Introduction to Public Relations
Part One Public Relations«The Profession
Chapter 2 The History of Public Relations
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Outcomes At the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
discuss the two major forces that influenced the development of public relations in the United States during the 1930s explain how PR became a respected and sophisticated profession during the post-WWII era. postdiscuss how public relations is currently changing at the start of the 21st century.
Why Study the Historical Roots of Public Relations?
To excel in a profession like public relations, you must master its cultural roots.
What are the dynamics in a culture (past and present) that make your discipline vital to successful involvement in that culture? What forces shaped your culture regarding how people think and behave relative to your profession?
Made in America
Public relations as a profession was initially an American phenomenon. By the end of the 20th century, the same forces were mandating a need for PR throughout the industrialised world. Leaders through the centuries have always sought to influence their publics. publics.
Great Communicators of the PrePremodern Era
Who would you say influenced the public the most by delivering a speech?
Pope Urban II Abraham Lincoln Winston Churchill Martin Luther King
Many historians believe that Pope Urban did. Never heard of him, you say?
Europe overwhelmingly responded to Urban·s challenge.
In his speech.
. We must clearly and publicly express our aspirations.D. he challenged Europe to send an army to protect the holy places and Christian visitors in Palestine from the Seljuk Turks. 1095). we must identify sincerely with their common passions.The Speech that Inflamed a Continent
Pope Urban declared the misdeeds of the Seljuks in a speech given in Claremont. and thus began the Crusades that lasted for two centuries
From Pope Urban we learn:
To influence people. France (A.
Luther probably would have been burned at the stake for his protest.
.The Timing of Luther·s List
Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation with a list of grievances. much of Europe was brewing for radical change and Luther knew it.Within a few years. half of Europe supported Luther·s ideas. But in 1517.
In 1517 he publicly posted a list of 95 grievances he held against the church leaders in Rome.
A few decades earlier.
leaders have courted public sentiment to sustain their power. That philosopher was Locke«
. selfOne change was indirectly influenced by an unpopular.
Even monarchies or dictators cannot afford to ignore public attitudes.The Role of Public Opinion
Throughout history. political philosopher.
Constitutional monarchies and democracies arose from a self-consciousness of the people. They often take pains to assure that their subjects are supportive of their regime.
Locke taught radical ideas that were very unpopular with European rulers but became accepted in America. 1704) and later adopted by Thomas Jefferson.The Influence of John Locke
The concept of the natural right of people to oversee their rulers was developed by English philosopher John Locke (d. Democracy is a very advanced and more natural form of government. such as«
Governments derive their power from the consent of their subjects.
Democracies thrive on public opinion«
.America³ America³Dynamic Greenhouse for Public Power
Unique and simultaneous political-cultural forces politicalcreated a new power for public opinion in young America:
A democratic and republican government of. by and for the people Free markets Systems of checks and balances A rise in affluence and education for ´commonersµ An independent population voting with ballots and dollars
Such forces caused public relations to be made in America.
Yet. the leaders recognized a problem³only one-third problem³ oneof Americans favored independence.
The revolution had to be a popular war if democratic ideas were to work.
Two leaders of the revolution shrewdly appealed to public sentiment.a true campaigner George Washington . colonial leaders had no wish to pursue war with Britain.Public Relations in the Revolutionary War
Before the American Revolutionary War (1774(17741783) began.
Samuel Adams .a maximizer of success Adams was before his time regarding influence«
. Staging events such as the Boston Tea Party to influence public opinion.Samuel Adams³the Campaigner Adams³
A member of the Continental Congress.Americans dressed as Native Americans.
The Boston Tea Party³an act of Anglo. public campaign to influence Americans to seek independence by:
Using symbols that were easily identifiable and aroused emotions.µ Publicizing events such as ´The Boston Massacreµ when the British fired into a group of colonists. Samuel Adams initiated a sustained. Publicizing slogans that are still remembered such as ´Taxation without representation is tyranny.
were published.S. the Federalist Papers.A Broad Appeal to the People·s Idealism
After the Revolutionary War. a series of 85 newspaper essays about the Constitution and the new form of government. (1787-
. The Federalist Papers appealed to Americans for a form of government to guard and enhance three values:
ideals of common justice the general welfare of the public the rights of individuals and private property
The widespread distribution of the Federalist Papers led to the ratification of the U. Constitution (1787-88).
nothing can fail. With public sentiment.
