. the letters of the alphabet. In the handout.

l l .Exercise Description (Cont’d) l l l The codebook can be used to determine the text message sent by the user. String the letters together to get the text message. we lookup the byte sequence in the codebook (chart) to determine the letter that it corresponds to. For each byte.

001 seconds. There are 8 bits in a byte. where 1ms = 0.Important Parameter in Exercise l In the system described in the exercise. This means the user has a data rate of 24 bits/6ms = 4000 bits/sec. a user transmits 3 bytes in 6ms. so the user transmits 24 bits in 6ms. l l l l l l .

the system uses FDMA/TDMA/CDMA to give them access. or codes available to share between users in a cell. If we divide the frequency into too many bands. time-slots. the quality of speech heard by the end user will be unsatisfactory. or too many codes.Final Points on FDMA/TDMA/CDMA l When users are in the middle of a phone call. l l l l . But there are only so many frequencies. or use too many time slots.

l l This .Channels l Channel is a general term which refers to a frequency in an FDMA system. way. a base station has a fixed number of channels and can support only that many simultaneous users. or a code in CDMA. a timeslot/frequency combination in TDMA.

Random Access: Another Important Multiple Access Method .

e.Motivating Random Access Channels l As mentioned earlier. FDMA/TDMA/CDMA are used when users are engaged in a phone call. or code (i. timeslot. l l l l .. the user has to have some other way of communicating with the base station. In other words. a channel). a user has to ask the base station if it has a channel leftover to assign this user. Before being assigned a frequency.

“I’m here and I’d like to talk to you. as opposed to the rest of the frequencies in cell.” l l l l .Motivating Random Access l Of all the frequencies available at a base station. which are called voice channels. These frequencies are called control channels. A user will transmit a signal to the base station on a control channel basically saying. a prescribed portion of them are set aside for this purpose.

when this happens. . the signals will interfere with each other and the base station will not receive anything. Since they backoff for a random amount of time. chances are they won’t retry at the same time. each user will backoff for some random amount of time and try again. This indicates a failure (aka collision). If they do.Random Access: Failure l l l l l There maybe other users who do this at the same time using the same frequency.

tune into this other channel and tell me what you want. then the base station will receive the user’s signals and respond to it by saying. l . “Okay you can talk to me.Random Access: Success l l If only one user transmits.”  l l The user will then tune this channel and be able to exclusively transmit and receive signals to the base station.

Random Access: Success (Cont’d)

This new channel assigned to the user is also a control channel. Using this channel the user can then send a signal that says for example “I want to make a phone to this phone number.” To which the base station will respond by assigning the user a voice channel, if there are some available.

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Random Access Summary

This type of competing access method is called random access. There are different rules followed by users participating in random access. We will return to this notion when looking at wi-fi systems.

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Standards: Rules for a Cellular Network

These licenses allow the service provider to setup cellular towers in that region which can transmit over a prescribed band of frequencies.The Inner Workings l Government agencies (FCC) give licenses to companies (service providers) to provide cellular access in a particular geographic region. l l .

.Standards l The service providers must use one of the approved cellular standards for developing the cellular network in that region. l l l l . how cell phones and base stations must communicate with each other.e. These standards are mutually agreed upon rules adopted by the industry on how the cell phone system operates. i. These standards described the air interface.

Specifically. This system existed in the mid 80’s to early 90’s. The first cellular network used analog technology. adhered to a standard called Analog Mobile Phone System (AMPS). as technology progresses. We describe this system in detail a bit later. l l l l l .More on Standards l l These mutually agreed upon standards change over time. speech was converted to an FM signal and transmitted back and forth from user phones. The first cellular systems deployed in the U.S.

there were two 2G standards that service providers could choose between. caller-id. etc.S. In the U.g.. 2G cellular phones used digital technology and provided enhanced services (e.). messaging. l l ..Second Generation of Cellular l l l The second generation (2G) of cellular networks were deployed in the early 90’s.

l  l First U. l l Most present systems are what is called the 2. are different from the 2G system used in Europe (called GSM) and the system used in Japan.5 generation (2. standard is called Interim Standard 136 (IS-136) and is based on TDMA (timedivision multiple access).S. Second is called IS-95 and is based on CDMA (code-division multiple access).S.Second Generation (Cont’d) l The two standards used in U. .5G) of cellular.

