BYZANTINE

ARCHITECTURE
UTLINE T!ICS : UTLINE T!ICS :
·ÌNTRODUCTÌON
·HÌSTORÌCAL, GEOLOGÌCAL, CLÌMATÌC,
RELÌGÌOUS, AND HÌSTORÌCAL BACKGROUND
·CHARACTERÌSTÌC FEATURES - DOMES AND
PENDENTÌVES
·EXAMPLES ÷ ST SERGUÌS AND BACCHUS
·EXAMPLES ÷ ST SOPHÌA
·ASSÌGNMENT.
GeographicaI Location GeographicaI Location
GeographicaI Conditions: GeographicaI Conditions:
· Byzantine is situated between Black Sea and
Mediterranean Sea and forms a link to Europe
and Asia by means of a narrow strip of water.
· This helped to expand commerce and trade to
eastern parts of the Roman Empire and further
to Greece, Asia Minor, Russia etc.
· The early name was Byzantion and was later
Romanized to Byzantium. Later it was renamed
to Constantinople after the ruler Constantine
GeoIogicaI Conditions: GeoIogicaI Conditions:
· They used the similar materials that were used
by the Romans i.e. they continued the use of
concrete.
· They also manufactured bricks for the dome
construction.
· Marble was imported from other parts and used
for ornamental work.
3. CIimatic Conditions: CIimatic Conditions:
· They had flat roofs with small openings in
places of hot weather and sheltered arcades
surrounding the open courtyard.
ReIigious Conditions: ReIigious Conditions:
· Constantine issued the free power to everybody
to follow the religion of their choice.
· As a result of the rise of Christianity many
churched were built.
· Ìn the beginning they were of the Basillican
Christian type but later the dome became the
prevailing motif of Byzantine Chruch.
East : CircuIar West : BasiIica
· CentraIized church (Byzantine)
· Mark specially sacred spot or to house
a tomb or baptistery
·seats for the faithful are banned
·Combined the basilica's horizontal axis
with the vertical accent of a dome
· Vertical
·Greek
· Linear church
· Congregational worship
· To include choir, seats for the faithful
· Horizontal
· Latin
ifferences in esign ifferences in esign
HistoricaI Background: HistoricaI Background:
· By the end of the 5th century AD, Rome had completely
declined
· Ìt had been sacked twice and was then under
occupation
· Ìts influence was significantly reduced and the Ìmpetus
for architectural innovation shifted to the Byzantine
Empire
· This shift also marks the movement from early Christian
civilization to the Byzantine civilization
· Under the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, the Byzantine
style of architecture evolved
· His interest in church building led to the discovery of the
groin vault and the evolution of the Byzantine style
CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN
· Although it is impossible to identify two similar
Byzantine churches, it is still possible to identify
the basic characteristics of an ideal Byzantine
church
· The attributes of the ideal church included:
÷ The use of a centralized church plan
÷ The use of surrounding isles
÷ The use of pendentives and dome on pendentives
÷ And the use of a complex program of interior
structure, lighting and decoration to create fascinating
interiors
CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN
· The pendentive dome is
derived by trimming the sides
of a regular dome over a
square plan as shown in A.
· The pendentive dome enables
the transfer the total load of the
dome to the four corners of a
building, meaning that only the
four corners need to be
reinforced
· This allows the dome roof to be
adapted for a square building
as shown in B
CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN
· Additionally, the top of the
pendentive dome can be trim to
introduce another dome on top
of it as shown in C
· The additional dome can
further be raised to introduce a
cylinder between the
pendentive dome and the
additional dome as in D
· Windows can then be
introduced in the cylinder
enabling architects to creating
dazzling interior light effects
CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN CHARACTERISTICS ESIGN
· Placing of small domes round large central dome was very
commonly used.
· Domes were constructed without centering with thin
radiating brocks of light weight pumic stones to lessen the
side thrust on the walls
· The external facades were decorated in various design
patterns of brick work and marble
· Byzantines used marble columns decoratively as well as
structurally to support galleries and semi circular arches
· Mouldings were rare. The interiors were radiant with
beautiful pavement. Walls were covered with marble
mosaics and fresco decoration.
· This style was devoid of sculpture and was completely
decorative.
EXAM!LES EXAM!LES
ST SERIGUS AN ST SERIGUS AN
BACCHUS,ISTANBUL BACCHUS,ISTANBUL
· Ìt was built as a palace
church between A.D. 527-536
· Ìt is based on the four-lobed
alternative church plan of
early Christian architecture
· The church in plan consist of
an octagonal core set in a
very loose rectangular form
· The form of the church was
not a perfect square
ST SERIGUS AN ST SERIGUS AN
BACCHUS,ISTANBUL BACCHUS,ISTANBUL
· The central space was covered by
a dome
· The octagon of the central dome
has a small but true pendentive
dome
· This church was constructed very
shortly before Hagia Sophia and
was believed to be a experiment
· The dome, its adaptation to a
squarish form, the use of
pendentive and the lighting and
decoration scheme in the interior
gives it its Byzantine
characteristics
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
· Hagia Sophia or the church of
the holy wisdom is the most
accomplished master piece in
the history of architecture
· The church was constructed in
532 A.D. by Emperor Justinian
in Constantinople now Ìstanbul
· Hagia Sophia was the greatest
vaulted space without
intermediate supports that has
ever been built and it remained
so throughout the history of
the Byzantine Empire
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
· Ìts architects were
Ìsidore of Miletus and
Anthemius of Tralles,
professors of
geometry at the
University of
Constantinople
· The church provides
an expert solution to
the problem of how
to place a dome on a
square base
· The solution was to
use pendantives
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
· Hagia Sophia is covered by a
central dome 102 feet (31 m)
across, slightly smaller than
the Pantheon's
· The dome seems rendered
weightless by the unbroken
arcade of arched windows
under it, which help flood the
colorful interior with light
· The dome is carried on
pendentives
· The weight of the dome
passes through the
pendentives to four massive
piers at the corners
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
· Between them the dome
seems to float upon four great
arches
· These four concave triangular
sections of masonry solved
the problem of setting the
circular base of a dome on a
rectangular base
· The church form is a
combination of centralized
and longitudinal structure
· Longitudinal direction is
defined by domes to the east
and west
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL - - !LAN !LAN
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL - -
SECTIN SECTIN
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
· Thus a hierarchy of dome-headed elements build up to
create a vast oblong interior crowned by the main dome, a
sequence never seen before in antiquity
· Of great artistic importance was its decorated interior with
mosaics and marble pillars and coverings
· The combination of interior decoration with lights flooding
from its domes creates a glittering internal environment
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
· Hagia sophia dominated
church architecture after the
6th century AD
· For over 900 years it was the
seat of the Orthodox patriarch
of Constantinople and a
principal setting for imperial
ceremonies
· Hagia Sophia was converted to
a mosque at the Fall of
Constantinople to the Ottoman
Turks under Sultan Mohammad
ÌÌ in 1453
· Ìts rich figurative mosaics were
covered with plaster and
replaced by Ìslamic motifs
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
· Ìt was for almost 500
years the principal
mosque of Ìstanbul
· Hagia Sophia served
as model for many of
the great Ottoman
mosques of
Constantinople such
as the Shehzade
Mosque, the
Suleiman Mosque,
and the Rustem
Pasha Mosque
·After continuing as a mosque for
many years, it was in 1934 turned
by Turkish authorities into the
Hagia Sophia Museum
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL
HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL HAGIA S!HIA,ISTANBUL

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