1

Understanding of culture
1

< ulture gives an individual an anchoring point, an
identity as well as codes of conduct.
< ulture is learned, shared and transmitted from
one generation to the next.
< ollective programming of the mind.
< ulture is multidimensional, consisting of a
number of common elements that are
interdependent.
< ulture is inherently conservative resisting change
and fostering continuity

< efined as an integrated system of learned
behaviour patterns that are distinguishing
characteristics of members of any given society.
< Ìt includes customs, languages, material artifacts
and shared systems of attitudes and feelings.
< ulture is inherently conservative, resisting
change and fostering continuity.

< djusting and adapting to a specific culture other
than one's own-is one of the keys to success in
international operations
< Balanced Manager-Leverages opposite forces
nd gains a ompetitive dvantage.
Edward T Halls
High ontext ultures-sia
Low ontext ultures-North merica

< Language-Verbal and non verbal
< Religion-Ìdeals for life
< West-apitalism-Protestant Work Ethic
< Ìndia-Religious tolerance/inclusiveness
< Values and attitudes
< Japanese-Gaijin-foreigners
< Manners and customs-Focus group
< Material Elements-Economic, Social, financial and
marketing infrastructures
< esthetics

< Education
< Ìndia emphasizes Sciences
< Social institutions
< Social stratification
< Reference groups

< MN'S have distinct predispositions
< Ethnocentric predisposition-values & interests of
parent company to guide strategic decisions.
< Polycentric predisposition-strategic decisions
tailored to suit the cultures of the countries.
< Regiocentric predisposition-firm to blend its own
interests with those of its subsidiaries on a
regional basis.
< Geocentric ÷Ìntergrate a global systems approach.

< Uses a mix of these predispositions based on the
demands of the current environment.
< ommitted to globalization imperative.
< Understand the importance of being an insider, for
customers who prefer to buy local.
< Understand that some local subsidiaries want
more decentralization and some want less.

< Shared values and beliefs that enables members
to understand their roles and the norms of the
organization.
< Ìmportant characteristics
< Observed behavioral regularities as typified by a
common language, terminology & rituals.
< Norms as reflected by things such as amount of
work to be done and the degree of cooperation
between management and employees.

10
< ominant values that the organization advocates
and expects participants to share
Such as high product & service quality
Philosophy regarding how employees
nd customers should be treated.
o's and don'ts of employee behaviour regarding
productivity, customer relations and intergroup
cooperation.
Overall organizational climate of the enterprise.
10
11
< Substantial differences between the organizational
cultures of different subsidiaries.
< Four main cultural types globally.
< Family culture-Strong emphasis on hierarchy and
orientation to the person.-sia, Turkey.
< Eiffel Tower ulture-Strong emphasis on hierarchy
and orientation to task.-Western Europe
11
1
< Guided Missile ulture-Strong emphasis on
equality in the workplace and orientation to task.-
US, UK.
< Ìncubator culture-Strong emphasis on equality and
orientation to the person.-Start up firms in Silicon
Valley, alifornia.
1
1
< Fallacy-O tends to moderate or erase the impact
of national culture.
< Fact-Far from reducing national differences
Organizational ulture maintains & enhances
them.
< Managerial aspect-
< Manage the substantial differences between the
organizational cultures of different subsidiaries.
< Manage the subsequent coordination problems
1
1
< Success in the international arena is greatly
determined by an MN's ability to manage both
multiculturalism and diversity.
< Workforces have a variety of cultures &
subcultures-Women, men young and old people,
blacks , whites, Latins sians rabs Ìndians and
others.
< Evolution of Ìnternational orporations
< Phase 1-omestic orporations-ultural
Sensitivity is marginally important
1
1
< Phase -Ìnternational orporations-ultural
sensitivity is very important
< Phase -Multinational orporations-somewhat
important
< Phase -Global orporation-ritically important
1
1
< omestic Multicultarism-ulturally distinct
populations
< Singapore-hinese, Eurasian, Ìndian & Malay
< Group Multicultarism
< Homogeneous groups-Similar backgrounds
< Token groups-ll but one have the same
background
1
1
< Bicultural groups-Two distinct cultures
< Multicultural groups-Three or more ethnic
backgrounds.
1
1
< Team members not selected on basis of ethnicity.
Ìnnovative task-multicultural membership.
< Facilitate better understanding of cross cultural
differences
< Team leader must define overall growth.
< ultural dominance is counterproductive
< Minimize early judgements based on ethnic
stereotypes.
< Managers to give feedback to teams.
1
1
< ata gathered from 11000 respondents from
over 0 countries.
< Ìndividuals worked in the local subsidiaries of ÌBM.
< Largest organizationally based study ever
conducted.
< Four dimensions of Hofstede's study.
0
< Power istance
< The extent to which less powerful members of
institutions and organizations accept that power is
distributed unequally.
< High Pentralized
< Latin merica, sia
< Low Pecentralized
< North merica
1
< The extent to which people feel threatened by
ambiguous situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these.
< High U-Germany, Japan and Spain
< Low U-enmark, UK.

