This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Petrology: Branch of Geology dealing with the study of rocks. It includesa.Petrogenesis - origin and mode of occurrences as well as natural history. b. Petrography – dealing with classification and description of rocks.
•Is a branch of geology, which deals with study of rocks (Petro=rock, Logos=study)
SEDIMENTARY -thin veener above the Sial and Sima in Oceanic and Continental Crusts -secondary rocks
METAMORPHIC -proportion is similar to that of Igneous rocks -change of forms of Igneoua & Sedimentry. Due to Temprature, Pressure and Chemical Fluids
IGNEOUS -most abundant -source is magma or lava Primary Rocks
James Hutton (1727–1797), the eminent 18th century gentleman farmer and founder of modern geosciences, authored the concept of the rock cycle, which depicts the inter-relationships between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
The Rock Cycle .
Rain washes the sediments to the a river in the valley. • The river carries them to the ocean. .Examples of Recycling • A volcano erupts. where the sediments are deposited (dropped). leaving large igneous rocks scattered around. • The deposits build up and lithify (become rock). Now the igneous particles are included in the sedimentary rock. • These rocks crumble (weather) over time.
In other words. the magma (molten rock) crystallized into solid rock. they were once molten and upon cooling. Igneous rocks may form deep inside the Earth or at the Earth’s surface when a volcano erupts. (*) Anat omy of a Vol cano .IGNEOUS ROCKS vent lava land surfac e conduit magma IGNEOUS ROCKS are “born of fire”.
Igneous rocks Magma and lava Igneous rocks are the products of consolidation of magma or lava .
Igneous rocks Classification based on mode of formation: Extrusive and Intrusive Igneous rocks Intrusive Igneous rocks: Plutonic (coarse grained). Hypobasal (intermediate size grain) Extrusive Igneous rocks: Volcanic rocks (Fine grained) .
e. shape of igneous bodies depends mostly on the following factors1. which in turn depends on the Temperature and Composition of magma 3.Mode of formation 2. Viscosity of magma. In relation with the surrounding rocks Physical characters of the invaded rocks Weight of the overlying rock mass in case Intrusive & Extrusive rock exhibit typical forms. the size. which are characteristics to them intrusive bodies . i.Mode of Occurrence of Igneous Rocks The form.
Types of Igneous Rocks • IntrusiveForm when magma inside the earth cools and solidifies. . • ExtrusiveForms when lava breaks through the earth surface and solidifies there.
produces many small crystals that are not readily seen by the unaided eye.IGNEOUS ROCKS Slow cooling deep beneath the Earth’s surface allows crystals to grow to large size (1/8” or more). Rapid cooling near or at the Earth’s surface. This group of igneous rocks is called EXTRUSIVE and are typically volcanic in origin. (*) . These crystals are easily visible and distinguish this group of igneous rocks as INTRUSIVE. Cooling may be so rapid that crystals do not have a chance to form and instead a glass is produced.
Intrusive Igneous Rocks • Cool slowly. • Slow cooling = LARGE crystals • Crystals are visible to eye • Example: Granite . underground.
• Microscopic crystals= FAST cooling • Often looks like glass • Example: Obsidian .Extrusive Igneous Rocks • Lava cools quickly on surface.
• These air bubbles make the rock feel very light.Extrusive • Lava often cools quickly. trapping air bubbles (vacuoles) in the rock. • Example: Pumice .
Large.It’s igneous if you see….Air pockets (vesicles) 2.Glassy and black 3. interlocked crystals . 1.Black color and crystals too small to see with the naked eye 4.
