ETU 07103 LECTURE 3

Lecture 3

Electronic Devices

1

Lecture 3 
Coverage
‡ Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) 
Structure and principals of operation  BJT configurations  BJT characteristic curves  BJT DC biasing  Analysis under various biasing conditions 

References
‡ Electronic devices and circuit theory, 7th Ed. by Robert L. Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky, pg. 112 to 166, ‡ Electronic devices and circuits, by Theodore F. Bogart, Jr., page 85 to 120
Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 2

Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)  Introduction ‡ BJT is a three layers semiconductor device with either NPN or PNP structure ‡ BJT has three terminals described as follow  Base ± the control terminal  Emitter ± the source of majority carriers  Collector ± the collector of majority carriers ‡ Applications include the use as amplifier and switch ‡ There are two types of BJT namely as  PNP transistor  NPN transistor ‡ BJT is a current controlled device Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 3 .

BJT continue«  Structure Figure 3.1 Structure and schematic symbols of NPN and PNP transistors Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 4 .

while  The base-collector junction is always reversed biased ‡ A small base-emitter current controls a much large collector-emitter current Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 5 .2 ‡ For linear operation  The base-emitter junction is always forward biased.BJT continue«  Mode of operation ‡ The basic operation of BJT will be described using the PNP transistor of Fig. 3.

BJT continue« Figure 3.2 Majority and minority carriers flow of a PNP transistor Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 6 .

.. From Fig. current (5) and (6) can be neglected Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 7 .BJT continue.2 ‡ Base-Emitter junction (Forward biased)  (1) Holes diffusing from E into the B  (2) Electrons diffusing from the B into the E ‡ At the Base region  (3) Recombination of holes injected into the base  (4) Most holes reach the C ‡ Base-Collector junction (Reverse biased)  (5) Electron minority carrier current from C to B  (6) Hole minority carrier current from B to C ‡ In most practical purposes. 3.

. 3... 3.......BJT continue« ‡ For both NPN and PNP transistors IE = IB + IC «««««««««««««««........1) ‡ The IC is comprised of two components..2) ‡ Alpha is an important transistor parameter defined as = ICmajority/IE = IC/IE ««««««««««««««..............90 < < 1) Electronic Devices 8 Lecture 3 ..2 IC = ICmajority + ICOminority «««««««««««««««««(3.(3.. the majority and minority carriers as indicated in Fig. therefore is determined in total by Eqn..3) ‡ measures the portion of the IE that managed to cross the base and become IC (0.(3.2 ‡ The minority current component is called the leakage current (ICO) ‡ The IC.

3.3 (i. 3.e.3 ‡ IC and IE are related by Eqn. = IC/IE ) Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 9 .BJT Configurations  Introduction ‡ A transistor can be connected in three configurations  Common Base Configuration (CB)  Common Emitter Configuration (CE)  Common Collector Configuration (CC)  Common base configuration ‡ The base terminal is common to both input and output as shown in Fig.

4) Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 10 . 3.3 Common base configuration  Common emitter configuration ‡ The emitter terminal is common to both input and output terminals as shown in Fig.. Continue« Figure 3.4 = IC/IB«««««««««««««««««.4 ‡ The IC is related to the IB by a factor known as beta ( ) as shown in Eqn. 3.BJT config.(3.

BJT config.5 shows on how IB and IE relates in CC IE/IB = Lecture 3 / ««««««««««««««««««««. 3..(3.4 Common emitter configuration  Common collector configuration ‡ Collector terminal is common to both input and output as shown in Fig. amplification factor Figure 3. Continue« ‡ is known as common-emitter.5) Electronic Devices 11 . forward-current.5 ‡ Eqn. 3.

BJT config. Continue« Figure 3.5 Common collector configuration  BJT Characteristic curve ‡ The behavior of BJT can be described using two sets of characteristic curves namely  Input characteristics: To show the relation between input I and V  Output characteristics: To show the relation between output I and V Electronic Devices 12 Lecture 3 .

3.6a  They relate an input IE to an input VBE for various levels of output VCB ‡ Output characteristics  The characteristics are as shown in Fig. curve continue« Consider the CB configuration ‡ Input characteristics  They are shown in Fig. 3.6b  They relate an output IC to an output VCB for various levels of input IE Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 13 .BJT char.

curve continue« (a) (b) Figure 3.BJT char. (b) Output characteristics for CB amplifier Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 14 .6 (a) Input characteristics for CB amplifier.

etc. ‡ BJT must be DC biased for the most purposes ‡ DC biasing is that process of introducing a fixed level of IDC and VDC at the output circuit of BJT ‡ For transistor amplifiers.BJT DC Biasing  Introduction ‡ BJT is used for different purposes like amplifier. IDC and VDC establish an operating point (Q.point) on the characteristic curve ‡ Q-point define the region to be used for amplification of input signal Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 15 . oscillator.

3.7) Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 16 .BJT DC bias continue«  Biasing Circuits (CE) ‡ Most commonly used biasing circuits are     Collector to base bias circuit Fixed bias circuit Emitter stabilized bias circuit Voltage divider bias circuit ‡ Fixed Bias Circuit  Fig.6)  Applying KVL to the collector-emitter loop VCE + ICRC ± VCC = 0 «««««««««««««(3.VBE = 0 «««««««««««««««(3.IBRB .7 shows the fixed bias circuit  Applying KVL to the input loop VCC .

8) Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 17 . 3.8  Consider base-emitter loop IB(RB + ( +1)RE) = VCC ± VBE «««««««««(3.8 Emitter stabilized bias circuit ‡ Emitter stabilized bias circuit  It is a modified version of a fixed bias circuit as shown in Fig.BJT DC bias continue« Figure 3.7 Fixed Bias Circuit Figure 3.

9) ‡ Voltage divider bias circuit  The name voltage divider comes from voltage divider formed by the resistor R1 and R2 in Fig.9 Voltage divider bias circuit Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 18 .9 Figure 3.BJT DC bias continue«  Consider collector-emitter loop VCE ± VCC + IC(RC + RE) = 0 «««««««««(3. 3.

9 Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 19 . 3.9 The output side of Fig. 3. 3.BJT DC bias continue« Consider the input side of Fig.9 will make use of an Eqn.

THE END OF LECTURE 3 Lecture 3 Electronic Devices 20 .

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