< Ìndividualism is the tendency of people to look
after themselves and their immediate family only.
< ollectivism is the tendency of people to belong to
groups or collectives and to look after each other
in exchange for loyalty.
< High individualism and high GNP
< US, anada ustralia, enmark & Sweden
< High ollectivism & Low GNP-Ìndonesia,
Pakistan, South merican ountries.

< Maculinity- situation in which the dominant
Values in society are success, money and things
Femininity- situation in which dominant values in
society are caring for others and the quality of life.
High maculinity index-Germanic countries
Low maculinity index-Norway

< utch Researcher Fons Trompenaars' research
conducted over a 10 year period and published in
1.
< Research questionnaires to over 1000 managers
from countries.
< Five relationship orientations that are analogous to
Hofstede's dimensions.

< Universalism is the belief that ideas and practices
can be applied everywhere without modification
< US,UK, ustralia Germany
< Particularism is the belief that circumstances
dictate how ideas and practices should be applied.
< Venezuela, former Soviet Union, Ìndonesia, hina.

< Ìndividualism refers to people regarding
themselves as individuals
< US, former zechoslovakia, rgentina former
Soviet Union
< ommunitarianism refers to people regarding
themselves as part of a group.
< Malaysia, Korea

< neutral culture is one in which emotions are held
in check.
< Japan, UK
< n emotional culture is one in which emotions are
openly and naturally expressed.
< Mexico, Netherlands, Switzerland.

< specific culture is one in which individuals have
a large public space they readily let others enter
and share and a small private space they guard
closely and share with only close friends and
associates.
< ustria, US, UK Switzerland.
< diffuse culture is one in which public space and
private space are similar in size and individuals
guard their public space carefully.
< Venezuela, hina and Spain.

< n achievement culture is one in which people are
accorded status based on how well they perfom
their functions
< US,UK,ustria Switzerland.
< n ascription culture is one in which status is
attributed based on who or what a person is
< Venezuela, Ìndonesia,hina
0
< Values Orientation Theory
< ross ultural understanding can be analysed by
a given culture's orientation to five key aspects of
human life.
< Human Nature (People seen as intrinsically good,
evil or mixed).
< Man-Nature Relationship (The view that humans
should be subordinate to nature, dominant over
nature or live in harmony with nature).
1
< Time (Primary value based on past/tradition,
Present/enjoyment or future/posterity/delayed
gratification.
ctivity (being, becoming/inner development
or doing/striving/industriousness)
Social Relations (Hierarchial, collateral/collective-egalitarian or
individualistic)
Ìnitially believed in biological equality of races later reversed.
His belief that we are a product of a strange mix of biology and
culture is applicable to both psychology and anthropology.

< High ontext and low context cultural factors
< High ontext cultures there are many contextual
elements that help people to understand the rules.
s a result much is taken for granted. French
contracts tend to be short as much of information
is available within high context French ulture
< Much Non Verbal ommunication
< Similarity with Particularism

< Low ontext ulture
< Very little is taken for granted. More explanation is
needed, there is less chance of misunderstanding
< merican contracts tend to be longer in order to
explain the detail
< Highly mobile environments where people come
and go .
< More focus on verbal communication
< Similarity with Universalism

< PR has a long tradition of isolation
< 1-eng Xiaoping opened to the world
< Now a member of WTO and trading partner of US.
< Primary criterion for doing business is technical
competence.
< Emphasis on punctuality.
< Patience is critically important as numerous
meetings
< Guanxi-good connections

< Ìmportant to be a good listener
< ollective society.
< Much less animated and avoid open displays of
emotion
< Negotiations viewed with a long term perspective
< Ìn negotiations reciprocity is important.
< ritical to give face and save face when doing
business negotiations

< Meetings start with shaking of hands, not vigorous and a
slight nod of the head.
< Body language & body posture should be formal and
attentive
< Business ards exchanged on initial meeting. One side of
the card should be translated and hinese letters should
be printed using gold ink.
< Establish a contact to act as intermediary. They can act as
reference, interpreter and navigate through bureaucracy,
legal system and local business networks.