5G.Present Cellular Systems l Most present cell systems are 2.5G systems (such as AT&T’s) are compatible with the European system. Presently.). They offer enhanced services over second generation systems (emailing. Global System Mobile (GSM). service providers are setting up third generation (3G) cellular systems. web-browsing. etc. Some 2. l l l l .

There are two standards for 3G. This allows users to send/receive pictures.Present Systems (Cont’d) l l 3G offers higher data rates than 2. These two standards have been adopted world-wide. Both are based on CDMA principles. video clips.5G. Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) and cdma2000. This service is starting to become more and more available in the U. l l l l l l . etc.S.

AMPS: A Model for Learning about Cellular Networks .

Complete Cellular Network  A group of local base stations are connected (by wires) to a mobile switching center (MSC). MSC is connected to the rest of the world (normal telephone system). MS C Public (Wired) Telephone Network MS C MS C MS C .

Mobile Switching Centers

Mobile switching centers control and coordinate the cellular network. They serve as intermediary between base stations that may be handing off users between each other. Base stations communicate with each via the MSC. MSC keep track of cell phone user subscription. MSC connects to the wired phone network (rest of the world).


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The AMPS System

AMPS uses FDMA: a service provider is given license to 832 frequencies to use across a geographic region, say a city. Service provider chops up the city into cells. Each cell is roughly 10 square miles. Each cell has a base station that consists of a tower and a small building containing radio equipment.

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The AMPS System (Cont’d)

AMPS uses frequency duplexing, i.e., each cell phone uses one frequency to transmit on and another frequency to receive on. Total 832 channels are divided into half. One half is used on the uplink, i.e., used by cell phones to transmit to the base station. The other half is used on the downlink, i.e., used by the base to transmit to cell phone users.

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This means that there are 416-12=395 voice channels. . 21 of them used as control channels.Voice and Control Channels l l l l l Of the 832/2 = 416 channels. Now. these voice channels are divided up among the cells based on the frequency reuse.

AMPS: Voice Channels Control Channels Voice Channels Control Channels .

l l l l . This group of local cells is referred to as a cluster.Frequency Reuse in AMPS l In frequency reuse. a group of local cells use different frequencies to transmit/receive signals in their cell.

This means that the total 395 voice channels are divided into groups of seven. i. This is the most number of users that can be supported in a cell. l l l l .Clustersize of 7 l Assume a clustersize of 7..e. each cell has about 56 voice channels. Thus. This may/may not be sufficient based on the distribution of users. roughly 10 square miles in normal environments.

” l l l l .Clustersize of 7 (Cont’d) l To see what a system with clustersize of 7 looks like. This cell (if drawn as a hexagon) has 6 neighbors. color a cell with color 1. Now repeat this rule to get the overall “reuse pattern. Color each of the seven neighbors using a different color (also different from each other).

Reuse Pattern .Clustersize of 7.

which is roughly 98. Then the number of voice channels per cell is 395/4. But there is a problem with a clustersize.What if we had a smaller cluster? l l l l l l l Now consider a system with a cluster of 4. in theory. we can hold more users per cell if this were true. . Thus.

Problem with Smaller Clustersize Interfering cells are closer by when clustersize is smaller. .

With larger cell.Problem with Smaller Clustersize (Cont’d) l l If interfering cells are closer. the gain (total number of users supported) of a smaller clustersize is not as high as we think. l l l l l . we can make the cells larger. then the total interference power will be larger. To reduce the interference power. So. the quality of the speech signal will deteriorate. the number of users covered per unit area reduces. With higher interference power.

l l l .Directional Antenna l One way to get more capacity (number of users) while maintaining cell size is to use directional antenna. Assume antenna which radiates not in alldirections (360 degrees) but rather in 120 degrees only.

we draw the cells as: l l l l l .Directional Antenna at Base Station  With 120 degree antenna.

the amount of interference power they receive assuming a clustersize of 7 is reduced by 1/3. With less interference power. the speech quality is much better than it needs to be. So we can reduce the clustersize (increase interference power) and still have good speech quality. l l l l .Directional Antenna (Cont’d) l Because these directional antenna only receive signals in particular direction.

l l l l . Because of the benefits offered by 120 degree antenna.Directional Antenna l Trials show that in systems with 120 degree antenna. these are most readily used by base station towers. This allows more users to be supported. the clustersize can be as small as 3. while keeping cell size fixed.

120 Degree Antenna Towers .

we will continue discussing the AMPS system. We will also look at how digital cellular systems differ from AMPS and look at what’s inside a cell phone and what a base station looks like. l l .Next Time l Next time.

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