Careers and Career Management

What Is Career Management?
Career management is the process through which employees:
Become aware of their own interests, values, strengths, and weaknesses. Obtain information about job opportunities within the company. Identify career goals. Establish action plans to achieve career goals.

The Basics of Career Management
Career The occupational positions a person has had over many years. Career management The process for enabling employees to better understand and develop their career skills and interests, and to use these skills and interests more effectively. Career development The lifelong series of activities that contribute to a person¶s career exploration, establishment, success, and fulfillment.

The Basics of Career Management
Career planning The deliberate process through which someone becomes aware of personal skills, interests, knowledge, motivations, and other characteristics; and establishes action plans to attain specific goals. Careers today Careers are no simple progressions of employment in one or two firms with a single profession. Employees now want to exchange performance for training, learning, and development that keep them marketable. 14

Traditional Versus Career Development Focus

Source: Adapted from Fred L. Otte and Peggy G. Hutcheson, Helping Employees Manage Careers (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. 10.

Table 10±1

Employee Career Development Plan

Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher, Copyright, 2003.

Figure 10±1

The Individual
‡ Accept responsibility for your own career. ‡ Assess your interests, skills, and values. ‡ Seek out career information and resources. ‡ Establish goals and career plans. ‡ Utilize development opportunities. ‡ Talk with your manager about your career. ‡ Follow through on realistic career plans.

The Manager
‡ Provide timely performance feedback. ‡ Provide developmental assignments and support. ‡ Participate in career development discussions. ‡ Support employee development plans.

Roles in Career Development

The Organization
‡ Communicate mission, policies, and procedures. ‡ Provide training and development opportunities. ‡ Provide career information and career programs. ‡ Offer a variety of career options.
Source: Fred L. Otte and Peggy G. Hutcheson, Helping Employees Manage Careers (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. 56.

Table 10±2

IssuesIssues- career development
Dual family careers Low ceiling careers Declining opportunities Career stage Restructuring/downsizing/delayering Career plateaus- nothing to aspire Work-family issue

Choosing a Mentor
Choose an appropriate potential mentor. Don¶t be surprised if you¶re turned down. Be sure that the mentor understands what you expect in terms of time and advice. Have an agenda. Respect the mentor¶s time.

The Employer¶s Role in Career Development
Realistic job previews Challenging first jobs Career-oriented appraisals Job rotation Mentoring Networking and interactions

Innovative Corporate Career Development Initiatives
Provide each employee with an individual budget. Offer on-site or online career centers. Encourage role reversal. Establish a ³corporate campus.´ Help organize ³career success teams.´ Provide career coaches. Provide career planning workshops Utilize computerized on- and offline career development programs Establish a dedicated facility for career development


Managing Promotions
Making promotion decisions Decision 1: Is Seniority or Competence the Rule? Decision 2: How Should We Measure Competence? Decision 3: Is the Process Formal or Informal? Decision 4: Vertical, Horizontal or dry

Problems - promotions
Refusal Glass Ceiling Disappointments

Managing Transfers
Employees¶ reasons for desiring transfers Personal enrichment and growth More interesting jobs Greater convenience (better hours, location) Greater advancement possibilities Employers¶ reasons for transferring employees To vacate a position where an employee is no longer needed. To fill a position where an employee is needed. To find a better fit for an employee within the firm. To boost productivity by consolidating positions.

Types - Transfers
Production transfers ± change in prod. Tech Replacement transfers ± replacement of a employee Rotation transfer ± initiated to increase versatility of employee Shift transfer ± change in shift Remedial transfer ± to correct wrong placement Penal transfer ± for indeciplnary action

Career Management and Employee Commitment
The ³New Psychological Contract´ Old contract: ³Do your best and be loyal to us, and we¶ll take care of your career.´ New contract: ³Do your best for us and be loyal to us for as long as you¶re here, and we¶ll provide you with the developmental opportunities you¶ll need to move on and have a successful career.´

What Is A Career?
Traditional Career
Sequence of positions held within an occupation Context of mobility is within an organization Characteristic of the employee

Protean Career
Frequently changing based on changes in the person and changes in the work environment Employees take major responsibility for managing their careers

Comparison of Traditional Career and Protean Career:
Dimension Goal Psychological contract Mobility Responsibility for Management Pattern Expertise Development Traditional Career Promotions Salary increase Security for commitment Vertical Company Linear and expert Know how Heavy reliance on formal training Protean Career Psychological success Employability for flexibility Lateral Employee Spiral and transitory Learn how Greater reliance on relationships and job experiences

A Model of Career Development
Career development is the process by which employees progress through a series of stages. Each stage is characterized by a different set of developmental tasks, activities, and relationships. There are four career stages:
Exploration Establishment Maintenance Disengagement

A Model of Career Development (continued)
Exploration Developmental tasks Identify interests, skills, fit between self and work Helping Learning Following directions Apprentice Establishment Advancement, growth, security, develop life style Making independent contributions Colleague Maintenance Hold on to accomplishments, update skills Training Sponsoring Policy making Mentor Disengagement Retirement planning, change balance between work and non-work Phasing out of work


Relationships to other employees Typical age Years on job


Less than 30 Less than 2 years

30 ± 45 2 ± 10 years

45 ± 60 More than 10 years

61+ More than 10 years

The career management process:


Reality Check

Goal Setting

Action Planning

Succession planning
Continuity Long term perspective Organizational need perspective Turnover management Emphasis on result

Effective succession planning
Identify the key positions in the organization where loss of an incumbent could cause problems if a contingency plan does not exits Allocating both short and long-term potential successors to those positions. Assessing the potential replacements to fill the positions and determining their training, development and work experience needs. Identify movements in the actual jobs available in the organization, what new jobs can be created and which types of jobs are likely to become redundant.

HR initiatives
Arranging coaching for managers. Demonstrating the benefits like cost saving, incentives and productivity profits to managers and retaining valuable employees Ensuring that all employees are considered in the process Ensuring that senior management is dedicated to succession planning and understands the purpose and periodically exhibits its benefits to employees. Ensuring that plans are rapidly updated as per the occasion and change in technology or company policies.

Lack of future orientation Ineffective development plan Inadequate timing

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