or white. will float on water. A mix of light Usually black to greenish PYROXENITE: buff. green. Salt black. pink. Composed of pr e May have some or lots of do minately amphiboles gas bubble ho les.gray. (You can NOT pastel. rectangular crystals. Can see somewhat more light coloredflat shiny cleavage surfaces. GLASS Usually pearly gray. feldspar grains than dark Can see feldspar . PORPHYRITIC (2 grain sizes) FRAGMENTAL ALL CRYSTALLINE IGNEOUS VARIETIES may exhibit porphyritic texture TUFF: Compacted volcanic fragments generally less than 4mm diameter (ash) VOLCANIC BRECCIA: Mixed tuff and angular large (>3 mm diameter) fragments 2 AGGLOMERATE: Mixed ash and rounded/subrounded large (>32mm dia meter) fragments - (*) . red. LOTS of gas b ubble ho les.CLUES TO IGNEOUS ROCKS COLOR TEXTURE LIGHT COLORED Felsic INTERMEDIATE COLORED DARK COLORED Mafic VERY DARK COLORED Ultramafic COARSEGRAINED (You can see different minerals) GRANITE: Can see crystals. very lightweight. Composed of pr e & pepper appearance . do minately pyroxene DIORITE: GABBRO: PERIDOTITE: FINERHYOLITE: ANDESITE: GRAINED Usually gray. for Sometimes banded. May contain Apache Tears.pink. colored minerals. the most part) GLASSY BASALT: Normally has Usually black or rust red. some (such as hornblende) holes may be filled. Usually C a n s e e c r y s t a ls w i t h Can see crystals lots of Composed of 90 gray or pink. Light to dark gray. and dark but with no quartz. May see small gree grains. see crystals. Abrasive. 100% olivine quartz . glassy grains. Might see small small black crystals clear. n AMPHIBOLITE: OBSIDIAN: PERLITE: PUMICE: Black.
Igneous Rock Textures Coarse-grained Fine-grained Porphyritic Glassy Vesicular Pyroclastic .
Igneous Rock Classification Silicic Intermediate Mafic Intrusive Granite Rhyolite Diorite Andesite Gabbro Basalt Extrusive (Porphyritic) .
for “grains”. It is made up mainly of varying amounts of the minerals: quartz.Granite . biotite and hornblende. muscovite. (*) . orthoclase. The name is from the Latin granum.intrusive quartz biotite mica (*) feldspar GRANITE is a coarse to mediumgrained rock that forms from the cooling of magma deep within the Earth (intrusive).
intrusive Graphic Granite mica Porphyritic feldspar Pegmatite .Granite .
feldspar biotite (*) . Generally it has a salt and pepper appearance (about ½ black and ½ white).intrusive DIORITE is very similar to granite.Diorite . but is distinguished in the hand specimen by the absence of visible quartz.
plagioclase feldspar.intrusive GABBRO is a coarse-grained rock that is high is iron & magnesium-bearing minerals (pyroxenes. amphiboles. (*) .Gabbro . olivene). Black minerals are primarily amphibole (like hornblende) and plagioclase feldspar. somewhat heavier than granitic rocks and devoid of quartz. The rocks will be dark in color.
(*) . As a result it is characteristically olivegreens in color.intrusive PERIDOTITE or DUNITE is composed of 90-100% olivine.Peridotite . This material is thought to have originated in the upper mantle of the Earth.
mica. and hornblende). It is formed when molten rock with the same composition as a high silica granite oozes (rhyolite is VERY viscous and does not really flow) to the Earth’s surface. St. and therefore cools quickly so only microscopicsized crystals develop. “stream of lava”. Helens. from rhyax. Krakatoa and O’Leary Peak (AZ). Frequently it is banded due to flow alignment of different associated minerals (quartz. (*) . feldspar.Rhyolite – extrusive RHYOLITE’S name comes from the RHYOLITE Greek rhyo. The volcanoes that produce rhyolite are very explosive varieties such as Mt.
Rhyolite – extrusive This is another sample of rhyolite. (*) . (*) If you look closely. you might see tiny clear phenocrysts of feldspar. (*) banded rhyolite. This has a crystal of garnet that grew after the rhyolite was This is an example of deposited.
Andesite . with visible hornblende. .extrusive ANDESITE is the fine-grained equivalent of DIORITE. It tends to be a darker gray hornblende than rhyolite and phenocrysts (*) is often porphyritic.
The name may have originated with Pliny who used the Ethiopian word basal for iron-bearing rocks. and then it is called amygdaloidal (a-mig-duh-loy-dal) basalt. etc.g. opal. The pockets may be filled with secondary minerals. calcite.extrusive BASALT occurs as thin to massive lava. flows. e. sometimes accumulating to thicknesses of thousands of feet and covering thousands of square miles. Basalt is dark. zeolite minerals.Basalt . (*) . The volcanoes that produce basaltic lavas are relatively quiet. quartz. such as the Hawaiian Islands volcanoes. fine-grained and often vesicular (having gas pockets).
