Nursing Theories

203 RC (Course Code) Room 202 1:30 ± 4:30pm Saturday

BGen Marlene R Padua AFP (Ret) RN, USRN, MAN Chair, Nursing Research Committee, AU College of Nursing; Faculty, College of Nursing and Graduate School

Nursing Theories
203 RC (Course Code) COURSE REQUIREMENTS: 1. Regular Attendance 2. Active Participation in Class discussion/ activities 3. Term paper ± Thesis Problem, supported by a theoretical framework/works of nursing theorist 4. Critiques of nursing theories 5. Pass mid-term and final exams

Nursing Theories
203 RC (Course Code) Grading System Percent 96-100 87-95 Decimal Grade Description 1.00-1.25 1.50-2.00 High Pass Pass

86 & below 2.25 & below Fail

Attendance/Recitation Quizzes/take home exams Major Examination Report Term Paper

Group Dynamics . Guided Research Reports Discussion 3. Lecture-discussion 2.Nursing Theories Teaching Strategies 1.

.concepts. education and research 3. assumptions. 2. principles. theories. paradigms and models which are used as framework for nursing practice. the lives of the nurses who pioneered these theories.Nursing Theories Course Description Understanding the following: 1.

clarify values and assumptions and determine directions for nursing research. To develop the student¶s analytical skills.Nursing Theories Course Objectives GENERAL OBJECTIVES: 1. To provide the student with knowledge of theories which have become frameworks for nursing practice. . 2. education and practice. research and education. challenge his/ her creative thinking.

2. research and education.Nursing Theories Course Objectives SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: At the end of the course. the student must be able to: 1. Be conversant with the scientific rigor and discipline necessary for professional nursing practice . Be conversant with nursing theories and the various theories underlining nursing practice.

4. research and education. and nursing education. nursing research. 5.Nursing Theories Course Objectives SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: 3. Enhance his/her faculties for analytical and creative thinking and thus clarify his/ her own practice. the environment and the nursing process and thus make rational decision in nursing practice. research and education. Advance his/ her knowledge of the client. Enhance his/her professional competency and autonomy through increased theoretical knowledge of scientifically developed methods and approaches to nursing care. .

Nursing Theories The Great Thinkers in Nursing A. Faye Glenn Abdellah ± Twenty one Nursing Problems 5. Jean Watson ± Philosophy and Science of Caring 7. Virginia Henderson ± Definition of Nursing 4. Core and Cure Model 6.Patricia Benner .Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice . Philosophers: ‡ Florence Nightingale ± Modern Nursing ‡ Ernestine Weidenbach ± Helping Art of Clinical Nursing 3. Lydia Hall ± Care.From Novice to Expert.

Sr. Imogene King ± Goal Attainment theory . Myra Estein Levine ± Four Conservative Principles 3. Beety Neuman ± System Model (Stressors) 7. Calixta Roy ± Adaptation Model 6. Conceptual Models ± Grand Theories 1.Nursing Theories The Great Thinkers in Nursing B. Martha Rogers ± Unitary Human Beings 4. Dorothea Orem ± Self Care Deficit Theory of Nursing 2. Dorothy Johnsons ± Behavioral System Model 5.

Nursing Process Theory ‡ Joyce Travelbee. Mary Ann SwainModeling and Role Modeling .Psychodynamic Nursing ‡ Ida Joan Orlando-Pelletire. Evelyn Tomlin.Symbolic Interactionism ‡ Helen Erickson.Human-to-Human Relationship Model ‡ Joan Riehl-Sisca.Nursing Theories The Great Thinkers in Nursing C. Middle Range Nursing Theories ‡ Hildegard Peplau.

Conceptual Model for Nursing 13. Middle Range Nursing Theories 6.Man-Living Health 10. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse.Margaret Newman.Nursing Theories The Great Thinkers in Nursing C. Kathryn Barnard.Joyce Fitzpatrick.Model of Health 12.Life Perspective Rhythm Model 11.Evelyn Adam.The Health Promotion Model .Parent-Child Interaction Model 8. Madeleine Leininger. Ramona Mercer-Maternal Role Attainment Theory 7.Nola Pender.Cultural Care Theory 9.

theories are empty without its practice .Nursing Theories 203 RC (Course Code) Professional Stature of Nursing Proven by Theoretical Foundation of its science. art and practice Practice of nursing is blind without theories.

Diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems (ANA) Nursing. (Control) It is an art and a science of caring individual. It is focused on assisting the client as he responds to health-illness situation.Nursing. (ADPCN) . prevention of illness. alleviation of suffering and assisting clients to face death with dignity and peace. groups and communities geared toward promotion and restoration of health. utilizing the nursing process and guided by ethico-legal moral principles.a dynamic discipline. families.

Nursing as a Profession (CHARACTERISTICS) ‡ A learned vocation or occupation that has a status of superiority ‡ A defined knowledge base ‡ Power and authority over training and education ‡ Registration requirements for practice ‡ Altruistic service/unselfish devotion ‡ Code of Ethics ‡ Autonomy Nursing as a Profession .

Valued by society because the services professionals provide are beneficial for members of the society Nursing as a Profession .

Nursing as an Academic Discipline DISCIPLINE A branch of knowledge ordered through the theories and methods evolving from more than one worldview of the phenomenon of concern A branch of educational instruction or a department of learning a knowledge .

research is largely clinical and action oriented (Moody 1990). Nursing requires research that is applied and clinical (Faucett. . In practice sciences. Thus.Nursing as a Practice Science APPLIED SCIENCE One that uses the knowledge of basic sciences for some practical end. as an applied or practical science. 1999).