< Fatalistic approach to time
< belief that destiny depends more on the will of a supreme
being.
< Status largely determined by family position and social
contact and connections.
< ction based on emotion
< Elaborate and ritualized form of greetings and leave
takings.
< Business related discussions may not occur till third or
fourth meeting.
< rabs attach a great deal of importance to status and rank.

< void doing business during month of Ramadan
and major Eid festivals.
< Handshakes amongst men always used & can last
a long time, between men & women uncommon.
< oing business revolves around personal
relationships, family ties trust & honour.
< Place value on the spoken word as opposed to
written agreements

< Meetings should not be made too far in advance
as changes in personal circumstances may impact
appointment
< Ìnitial meetings all about relationship building
< Meetings can be chaotic
< Meetings are circular in nature and do not follow a
linear pattern of agendas or targets.
< Punctuality desirable, not essential
< rabs were a trading people and are excellent
negotiators.
0
< "Time is Money¨ and they believe that they control their
own time.
< Social interactions less affected by class stereotypes &
upward social mobility more likely.
< Less accustomed to conflict and do not accept that some
positions are irreconcilable.
< Business meetings may seem to have a "confrontational
approach¨ where all the relevant issues are directly
debated even at the expense of personal relationshops.
< Ready to make concessions in negotiations.
< Tend to evaluate a person's trustworthiness based on past
achievements.
1
< ecentralized flattened organizations in the
UNÌTE STTES.
< Emphasis on faster decision making in the US.
< Top level US executives must continually defend
their decision to EO or board of directors.
< great deal of motivation derived from
professional accomplishment.
< firm pumping handshake considered to be
cultured

< People in East dress more formally, in the West
more casual. asual Fridays common in many
companies.
< For initial meeting dressing conservatively in good
taste.
< Business ards exchanged without formal ritual
< ommunication styles are direct.
< NorthEast and Mid West people extremely
punctual, in Southern & Western States more
relaxed.

< Meetings have a linear agenda which is followed.
< t the conclusion of the meeting will be a
summary of what was decided and who will
implement what.
< Visual aids normally used to enhance the case
< Statistics used to back up the claims
< Emphasis on getting a contract signed rather than
building a relationship.

< The Japanese and "Face¨
They do not openly criticize or put anyone on the
spot. Saving face is crucial in Japanese Society.
Harmony in Japanese Society
Place great emphasis on politeness, personal
responsibility and working for the universal rather
than the individual group.

< Japanese non verbal communication
< They rely on facial expression, tone of voice and
posture to tell them what someone feels.
The context in which something is said affects the
meaning of words.
Japanese Hierarchy
Very conscious of age and status.
Etiquettes and customs in Japan
Meetings in Japan are very formal and ritualized.
The traditional form of greeting is the bow.

< Gift giving etiquette is highly ritualistic and meaningful.
lways give a small gift to seniormost person at end of
meeting
< Understanding of foreign ways
< Prefer to do business on basis of personal relationships
< Ìn business meetings etiquette appointments are required
and should be made several weeks in advance.
< The most senior Japanese person will be seated furthest
from the door, rest in descending rank.

< Business Negotiation non confrontational
< Business attire is conservative
< Business cards are exchanged constantly.

< South Korean Businessmen greet each other with
a slight bow, sometimes accompanied by a
handshake. Women also shake hands
< ddress people by their title and family name.
< Business ards exchanged frequently.
< Gift giving etiquette a part of doing business. Gifts
are always reciprocated
< Business meetings are booked well in advance.

< Punctuality is important in South Korea and being
on time is recommended.
< When entering a meeting room, the most senior
member of delegation should enter room first and
sit at the middle of the table.
0
< Sources of Human Resources
1. Home ountry Nationals-Managers of country
where MN is headquartered-expats. US &
Europe use Home ountry Nationals in les
developed regions but preferred host country
nationals in developed nations. Japanese use
home country nationals in all geographic areas.
They help in providing technical expertise and
maintain financial control over the operation.
1
1. Host ountry Nationals-Local Managers hired by
MN mainly at middle and lower level ranks.
They are familiar with culture, know language,
less expensive than home country personnel
and hiring them is good public relations
. Third ountry Nationals-Managers who are
citizens of countries other than the country in
which the MN is headquartered or the one in
which they are assigned to work by the MN.

< Ìnpatriates-n individual from a host country or
third country national who is assigned to work in
the home country.

