TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (HRM

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Dr. Smita Choudhary Faculty HR & OB

Unit 5

SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034

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CONTENTS TO BE DISCUSSED
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduction/Objectives Meaning of training Objectives of training Importance of training Training needs identification Training Areas identified by Trainers Types and Techniques of Training Need and importance of management Development Training Evaluation Why Training fails?

SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034

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Introduction
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The systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job -----Michael Armstrong

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The act of increasing knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job -----Edwin B. Flippo

SMU Learning Centre, Alwar LC Code 03034

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you will be able to:‡ Understand the importance of training ‡ Mention the types and Techniques of Training and Development. Alwar LC Code 03034 4 . methods and procedures of training ‡ Reasons for failure of Training SMU Learning Centre. ‡ Explain the types.Objectives ‡ After studying this unit.

‡ Training helps employees to improve their performance in current jobs. Alwar LC Code 03034 5 . ‡ Training means acquiring technical knowledge and skills SMU Learning Centre.Meaning of Training ‡ Training indicates any process by which the aptitudes.skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased.

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING ‡ Acquiring intellectual Knowledge ‡ Acquiring Manual skills ‡ Acquiring Problem-solving skills SMU Learning Centre. Alwar LC Code 03034 6 .

It is a practical and vital necessity. grievances and absenteeism. complaints. It helps in reducing dissatisfaction. SMU Learning Centre.Importance of training ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Training is an integral part of the whole management process. reduces the rate of turnover. Alwar LC Code 03034 7 . It moulds the employees attitudes and helps them to achieve a better cooperation with the company and a greater loyalty to it. It is the corner-stone of sound management. Creating an efficient and effective organization Improving employee performance Updating employee skills Training is widely accepted problem-solving device.

Task analysis 3. Training needs can be identified with the help of Thayer and McGhee model. Man analysis SMU Learning Centre. Alwar LC Code 03034 8 . It is based on the following three factors: 1.assess the employee needs and train the employees accordingly. it needs to Analyze the organizational objectives. Total Organization Analysis 2.Training needs identification Before an Organization lays out the plan for training.

2. There are 3 essential requirements for an organization analysis:1. SMU Learning Centre.1. ‡ objectives. 3. ‡ human resourses and future plans. An adequate number of personnel available to ensure fulfilment of the business operation.A. Alwar LC Code 03034 9 .Total organization analysis ‡ It includes‡ a detailed analysis of the organization structure. is achieving a clear understanding of both short-run and long-run goals. That personnel performance is up to the required standards That the working environment in their departments is favorable to fulfilment of tasks. ‡ understanding of it s culture and background The first step in O.

They are----- A. C. Literature review regarding the job. Methods -------Conventional methods of job analysis are usually suitable for task analysis. The focus is on the task itself. Job performance Job observation Data collection regarding job interviews SMU Learning Centre.knowledge of task Will help in understanding what skills. Standard of performance------Every job has an expected standard of performance. Alwar LC Code 03034 10 .Task analysis This activity involve -------‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ a detailed examination of a job.2. its components Its various operations The conditions under which it has to be performed. D. B. knowledge and attitudes an employee should have.

Alwar LC Code 03034 11 . SMU Learning Centre. poor employees. ‡ It helps to identify whether the individual employee requires training and if so. ‡ The primary sources of such information are-------1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Observation at place or work. Interviews with superiors and employees Comparative studies of good vs. quantum of spoilage. examination of job schedules.3. Man analysis ‡ It is the third component in identifying training needs. Personnel records Production reports Review of literature regarding the job and machines used. and clues about interpersonal relations of the employees. what kind of training.

motivating. such as production planning. such as marketing.Training areas identified by Trainers A survey conducted by Sinha identified the following areas---------     Analysis of business environment (Social.consisting of areas like planning organizing. The personnel department c. General management training. personnel and finance. Functional areas. Alwar LC Code 03034 12 . Problem solving and decision-making Training is the responsibility of four main groups:-a.economic and political). Employees SMU Learning Centre. The top management b. Supervisors d. co-ordinating and controlling. Specialized technique-oriented programmes. directing. maintenance management. works simplification and interview techniques. value analysis.

the work of training should be done at two levels: ‡ The training department takes the main responsibility for ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Giving instructions to trainees Orientation Training supervisors to maintain human relations Executive development On-the-job instruction to employees Instructions in technical and professional aspects of a business Development of superiors and executives through counseling Departmental communication and staff meetings ‡ Line supervisors take the responsibility for SMU Learning Centre. John Mee. Alwar LC Code 03034 13 .According to Prof.