Why study Nursing Theories? ´ Nursing is grounded on accepted scientific truths and principles in order to give safe and quality care. Nursing Theory strives to explain the Science and Art of Nursing. ´ . Simply put.

it is what is collectively seen to be a reasonably accurate understanding of the world as seen by members of discipline . KNOWLEDGE .In a discipline. learning.awareness or perception of reality acquired through insight. or investigation.statement of belief and values about human beings and their world.Terminology of Theory PHILOSOPHY . .

Terminology of Theory PHENOMENON .An empirical data or experiences that can be observed Example: Client·s behavior ² guarding behavior at the pain site Interventions ² care of the client in pain Disease Process ² Stomach Ulcer .

community . It enhances one·s capacity to understand phenomena as it helps define the meaning of the word. Manila B. Nurse. Empirical or concrete concepts ² directly observed or experienced or tangible like: Ex.Building blocks of theories which can be either be an empirical or abstract data. A word picture or basic idea of a phenomenon that symbolizes reality. mother. Care. Abstract concepts ² indirectly observed or intangible Ex. A. Love. Freedom. Charity.Terminology of Theory CONCEPTS . nursing.

Terminology of Theory CONCEPTUAL MODELS . Models may be theoretical (not directly observable ² expressed in language or mathematical symbols or empirical) replicas or observable reality.Derived from a person·s point of view MODEL . . for example.model of an eye.Graphic or symbolic representations of phenomena that objectify and present certain perspective of points about nature or functions or both.

Terminology of Theory PARADIGM . It describes work to be done and frames an orientation with which the work will be accomplished. theories. assumptions. and principles that form the way a discipline interprets the subject matter with which it is concerned. beliefs. . values.An organizing framework that contains concepts.

Terminology of Theory ASSUMPTIONS Beliefs about phenomena one must accept as true. assertion of the relationship between concepts derived from theories or generalizations based on empirical or factual data. Statements that the theorists hold as factual. Ex. All human being need love. Breast milk is the best food for« PROPOSITION .Statements that imply the relationships of concepts. Example: In Selye·s Theory of Stress: ´Man seeks to attain a desired state by mobilizing his defense Mechanismµ .

a testable relationship.It is an established or verifiable truth HYPOTHESIS . a shrewd guess or inference.Terminology of Theory FACT . . statements of the researcher·s expectations regarding the relationship between and among the variables under investigation.

.Terminology of Theory RESEARCH .systematic inquiry that uses orderly. personality) that are not directly observable or measurable. Consist of abstract concepts (ie. disciplined methods to answer questions or solve problems. Anxiety.state the most general relationship between concepts. AXIOMS .

2008) . definitions and assumptions intended to explain a set of fact. An organized system of accepted knowledge that is composed of concepts. event or phenomena (Octaviano and Balita. propositions.Overview of Theory THEORY Systematic explanation of an event in which constructs and concepts are identified and relationships are proposed and predictions made (Streubert.Speziale & Carpenter. 2003).

Theories are composed of concepts and the relationships between these concepts. These relationships are presented in a propositional statements that are connected in a logical way (Nieswiadomy 2008) .Overview of Theory THEORY (cont.) An abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about the relationships among phenomena (Polit and Beck. 2004) A set of statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way.

The Importance of Theory in Nursing 1. Clarify the complex intellectual and interactional domains that distinguish expert nursing from the mere doing of task. and predict nursing practice. . Offers structure and organization to nursing knowledge and provides a systematic means of collecting data to describe. 2004) 3. Create mechanisms by which nurses would communicate their professional conviction. 2. explain. provide a moral/ethical structure to guide actions and foster a means of systematic thinking about nursing and its practice (Chinn and Kramer.

Leads to coordinated and less fragmented care (Alligood and Tomey.The Importance of Theory in Nursing 4. 2002) . Define and clarify nursing and the purpose of nursing practice to distinguish it from other caring professions by setting professional boundaries 6. 5. Promotes rational and systematic practice by challenging and validating intuition.

3. labels for client problems.Ways in which theories and conceptual models developed by nurses have influenced nursing practice: 1. Identify certain standards for nursing practice. a typology for intervention. Identify distinctive nursing processes to be used and technologies to be used including parameters for client assessment. criteria for evaluation of intervention outcomes . strategy for planning. 2. Identify settings in which nursing practice should occur and the characteristics of what the model·s author considers recipients of nursing care.

Serve as the basis for clinical information systems including admission database. Guide the development of client classification system 7. improve the quality of care .Ways in which theories and conceptual models developed by nurses have influenced nursing practice: 4. nursing orders. Direct quality assurance programs. Direct the delivery of nursing practices 5. progress notes. care plan. and discharge summary 6.

Identifying purposes and kinds of theory needed for nursing . Philosophical basis of the discipline b. The processes of generating knowledge and theory development c.CLASSIFICATION OF THEORIES ‡ METATHEORY ± A THEORY ABOUT THEORY It focuses on broad issues like: a.

c.CLASSIFICATION OF THEORIES 2. Developed through thoughtful and insightful appraisal of existing ideas as opposed to empirical research . b. Non-specific and comprised of relatively abstract concepts that lack operational definition. GRAND THEORIES ± THE MOST COMPLEX AND BROADEST IN SCOPE a. Explain broad areas within a discipline and incorporate numerous other theories.

(operational definition ² specifies exactly how the concept will be determined and assess. Substantively specific and encompass a limited number of concepts and a limited aspect of the real world. It identifies procedures and operations significant to determine concepts. MIDDLE RANGE THEORIES ± LIES BETWEEN NURSING MODELS AND CONCRETE IDEAS a. They are comprised of relatively concrete concepts that are operationally defined and relatively concrete propositions that may be empirically tested.CLASSIFICATION OF THEORIES 3.) . b.

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