Public sentiment is everything. --Abraham Lincoln --Abraham
Photo from the University of Tennessee web site www.´Public Sentiment Is Everythingµ
It was during the Civil War that President Lincoln learned the value of good public sentiment (or opinion). nothing can succeed.SunSITE. without it.edu
. At the end of the 19th century. changes in social and economic conditions mandated new relations between industry and the public. public relations began to develop as an independent profession. The Industrial Revolution brought about a change in how products were made³from using hand tools at home to using machine and power tools in a factory. There were new and not always pleasant realities of American life:
Slide 15 of 55
The enforced rhythm of the factory The stress of urban life The vast distinction between bosses and workers during this era.The Industrial Revolution Began a New Era of Public Relations
The Industrial Revolution (19th-20th centuries) was a landmark era for public relations.
Three Major Industrial Forces
The modern public relations profession is a product of three American forces in the 19th19th-20th centuries:
Broad recognition of the power of public opinion Competition among institutions for public support Development of media to quickly influence public opinion
µ ³Marie Curtl
The term public relations came into use at this time.
´Corporations gradually began to realize the importance of combating hostility and courting public favor.
The earliest appearance was probably in Dorman Eaton's 1882 address to the graduating class of the Yale Law School.Corporate America·s Response
Business leaders recognized that new stresses on the populace threatened production.
Heinrichs to establish the first corporate public relations department.
www. Smith to manage company conflict with the public.
George Westinghouse used PR to bring us AC current.com
. The goal was to win the fight against Thomas Edison regarding how the nation would be wired (AC or DC). H.American Industry Learned to Value Public Image
Business leaders began to hire people adept at understanding how to influence the public. Westinghouse (1889): George Westinghouse. hired E. patriarch of his famous electrical company.
AT&T (1883): Theodore Vail hired Charles J.britannica.
Rhetorician Press Agent Journalistic/Publicity Tradition
Today. though. public relations is moving«
away from using any available means to achieve desired public opinion toward informing the public and providing information and counsel to management
.Three Stages of PR Development
Development of these traditions were sequential. but all three still exist to some extent today.
I. not necessarily what was done. Rhetoricians
The early aspects of public relations in trying to influence publics through what was said. Illustrated men such as by: Caesar Pope Urban Samuel Adams
II. some say.
. inaccurately used publicity to make money. T. 1891)³the master press 1891)³ agent:
The circus owner Barnum masterfully and. Barnum (d. A Classic Press Agent Approach
Paul Brousse (French sociologist in 1878) argued for:
The Propaganda of the Deed : the idea justified the need for actions to gain public attention to political ideas/grievances. exploitive.
.´Propaganda of the Deedµ
In the quest to gain media and public attention. murder. and assassination. press agentry became increasingly outrageous. For European anarchists in the late nineteenth century. manipulative.
Propaganda of the deed became known as terrorism after the 1960s. propaganda of the deed meant bombing. and even cruel.
visit this site: www. To learn more about Gandhi. Martin Luther King. staged events to draw attention to social/political issues. Jr.The Rise of Non-violent NonPress Agentry
The twentieth century witnessed the use of non-violent. Inspired by Gandhi.com/ashram
The way Gandhi even dressed and traveled were meant to influence public opinion. Mahatma Gandhi ingeniously used nonviolence to bring independence to India (1930-1947).nuvs. successfully applied non-violent events to change American attitudes and laws about civil rights for black Americans (1960s).
Press agentry gave public relations a bad name that persists to this day.
.Press Agentry and Hostility
The success of press agents in attracting attention and a public response often results in hostility from the press and the public. Public relations practitioners should use press agentry only with high ethics and great care.
Such results are assured if the publicity is coupled with blatantly deceptive and manipulative tactics.
By the early 1900s.
.III. businesses were forced to submit to three new dynamics:
numerous governmental regulations increasingly hostile criticism from the press rise of the American labor union movements
Public relations moved from the stage of press agentry to an era of public cooperation through distribution of accurate information.
George Michaelis established the first publicity bureau in Boston to serve businesses.
.The First Publicity Bureau
In 1900. his major clients were the nation's railroads that were seeking to head off adverse regulations being promoted by President Theodore Roosevelt. By 1906.
He gathered factual information about his clients for distribution to newspapers.
The first president to make extensive use of press conferences and interviews.President Roosevelt vs.
. who saw the presidency as ´a bully pulpit.'' proved to be more than a match for the Publicity Bureau. Roosevelt was said to rule the country from the newspapers' front pages.
Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel Strike (1914) (1914)
. Some of his clients were: safety. such as reporting on employee benefits and safety.The Father of Public Relations³ Relations³Ivy Lee
Lee made the first move toward the modern practice of information sharing.
Pennsylvania Railroad (1906-1909) (1906-1909) John D.