1. daptability to cultural change and to integrate
with different people, cultures and types of
business organizations
. Physical and Emotional Health
. ge, Experience and Education
. Language Training
. Motivation for a Foreign ssignment
. Spouses and ependents or Work-Family
issues
. Leadership ability

< Testing and Ìnterview procedures
< Extensive interviews of candidates and their
spouses by senior executives still ultimately
provide the best method of selection.
< The adjustment process
a) nticipatory adjustment-before expat leaves for
assignment
b) Ìn country adjustment-On Site

1. Base Salary-according to base pay of home
countries and paid in home currency, local
currency or a combination of the two.
. Benefits-pproximately one-third of
compensation. Most MN's include expats in
home office benefit programs. Extra vacation
and special leaves.
. llowances-ost of living allowances for
relocation, housing,educaton and hardship.

Ìncentives-One time lump sum payment. Ìt is a
separate payment, distinguishable from regular
pay and more readily available for saving or
spending.
Taxes-Tax equalization. MN's pay the extra tax
burden.

< Help expat managers better understand the
customs, cultures and work habits of the local
culture.
< Use of flexible cross functional teams
< ccelerated Resource evelopment and early
identification of high potential employees
< Employee welfare emphasis
< Efficiency emphasis
< Long termism which stresses innovation and
creativity rather than weekly and monthly
productivity

< Tailor made training programs for specific and
communication needs of participants.
1. Environmental briefings-info on geography, climate
housing and schools
. ultural orientation-ultural institutions and value
systems of host country
. ultural assimilators-Programmed learning approaches
designed to provide participants with intercultural
encounters
. Language training
. Sensitivity training-attitudinal flexibility
. Field experience-Living and working with people of a
different culture.

1. Ìndirect and direct styles-High ontext
cultures,messages are implicit and indirect (France) as
opposed to Low ontext cultures (US) where messages
are direct and focused.
. Elaborate has high quantity of talk. rab countries.
Exacting has moderate amount of talk. England,
Germany, Sweden. Succint has low amount of talk.sia
. ontextual focuses on speaker and role
relationships.sia. Personal focuses on speaker and
personal relationships.
. ffective language is process oriented and reciever
focused.sia. Ìnstrumental language is goal oriented and
sender focused.US
0
< ross ultural ecision Maker
< efine the locus of decision making whether centralized or
decentralized. British decentralized, French , US & German
centralized.
< Large sized organizations with large capital investment &
high degree of technology favour centralization & vice
versa.
< Some decisions purely on ROÌ basis
< Some decisions more on cultural differences like Ford
Fiesta to Ford ÌKon in Ìndia.
1
< Global Manager has commitment to TQM
< ecides how much decision making to delegate to
subordinates as TQM uses employee empowerment.
< ecides on use of concurrent engineering/interfunctional
teams of designers, engineers, production specialists and
customers. Eg ÌBM S/00 computer systems moved to J
Walk.
< ecides on Rewards and Recognition from increases in
pay and benefits to use of discretionary bonuses, plaques
and public recognition.

Has to deal with barriers
1. Language barriers
. ultural Barriers
. Perceptual barriers
. eal with Non verbal communication
a) Kinesics-Facial expression
b) Proxemics-Physical space
c) hronemics-Time used in a culture
d) hromatics-Use of color

< Global Negotiation tactics
1. Location-Ìmportant negotiations neutral site
. Buyer Seller Relations-egree of objectivity
. Use of Extreme behaviours
. Use of promises and rewards
. Non verbal behaviors
a) Silent period
b) Touching
c) onversational overlap

< Blend of Three Management styles-ouglas
Mcgregor
a) uthoritarian-work centered behaviour-Theory X-
People are lazy and coercion and threats of
punishment must be used to get them to work
b) Paternalistic leadership-work centered behavior
+protective employee centered concern
Soft Theory X

< Participative leadership-both work centred and
people centred
< Theory Y + Theory Z
< Theory Y-Under right conditions people will work
hard and seek increased responsibility and
challenge.
< Theory Z-Theory Y + modern Japanese
techniques.
Workers seek opportunities to participate in
management and are motivated by long term
employment.

