# Chapter 4

Yanjie Li Harbin Institute Of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School

Outline
           Blade motions Types of rotors Equilibrium about the flapping hinge Equilibrium about the lead-lag hinge Equation of motion for a flapping blade Dynamics of blade flapping with a hinge offset Blade feathering and the swashplate Dynamics of a lagging blade with a hinge offset Coupled flap-lag motion and pitch-flap motion Other types of rotors Rotor trim

3 blade motions  flapping ± balance asymmetries in forward flight lead-lag ± balance Coriolis forces feathering ± change pitch ± change collective thrust ± cyclic: pitch, roll control

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2 Types of Rotors .4.

4. centrifugal forces ± flapping (conning) angle Centrifugal Force (CF) Moment at the rotational axis by CF .3 Equilibrium about the Flapping Hinge  balance of aerodynamic.

the center of lift is at ¾ radius Ideal twist and uniform inflow produces linear lift .Aerodynamic moment about the flap hinge: Equilibrium Coning angle for equilibrium For a parabolic lift.

4.4 Equilibrium about the Lead-Lag Hinge Centrifugal Force on the blade element component blade axis Aerodynamic forces = induced + profile drag = Lag moment .

From geometry:  which shows that centrifugal force acts at R (1 + e)/2 .

5 Equation of Motion for Flapping Blade   In hovering flight. reducing .4. coning angle is a constant In forward flight. clockwise. coning angle varies in a periodic manner with azimuth Centrifugal moment: Inertial moment: Aerodynamic moment: M>0.

Define mass moment of inertia about the flap hinge .

For uniform inflow U T ! .y Define Lock number Flapping equation for e=0 A more general form: where Similar to a spring-mass-damper system Undamped natural frequency !1 .

If no aerodynamic forces the flapping motion reduces to  The rotor can take up arbitrary orientation In forward flight. the blade flapping motion can be represented as infinite Fourier series Fourier coefficient .

periodic coefficients.5  In forward flight( Q { 0 ). no analytical solution . M F can be founded analytically Substituting U T .Assume: uniform inflow. linearly twisted blades. U P in Section 3.

The general flapping equation of motion cannot be solved analytically for Q {0 Two options: Assume the solution for the blade flapping motion to be given by the first harmonics only: We have .

Notice by setting  There is an equivalence between pitching motion and flapping motion If cyclic pitch motion is assumed to be the flapping response  flapping response lags the blade pitch (aerodynamic) inputs by 90° .

4.7 Dynamics of Blade Flapping with a Hinge Offset   Hinge at eR Forces    inertia centrifugal aerodynamic Moment balance Mass moment of inertia Non-dimensional flap frequency .

the flapping response to cyclic pitch inputs is given Phase lag will be less than 90 0 .Analogy with a spring-mass-damper system: undamped natural frequency ! 1 / rev Flapping equation In hover.

8 Blade Feathering and the Swashplate Blade pitch where Blade-pitch motion comes from two sources:  control input  Elastic deformation (twist) of the blade and control system .4.

Swashplate=Rotating plate + No-rotating plate .

The movement of the swashplate result in changes in blade pitch .

4. still see a cyclic variation in blade flapping angle. Each has advantages over others for certain types of analysis. used for aerodynamic analyses  Control Plane (CP)  represents the commanded cyclic pitch plane. often used for blade dynamic and flight dynamic analyses  No Feathering Plane (NFP) :   An observer cannot see the variation in cyclic pitch. i.9 Review of Rotor Reference Axes Several physical plane can be used to describe the equations of motion of the rotor blade. i.  Hub Plane (HP)    Perpendicular to the rotor shaft An observer can see both flapping and feathering Complicated.e. swashplate plane . but linked to a physical part of the aircraft.e. used for performance analyses  Tip Path Plane (TPP)   cannot see the variation in flapping.

Schematic of rotor reference axes and planes .

4.10 Dynamics of a Lagging Blade with a Hinge Offset Offset = eR A wrong typo .

Taking moments about the lag hinge: Moment of inertia about the lag hinge Lag frequency with a hinge offset Equation of motion about lead/lag hinge Centrifugal moment about the lag hinge is much smaller than in flapping  Uncoupled natural frequency is much smaller  .

11 Coupled Flap-Lag Motion coupled equation of motion where moment about flap hinge: .4.

coupled equation for motion & ^& where moment about lead/lag hinge & ^& .

12 Coupled Pitch-Flap Motion    Pitch-flap coupling using a hinge to reduce cyclic flapping Used to avoid a lead-lag hinge.39 Where uniform inflow has been assumed. 4.4. Flapping frequency is increased to Coning angle becomes . pitch angle is reduced by Eq. save weight Achieved by placing the pitch link/pitch horn connection to lie off the flap hinge axis  Flapping by .

13 Other Types of Rotors Teetering rotor Flapping motion .4.

2 Semi-Rigid or Hingeless Rotors  Flap and lag hinges are replaced by flexures  If feathering is also replaced: bearingless  Equivalent spring stiffness at an equivalent hinge offset e  is the pre-cone angle.4.13.  nonrotating flapping frequency .

If . Natural flapping frequency where we assumed articulated rotor  . the frequency reduces to that for an Equivalent hinge offset and flap stiffness can be found by looking at the slope at a point at 75% of the radius  effective spring stiffness .

flight control system can minimize cross-coupling effects . flap) & overall helicopter orientation for the prescribed flight conditions  Controls ± Collective pitch  increases all pitch angles change thrust ± Lateral & Longitudinal cyclic pitch  Lateral ( ) tilts rotor disk left & right  Longitudinal ( ) tilts rotor disk forward & aft ± Yaw  use tail rotor thrust cross coupling is possible.4.14 Introduction to Rotor Trim  Trim ± calculation of rotor control settings. rotor disk orientation(pitch.

14.1 Equations for Free-Flight Trim Moments can be written in terms of the contribution from different parts where hub plane (HP) is used as reference and flight path angle is Assume: No sideslip (fuselage side force and vertical tails vertical force equilibrium ) .no contribution from horizontal longitudinal force equilibrium .4.

Lateral force equilibrium Pitching moment about the hub Rolling moment about the hub Assume small angles Torque .

Thrust = average blade lift number of blades Complexity of the expression of Assume . this should be evaluated numerically . side force.  rotor torque. . drag force & moments can be computed similarly rotor drag force .

rotor side force the rotor torque is given by rotor rolling and pitching moments .

additional equations for P ' s The vehicle equilibrium equations. along with the inflow equations. can be written as Where X is the vector of rotor trim unknowns. defined as  Nonlinear equations ------solved numerically Section 4.14.2 introduce a typical trim solution procedure .

Thank You .