Consumer Motivation

³its better to plant a seed than transplant a tree´

-Prof. Manupriya Gaur Prof. Manupriya@imi.ac.in

Motivation is about what makes any living creature go in search of something, whether it is lions seeking shade or customers looking for a cold drink. In Marketing, it's all about finding out what your customers really need (and want and the difference between those two concepts) and what they are willing to do to get it. It's also about finding out how much you, as the marketer, are willing to do to satisfy those customers.

What is Motivation?
‡ ´an inner drive that reflects goal-directed arousal´

‡ Motivation refers to an activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior.
±It consists of the drives, urges, wishes, or desires that initiate the sequence of events leading to a behavior.

Why do Consumers Buy?
Consumers purchase and otherwise obtain products and services in an attempt to assemble the maximum amount of satisfaction or utility for their felt needs or motives (drives). 
‡ 

Needs become motives when aroused to a sufficient level of intensity and people seek to satisfy them.

Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Psychological
Motivation

Beliefs and Attitudes

Psychological Factors

Perception

Learning

Motivation: Two Views
‡ Freud: assumed that forces shaping

people¶s behavior are largely unconscious. People may be unwilling, or unable to tell identify what is motivating them. ‡ Maslow: People are driven to satisfy certain needs at particular times and these needs can be arranged in a hierarchical pattern.

Motivational Dynamics

Comparison

Affiliation

Differentiation

‡ Motivation begins with the presence of a stimulus that spurs the recognition of a need. ‡ Need recognition occurs when a perceived discrepancy exists between an actual and a desired state of being
± Needs can be either innate or learned. ± Needs are never fully satisfied. ± Feelings and emotions (I.e., affect) accompany needs

‡ Expressive needs involve desires by consumers to fulfill social and/or aesthetic requirements. ‡ Utilitarian needs involve desires by consumers to solve basic problems (e.g. filling a car¶s gas tank).

Managerial Applications of Motivation
‡ Positioning/differentiation: use discriminative stimuli distinguish one brand from another. ‡ Environmental analysis: identify the reinforcers and punishers that impact consumers; identify factors that influence risk perception. ‡ Market research: measure motivational needs (e.g., McClelland¶s needs and need for arousal), measure risk perception. ‡ Marketing mix: use motivational needs to design products (e.g., safe cars) and to develop promotional strategy that meets needs. Develop messages to influence consumer attributions. Use in-store promotions to prime consumers. ‡ Segmentation: Segment market based upon motivational needs.

Motivation push Work towards solution

Dormant Needs

Recognized Needs

Tension

Observation learning

Solution

Fulfill Needs

Motivation Process

What Affects Motivation?
Values, Goals, Needs Personal Relevance Values Goals Needs Types of Needs

Needs.. Physiological needs/ Primary needs Acquired needs/ Secondary needs Hedonic needs

Goals.. 
Human behavior is goal-oriented  Marketers want consumers to view their products to best satisfy their needs .  the goal selection depends on Individual¶s personal experiences Physical capacity Cultural norms & values about himself  Self-image individual himself/herself. holds about

Classifying the motives.. 
Physiological motives ± concerned with satisfying biological needs Conscious motives- which people are quite aware I.e. hunger Unconscious motives- for which people are often unaware I.e expensive clothes for good fit Positive motives- attract towards desired goals. consumer 

Negative goals- direct them to avoid unpleasant consequences.

Needs & Goals are dynamic Needs are never completely satisfied or permanently± New needs emergeSuccess goals& failure influence 

Substitute goals are formed-

Motive Arousal«««.. Physiological Arousal Emotional Arousal Cognitive Arousal Situational Arousal

Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs
Self Actualization
(Self-development)

Esteem Needs (self-esteem, status) Social Needs
(sense of belonging, love)

Safety Needs
(security, protection)

Physiological Needs
(hunger, thirst)

Achievement motivation is seeking to get ahead, to strive for success, and to take responsibility for solving problems. 

Need for affiliation motivates people to make friends, to become members of groups, and to associate with others. 

Need for power refers to the desire to obtain and exercise control over others. 

Need for uniqueness refers to desires to perceive ourselves as original and different. 

‡ Maslow¶s hierarchy of needs
± Motivation as a means of satisfying human needs ± Five types of needs:
‡ Physiological: food, water, sleep, exercise, sex ‡ Safety: security, shelter, normalcy in daily life ‡ Love and belongingness: affection and acceptance as part of a family or group ‡ Esteem or status: respect from others; need to feel competent, confident, important, and appreciated; self-respect ‡ Self-actualization: the need to realize one¶s own potential, to achieve dreams and ambitions; hunger for knowledge and understanding; to do things for the sake of doing them

Another way to categorize needs..

Models
‡ Sheth¶s consumer motives
± Five dimensions of motivation concerning products/services benefits
‡ Functional ± utility or function performed ‡ Aesthetic/emotional ± appearance or attractiveness ‡ Social ± status or esteem value ‡ Situational ± unexpected benefit ‡ Curiosity ± interest aroused