< European Managers-Mostly participative
1. French & German ÷uthoritarian approach
. British, Scandinavian & rest-Participative
approach
Japanese Managers-Paternalistic approach
hinese Managers-New generation uses
participative leadership.
Middle East ÷Leaning towards participative
leadership
Ìndia-Equal mix of authoritarian and participative
leadership

< Global Managers aim to be
a) Transformational Leaders-visionary agents with
charismatic leadership
1. Ìdealized influence
. Ìnspirational motivation
. Ìntellectual stimulation
. Ìndividualized consideration

< PR has a long tradition of isolation
< 1-eng Xiaoping opened to the world
< Now a member of WTO and trading partner of US.
< Primary criterion for doing business is technical
competence.
< Emphasis on punctuality.
< Patience is critically important as numerous
meetings
< Guanxi-good connections

< Ìmportant to be a good listener
< ollective society.
< Much less animated and avoid open displays of
emotion
< Negotiations viewed with a long term perspective
< Ìn negotiations reciprocity is important.
< ritical to give face and save face when doing
business negotiations
0
< Meetings start with shaking of hands, not vigorous and a
slight nod of the head.
< Body language & body posture should be formal and
attentive
< Business ards exchanged on initial meeting. One side of
the card should be translated and hinese letters should
be printed using gold ink.
< Establish a contact to act as intermediary. They can act as
reference, interpreter and navigate through bureaucracy,
legal system and local business networks.
1
< Fatalistic approach to time
< belief that destiny depends more on the will of a supreme
being.
< Status largely determined by family position and social
contact and connections.
< ction based on emotion
< Elaborate and ritualized form of greetings and leave
takings.
< Business related discussions may not occur till third or
fourth meeting.
< rabs attach a great deal of importance to status and rank.

< void doing business during month of Ramadan
and major Eid festivals.
< Handshakes amongst men always used & can last
a long time, between men & women uncommon.
< oing business revolves around personal
relationships, family ties trust & honour.
< Place value on the spoken word as opposed to
written agreements

< Meetings should not be made too far in advance
as changes in personal circumstances may impact
appointment
< Ìnitial meetings all about relationship building
< Meetings can be chaotic
< Meetings are circular in nature and do not follow a
linear pattern of agendas or targets.
< Punctuality desirable, not essential
< rabs were a trading people and are excellent
negotiators.

< "Time is Money¨ and they believe that they control their
own time.
< Social interactions less affected by class stereotypes &
upward social mobility more likely.
< Less accustomed to conflict and do not accept that some
positions are irreconcilable.
< Business meetings may seem to have a "confrontational
approach¨ where all the relevant issues are directly
debated even at the expense of personal relationshops.
< Ready to make concessions in negotiations.
< Tend to evaluate a person's trustworthiness based on past
achievements.

< ecentralized flattened organizations in the
UNÌTE STTES.
< Emphasis on faster decision making in the US.
< Top level US executives must continually defend
their decision to EO or board of directors.
< great deal of motivation derived from
professional accomplishment.
< firm pumping handshake considered to be
cultured

< People in East dress more formally, in the West
more casual. asual Fridays common in many
companies.
< For initial meeting dressing conservatively in good
taste.
< Business ards exchanged without formal ritual
< ommunication styles are direct.
< NorthEast and Mid West people extremely
punctual, in Southern & Western States more
relaxed.

< Meetings have a linear agenda which is followed.
< t the conclusion of the meeting will be a
summary of what was decided and who will
implement what.
< Visual aids normally used to enhance the case
< Statistics used to back up the claims
< Emphasis on getting a contract signed rather than
building a relationship.

< The Japanese and "Face¨
They do not openly criticize or put anyone on the
spot. Saving face is crucial in Japanese Society.
Harmony in Japanese Society
Place great emphasis on politeness, personal
responsibility and working for the universal rather
than the individual group.

< Japanese non verbal communication
< They rely on facial expression, tone of voice and
posture to tell them what someone feels.
The context in which something is said affects the
meaning of words.
Japanese Hierarchy
Very conscious of age and status.
Etiquettes and customs in Japan
Meetings in Japan are very formal and ritualized.
The traditional form of greeting is the bow.
0
< Gift giving etiquette is highly ritualistic and meaningful.
lways give a small gift to seniormost person at end of
meeting
< Understanding of foreign ways
< Prefer to do business on basis of personal relationships
< Ìn business meetings etiquette appointments are required
and should be made several weeks in advance.
< The most senior Japanese person will be seated furthest
from the door, rest in descending rank.
1
< Business Negotiation non confrontational
< Business attire is conservative
< Business cards are exchanged constantly.

< South Korean Businessmen greet each other with
a slight bow, sometimes accompanied by a
handshake. Women also shake hands
< ddress people by their title and family name.
< Business ards exchanged frequently.
< Gift giving etiquette a part of doing business. Gifts
are always reciprocated
< Business meetings are booked well in advance.

< Punctuality is important in South Korea and being
on time is recommended.
< When entering a meeting room, the most senior
member of delegation should enter room first and
sit at the middle of the table.

<

<

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