Ivy Lee (d.Moving Toward Openness and Honesty
Lee convinced the corporate clients of his publicity agency (est. 1934) www. ³Eric Goldman
.fredonia. His Declaration of Principles became the forerunner to a PR Code of Ethics.edu/
The public was no longer to be ignored«nor fooled. in the continuing manner of the press agent. 1904) to become more open and honest with the public.
. Edward Bernays and Carl Byoir were two of those PR practitioners coming out of this WWI tradition to launch public relations into the next decades.The Persuasive Communication Tradition
The Creel Committee in World War I can be credited with developing persuasive techniques to influence the American public to support the war and buy bonds. Elmer Davis and the Office of War Information in World War II continued this social science approach to influencing opinion with considerable experimental opinion research done to provide the theory for the PR programs.
Crystallizing Public Opinion .com).
. He taught the first collegiate public relations course at New York University (1923) and wrote the first public relations textbook. Bernays developed three tools to influence public consent:
market research social surveys public opinion polls
Photo from the Museum of Public Relations (prmuseum.Edward Bernays³Pioneer of PR Bernays³ Education
Edward Bernays made significant contributions to equipping practitioners for effective service.
1917.com. the Committee on Public the Information was a phenomenal success.
The Censor Board of the Committee on Public Information.000 holders of U.thehistorynet.
.com.thehistorynet. On May 1. Photo from http://www.S. Led by newspaper man George Creel. http://www.Committee on Public Information
President Woodrow Wilson turned public relations from a defensive tool to an offensive one when he set up the Committee on Public Information in 1917 to gain support for World War I. 10 million held bonds. Six months later. George Creel is seated on the far right. there were 350. Bonds.
It became increasingly obvious to practitioners that organizations communicate with the public not only by words but also by their response to public opinion.
This new awareness allowed practitioners to advise management as well as inform the public. public relations professionals gained a place in the heart of business organizations³the organizations³ decisiondecision-making and operational aspects.
.RelationshipRelationship-building and Two-way TwoCommunication Tradition
Now public relations opens a two-way door for twoinfluence.
the key stockholder.
Lee·s emphasis on counseling management to take positive action marked a major shift in public relations theory and practice. Jr.
. John D. Lee strongly recommended to Rockefeller that he improve communications with miners and establish mechanisms to redress workers' grievances. Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel Strike
Out of the 22 deaths in the Ludlow Massacre. Rockefeller.John D.
The Ludlow Massacre at the miners strike (1914) against Colorado Fuel and Iron Company shocked the nation. gave Ivy Lee the opportunity to become a consultant on the internal workings of his coal business. 13 were women and children..
more than half of all major manufacturing companies were publishing employee magazines. Ivy Lee persuaded his client American Tobacco Company to introduce profit-sharing for its profitemployees.
By 1925. This had several results. public relations expanded its inward focus.
Employees became recognized as a significant public.Inward Focus on Employees Expands
In addition to its outward focus.
Page set out to win public confidence. Finally.AT&T and Arthur Page
Arthur Page accepted AT&T·s offer of PR vice president on the condition that he would have a voice in company policy.
. AT&T paid fees for employees to join outside organizations as representatives. the company sought to have as many people as possible own its stock. This required a continuous and planned program of positive public relations.
AT&T went directly to the public with a film program for schools and civic groups.
Events That Shaped PR in mid 20th Century
Two mid-20th century events significantly midshaped the American culture.
The Great Depression World War II
Those events also influenced the development of public relations as an agent of mutual influence.
. the Dow Jones did not recover its lost stock points until the mid-1950s. unable to sustain prosperity.The End of Corporate America·s Era of Success
The Great Depression (1929-1939) witnessed (1929thousands of bankruptcies and the vanishing of great wealth.
After the Wall Street crash of 1929. Corporate public relations became less negative and more of a positive and continuous program to rebuild confidence.
Business was viewed as a failed institution.
Photo © 2001 Britannica.
Workers looking for work in the Great Depression.
They sought to understand the desperate needs of their publics.The Depression Brought Compassion Public relations people began
to emphasise a new approach to their publics³one of publics³ seeking mutual influence through understanding. They facilitated acts of compassion on the part of their clients.
The practitioner was called upon to help organizations pursue responsible performance to increase public respect.
Persuasion and publicity could be effective only when they were coupled with responsible performance. business and labor competed for public support for the use of limited resources.
.The Prestige of the Populace Increased
The flow of capital and production evaporated after the market crash of 1929.
The need for an informed public became more vital as government.
Military Adopted Public Relations in World War II (1939-1945) (1939-1945)
The deteriorating military and political situation in Europe caused the military to increase its practice of public relations in the 1930s. The Army's PR efforts employed 3.
Each branch of the service built its own public relations apparatus to promote its particular form of warfare.000 military and civilian personnel.