± They provides a fresh approach to an organization. But the cost aspect should also be considered. ± Employees learn different techniques and skills than those offered by in-house programmes. but for small number of employees in house training may not be possible.In-Company/External Programmes ‡ ‡ ‡ The company has to take a decision regarding participation in programmes offered by external agencies like educational management institutes. Many employees can be trained in-house at the cost equal to sending an employee to a external programme. ‡ The advantages of external programmes are SMU Learning Centre. Alwar LC Code 03034 14 . government institutions and consultant programmes as compared to conducting in-house programmes. In house training may be good when number of employees is large.

and teaching material.Training Budgets ‡ A training budget has to be prepared for each internal programme and it includes: ± Cost of facilities like training room. food. administrative arrangements. ‡ The trainer should plan his training activities in advance so that normal work is not disturbed. transport. SMU Learning Centre. etc. Alwar LC Code 03034 15 . guest faculty. ‡ In in-house training a large amount of work has to be done regarding course design. ± Wages and salary of employees who participate in training and remain absent from their regular jobs. preparation of teaching material.

program design. finding his temporary replacement. have to be considered. ‡ Training methods are a means of achieving the desired objectives. importance to the participants.‡ In case of external programmes organizational factors like releasing the participant from job. ‡ Each method is suitable for a particular situation. etc. ‡ The choice of teaching method depends on many factors like competence of instructors. Alwar LC Code 03034 16 . etc. SMU Learning Centre.

SMU Learning Centre. The main objectives of individual training methods are: Demonstration value: Complete demonstration of job requirements help the trainees to understand the meaning of ideas. Trainees remember things that they see and hear much longer than things that they only hear or see. Alwar LC Code 03034 17 . concepts and procedures.Types and Techniques of Training ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Training methods are chosen according to the requirements of the program design.

Alwar LC Code 03034 18 . if lecture method is being used.Developing Interest ‡ ‡ ‡ An important factor to be kept in mind while choosing a training method is its ability to hold the interest of the trainee in the learning situation. then audio-visual methods can be used or project work could be given to encourage learning by doing. SMU Learning Centre.g. The trainer should choose training methods that increase trainee s interest and help him to retain the matter.. For e.

This helps in better retention of learning. The training method should be cost effective as well. SMU Learning Centre. He should be able to select the appropriate method based on the level of the trainee in the organization hierarchy.Appeal Too Many Senses ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ It is important to utilize as many of the trainee s senses as possible. Alwar LC Code 03034 19 . The trainer should be able to understand and identify problem areas.

It is suitable for a company with number of jobs equal to the number of employees. It is economical as no extra personnel and facilities are required. The trainee learns the rules. regulations and procedures by observing day-to-day working. Alwar LC Code 03034 20 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .Advantages of On-the-job Training ‡ The trainee learns on the actual equipment and in true job environment. SMU Learning Centre. Suitable for teaching the knowledge and skills that can be learnt in a short period of time.

Present overview of task. 2. Adjust pace to individual differences. Relate training to trainee needs e.g. 2. Divide task into parts to create lesson plans. Proceed from known to unknown. easy to difficult. 4. Select teaching techniques Training preparation Presenting the task 1. 5. 1. Be aware of learning plateaus to sustain motivation. Provide feedback on progress. 21 Follow-up . Put trainees at ease. 3. Move to variable positive reinforcement schedule as trainee matures. Tryout performance 1. Positively reinforce continuously on start. 2.Table on Training Procedure Step Suggestions Instructor preparation 1. 2. Have trainee tell instructor what to do. Have trainee explain each step before execution. 2. promotion 1. Go through task and explain each step. 3.

SMU Learning Centre. Alwar LC Code 03034 22 . ± Lack of motivation on the part of the trainee. ‡ Low productivity if the employee is not able to fully develop his skills. ‡ This may be due to ± Inability of the experienced employee to provide skills to the trainee.Disadvantages of on-the-job Training ‡ Instructions are disorganized and unsystematic and not properly supervised. ± Breakdown of the job for the purpose of instructions.

Vestibule Training ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ In this method. This helps the employee to concentrate on learning rather than performing the job. SMU Learning Centre. it is tried to create on-the-job situations in a classroom. classroom training is provided with the help of equipments and machines which are similar to those used at the workplace. In this form of training. Theoretical training is given in the classroom whereas practical work is conducted on the production line. Alwar LC Code 03034 23 .

A specific level of skill can be achieved more quickly because of specialized learning situation. Training activities do not disturb the regular process of production. Proper time and attention is given to training. Individualized instruction can be given. Alwar LC Code 03034 24 . This method is of limited value for jobs which utilize equipment which can be duplicated . SMU Learning Centre. so he can better concentrate on learning. The division of responsibilities leads to organizational problems. An extra investment is done on equipment. 3. 2. Disadvantages of Vestibule Training 1.Advantages of Vestibule Training ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The trainee is free from the confusion and pressure of the work situation.

SMU Learning Centre. Training results in immediate return. ‡ The advantages of apprenticeship are ± ± ± ± A skilled workforce is maintained. The hiring cost is lower because of reduced turnover and lower production costs. After the training is completed they are recruited in the industry. ± The employees become more loyal and growth opportunities are more. Here the workers are employed and given a small stipend to learn the job first. Alwar LC Code 03034 25 .Apprenticeship Programme ‡ Many companies have their own apprenticeship programme. The workmanship is good.