Basalt . (*) Amygdaloidal (*) .extrusive Vesicular (Scoria) Gases released near the surface of a lava flow create bubbles or vesicles that are “frozen” in stone.
extrusive Peridotite xenolith Basalt (*) Peridotite (*) .Basalt .
This drags the upper. surface into a series of smooth wrinkles.extrusive Pahoehoe is a feature that forms on the surface of very fluid basalt flows. (*) . while the fluid lava below continues to flow. Much like the skin on a bowl of tomato soup – the surface in contact with the air begins to crystallize.Basalt . still plastic.
Colors vary from black to red. black & red (mahogany). It is composed of the elements that make quartz. Its glassy.Obsidian . gray. green. lustrous and sometimes banded appearance makes it rather easy to distinguish from all other rocks. . snowflake. Apache Tears are little nodules of obsidian. feldspar and iron/ magnesium minerals that have cooled so quickly that the minerals could not develop and crystallize. iridescent.extrusive OBSIDIAN is volcanic glass (an acrystalline “solid” – actually a supercooled liquid).
Often. . It is a mix of large angular fragments and small ash.Volcanic Breccia . the material is hot when it comes to rest and cools (welds) into a very hard rock.extrusive VOLCANIC BRECCIA is pyroclastic (fire-formed fragments) and forms in explosive eruptions.
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS are composed of particles derived from pre-existing rocks or by the crystallization of minerals that were held in solutions. These fragments show evidence of transport – rounding of the grains and size sorting. A general characteristic of this group is the layering or stratification. CHEMICAL sedimentary rocks are the result of either precipitation of solids from solutions (like salt from water) or by organic process. Those sedimentary rocks that are composed of particles of pre-existing rocks are considered FRAGMENTAL or CLASTIC. . as seen in the outcrop. like shells from marine organisms.
These sediments are transported and deposited by river water. Transportation is either in suspension or in solution. river and lakes undergo compaction/cementation for millions of years to form SEDIMENTARY ROCKS .SEDIMENTARY ROCKS: are the secondary rocks which are formed from the loose fragments or detrital or clastic sediments produced by weathering of older rocks. When settle down on the beds of ocean. Almost 90% of earth crust is made up of igneous rocks 75% of land surface on the earth is covered by thin veneer of sediments or sedimentary rocks. wind or by movement of glacial ice.
Helps in knowing the provenance (i. in knowing and understanding old climate=paleoclimate. source area of the sediments).e. fluvial (river deposits). Lacustrine (lake deposits) etc.IMPORTANCE OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK “Present is the key to the past” Helps in knowing depositional environment viz. . change in climatic conditions i. marine (ocean deposits).e. estuarine. aeolian (wind deposits). glacial.
dolomite Organic rocks Form due to decomposition of organic remains under temperature and pressure eg. . Coal/Lignite etc.TYPES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Clastic rocks Chemical & Organic rocks Sandstones Conglomerates Breccia Shale/mudston es Carbonate rocks Evaporitic rocks These rocks are formed due to evaporation of saline water (sea water) eg. Gypsum. Limestone. Halite (rock salt) Form basically from CaCO3 – both by chemical leaching and by organic source (biochemical) eg.
Weathering take place by three methods•Mechanical disintegration. associated with physical factors •Rock decomposition. Weathering is the most important process that operate in the formation of sedimentary rocks. associated with chemical factors •Biological Weathering associated with the activities of organisms .Sedimentary rocks are secondary rock constituted of sediments.
Lithification Sedimentary Rocks Sediments Deposition Transport Erosion Weathering .
2. classified based on mineral content: limestone.form from deposition of solid grains. based on their textures: textures 1. dolomite are examples. Sedimentary rocks are those that represent the material record of environments in the form of rock layers or strata that once existed on earth. and shale 2. 3. There are two (2) types of sedimentary rocks. classified based ”) on grain size: conglomerate. There are three (3) very general sedimentary environments: 1. Importance of sedimentary rocks: Sedimentary rocks contain information about what earth surface environments were like in the past and generally possess natural resources including important fossil fuels. Chemical -. Sedimentary Environments are places where sediments accumulate usually in nearly horizontal layers.form from minerals precipitating out of water and usually involves some sort of chemical reaction. Sedimentary Rocks Continental (on a landmass) Near shore/shallow water (Transition between continental and ocean) Deep marine water . sandstone. Clastic (also called “Detrital”)-.