Hitler·s Nazi Party Became Masters of Public Relations
The greatest application of public relations techniques in the 1930s occurred in Germany.
Slide 42 of 55
. The Nazi propaganda machine under Joseph Goebbels viciously used press agentry.
The Nazis demonstrated both the dangers and the effectiveness of propaganda.
US Office of War Information Mobilized a Nation
In June 1942. A massive public relations effort was mounted to rally the home front. with America fully engaged in the war.
. the Office of War Information (OWI) was established under Elmer Davis.
clothing.OWI Developed a Broad PR Campaign
The goal of the Office of War Information was to implement massive mobilization strategies:
selling war bonds rationing food. and gasoline planting victory gardens recruiting military personnel promoting factory productivity and efficiency
.Images that Mobilized a Nation at War
These posters were printed for the Office of War Information and retrieved from the National Archives and Records Administration web site at http://www.gov.archives.
The Advertising Council
. By 1945 the VOA was broadcasting in 40 languages weekly.The Legacy of the OWI Remains Today
Several important communication agencies that are still active today trace their beginnings to OWI:
United States Information Agency (USIA) The Voice of America radio network
The first broadcast (1942) of the VOA was in German. (1942) intended to counter Nazi propaganda.
. new emphasis was placed on public relations functions ( and on more sophisticated PR tools (e.Post World War II Era Saw Increased Sophistication
The post war era witnessed tremendous growth of public relations as a sophisticated profession. merged with Bill Marstellar in 1953.. Harold Burson began his PR agency in 1946. During this period.
Practitioners such as Earl Newsom with Standard Oil (1945) were increasingly invited to participate in policy decision making. Carl Byoir used public relations techniques to raise money nationally to help polio victims and to find a cure for the crippling disease. Burson-Marstellar became the Bursonlargest public relations agency in the world.g. It remains one of the top agencies today. audience analysis).
In 1954. one hundred colleges and universities offered classes in the subject. the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) developed the first code of ethics for the profession.
The society set up a grievance board for code enforcement in 1962 and a program of voluntary accreditation in 1964.
Two years later.Development in Education and Ethics for Public Relations
Boston University established the first school of public relations (1947).
employed Kendrix to create campaigns that targeted the black community.
Photo from www.Moss Kendrix Changed Perceptions about African-Americans African
Moss Kendrix (1917-1989) was a (1917public relations pioneer in transforming racial stereotyping. the Ford Motor Company.prmuseum.
. Kendrix used advertising to influence how Americans viewed black citizens.com. and the CocaCoca-Cola. American icons such as Carnation.
Such regulations came in part because of several issues in the 1970s-80s: 1970s-
civil rights and equal opportunity environmentalism consumerism urban problems nuclear power
March 1965 civil rights march travels 54 miles in Alabama regarding voting rights.msnbc.Increased Role of Government in Organizational Life
Business/government relations became increasingly important as the federal government entered a new era of regulation. Photo taken from www.com.
An intentional and sustained campaign to broadly influence the public can be very effective. we realised that«
1.Review of Principles from the Second Millennium
From the second millennium lesson. 3. opinionated public. Democracy is dependent on a strong. A wide distribution of rational appeal to the public·s values influences their thinking and behavior. 6. Publishing one·s successes affects indifferent public opinion. 2.
. 5. 4. Historical leaders influenced their worlds through timely mixtures of passion and words. Even powerful people cannot ignore the opinion of the public.
Organisations must accept the need to deal with public opinion. In a media-strong democracy. PR professionals help organisations avoid costly expressions of public discontent in an age of fierce competition for public support. the public can mediapowerfully express its opinion.Review of Principles from the Industrial Revolution
The public relations profession was born in the industrial age through dynamic changes in American life.
sophisticated and expanded profession during the post-WWII era. postlargely through governmental and public influence.Review of Principles Since 1930
The Depression-War era led public relations to value Depressionmutual influence and develop massive. Currently public relations is evolving as a force for adaptation to public concerns on vital issues. sophisticated strategies to communicate with and influence the public.
. Public relations became a respected.
Public Relations has undergone several changes.
. Practitioners must be aware of the history of PR and anticipate changes in the present and future of Public Relations. These changes were usually brought about by changes in the environment in which people lived.In Summary«
Since its inception.
In what way did Arthur Page help develop public relations? 2. 27-29 of your textbook and answer 27the following questions: 1.
Read pp. Provide real life examples of any company/organisation that uses Page·s six principles of public relations.
S. 2. How has the field of public relations been linked with the U.Assignment (Choose any ONE of the following questions)
1. what has been the most important event or person in the history of public relations?
. political process? In your opinion.