SMU Learning Centre. ‡ This technique is commonly used in the aeronautical industry. the actual job conditions are created as nearly as possible. Alwar LC Code 03034 26 .Simulation Methods ‡ In this technique.

Alwar LC Code 03034 27 .Knowledge Based Methods ‡ In this technique. and pure and applied knowledge in any subject area. group discussions. etc. workshops. ‡ The main aim is to make trainees aware of the fundamentals. ‡ The examples of this method are lectures. SMU Learning Centre. trainees are exposed to concepts and theories. basic principles. seminars. films and training.

SMU Learning Centre. group behavior and personal interaction. ‡ Attitudinal training helps an individual to better understand self. the main focus is on achieving through group processes and dynamics. ± They should know the training needs of the trainees.Experiential Methods ‡ In this technique. ‡ This training is provided on-the-job by the workers immediate supervisors. Alwar LC Code 03034 28 . ± He should be given incentives and time for carrying out the training programmes. ‡ This helps an individual to understand the problems of human relationship in a work situation. ‡ The success of this method depends on following facts: ± The supervisor must be a good teacher.

Madan ‡ Executive development is defined as improving an individual s managerial effectiveness through a planned process of learning. so as continuously to re-equip both to fulfill their purposes more effectively and in harmony with each other. ‡ The change in an individual should occur in following areas: ‡ ± ± ± ± ± Knowledge change Attitude change Behavior change Performance change End results SMU Learning Centre. corporations and institutions. ---. of its practice and application in organizations.Need and Importance of Management Development Management development is the development of management over and above its science and theory. alike in relation to the organization and manager. and both with the environment in which they function and have their being and hope to thrive upon and grow. Alwar LC Code 03034 29 . B.K.Dr.

The success of executive development depends on the following factors: ‡ Trainee s personal characteristics like intelligence and motivation. ‡ His actual learning efforts These two variables are affected by the following factors: ‡ Formal organization ‡ Leadership climate ‡ Cultural factors SMU Learning Centre. Alwar LC Code 03034 30 .

‡ Create reserves in management ranks. SMU Learning Centre. ‡ Improve organizational structure. ‡ Encourage junior executives to do better work. Alwar LC Code 03034 31 . ‡ Improve supervision and leadership. ‡ Make sure that the qualifications of key personnel become better known. ‡ Encourage promotion from within policies. ‡ Attract good people.Organizations perform management development to achieve the following results: ‡ Improve technical performance. ‡ Improve inter-departmental cooperation ‡ Find an individual s weaknesses. ‡ Make an organization more flexible by making its members more resourceful and multipurpose.

Evaluation of Training Training evaluation is done to ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Judge the ability of the participants to perform the jobs for which they were trained. Find defects or faults in training provided. Find whether the trainee requires any extra training. Find the training requirements of the participants to the meet job requirements. Alwar LC Code 03034 32 . SMU Learning Centre.

Results: What results have been achieved after training. SMU Learning Centre. Alwar LC Code 03034 33 . Behavior: Whether the trainee s on-the-job behavior changed after training.There are four basic categories of outcomes that can be measured: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reaction: It is evaluating the trainee s reaction to the programme. skills and facts taught by the trainer. Learning: It is finding whether the trainee learnt the principles.

Alwar LC Code 03034 34 .How to evaluate Training effectiveness? Reaction Did the trainee like the program? Behavior Whether the trainee behavior on the job changed because of the training program? Learning Did the trainee learn? Results What final results have been achieved SMU Learning Centre.

Training is provided to the experimental group while no training is provided to the control group. Alwar LC Code 03034 35 . Two groups are randomly prepared. ‡ Time series analysis is also used to find the impact of training. SMU Learning Centre. training is considered successful.‡ Structured interviews with supervisors are used to get feedback on training. ‡ Experimental and control groups are also created to find the impact of training. If results of experimental group are a lot better than those of the control group.

The top management does not systematically perform the tasks of planning and budgeting. Off-the-job training sometimes teaches techniques or methods which are not practically implemented in the organization. The top management does not give reward to the supervisors for conducting training. The middle management does not get proper incentive from top management and hence does not account for training in production scheduling. Trainers provide limited counseling and consulting services. Alwar LC Code 03034 36 . SMU Learning Centre.Why do you think training fails? Training fails due to the following reasons: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The benefits of training are not clear to the top management.

The training programme should be planned in such a way that it is related to the trainee s previous experiences and background. SMU Learning Centre. Organizational conditions should be favorable for a good learning environment. The trainee should be made to understand the need for training and the personal benefits achieved by changes in behavior that take place after training. maturity and motivation to complete the training program. Alwar LC Code 03034 37 . It should be determined whether the trainee has the necessary intelligence.Training programs can be made effective and successful by taking care of the following factors: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Specific training objectives should be framed.

Alwar LC Code 03034 38 .SMU Learning Centre.

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