so any classification to be acceptable must take in to account: a.Genetic aspects of sediments b.Classification of Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rocks due to integration of products of weathering.Their textural characteristics c.Structural peculiarities .Mineralogical composition as well as their d.
structures are classified in to – •Primary •Secondary Primary Structures: The primary structures are due to mechanical action of current and show the following characteristicsThese structures show pale current condition Rate of supply sediments Mode of transportation Environment of deposition Top and bottom beds .Structures of Sedimentary Rocks Depending on the mechanism of formation of formation.
004 mm .GRAIN SIZE Gravel >256-2 mm Boulder: >256mm Cobble: 64-256 mm Pebble: 4-64 mm Granule: 2-4mm Fine gravel Sand 2.004 mm Clay <0.062 mm Silt 0.0.062-0.
where rivers meet the sea -. in arid regions forms evaporites 4.may be sand and mud or carbonate sediments 4. Deep marine -. Trace fossils are disruptions of sediment by animals moving through. Lacustrine -.migration of ripples/dunes on riverbed produces X-stratification in deposits. and biological processes operating in the environment produce diagnostic features in the sediments Controls on sedimentary environments: Sedimentary rocks may contain fossils Body fossils are lithified remains of the hard parts of organisms.carbonates 2. Shelf -. Deltas -.clastics and mixed carbonates/clastics 3. 2. Slope and rise -.deposits of sand at the coast 3.g. Reefs -. chemical.deposits may have wide range of grain sizes (poorly sorted).finely layered mud .build-up of limestone from coral skeletons Marine (Offshore) Sedimentary Environments (Deep Sea) 1. or may be imprints of animal's movement (e.large wind-blown sand dunes produces thick cross-stratification in deposits Marine (Nearshore) Sedimentary Environments (Transitional) 1.clastic sediments are deposited 2. Bluffs made of glacial till. Beaches -. dinosaur tracks) Continental Sedimentary Environments 1. Aeolian -.deposition of mud thin layers on lakebed. Glacial -.Physical. 3. Fluvial -. Shelf -.
cobbles. pebbles) BRECCIA: Composed of large angular pieces and clay CONGLOMERATE: Composed of large rounded pieces and clay SMALL PIECES (sand) SANDSTONE: Looks sandy (may “shed” sand grains). Has a dull luster. When tapped with a rod or on a table. but indentation with p attern of shell) or carbonized film (as for plants). may be tan. often black. . May have fossils usually impressions (no shell. mud) SHALE: Has very thin layers. Is soft.CLUES TO SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FRAGMENTAL: Composed of pieces of rocks and minerals LARGE PIECES (Boulders. silt. VERY SMALL PIECES (clay. it generally makes a dull thunk. red. white. feels rough (like sandpaper). gray.
Importance of Sedimentary Rocks Bauxite: ore of aluminum .
others form as the result of rapid and short transportation.fragmental A BRECCIA is made of varying sizes of angular fragments cemented together. such as landslides. The name is from the Italian word for “broken stones” or “rubble”.Breccia . . Many form as the result of fault movement.
The name is from the Latin conglomeratus for “heaped.Conglomerate .fragmental CONGLOMERATES are very similar to breccias. These rocks form in alluvial fans. but the fragments are rounded. . stream beds and pebble beaches. rolled or pressed together”.
deltas and dunes. The sand grains (often quartz) are commonly cemented by silica. Sandstone is identified by its sandy texture – which often translates into a gritty feel. Environments in which sandstones form include beaches.fragmental SANDSTONE is made up of finegrained particles (1/16 –2 mm). carbonates.Sandstone . clay or iron oxides. sand bars. Coconino Sandstone. the result of a Permian age coastal dune field .
swamps.fragmental SHALE is a very common rock made of silt and clay sized particles. In fact. “shell or husk”.Shale . such as lakes. the name is probably from the Old English scealu. deposited in a offshore basin in a Middle Cambrian sea. Wheeler Shale with trilobite fossil (Elrathia kingii) Fish scales Utah . deltas and offshore marine. shale may be brown to dark red. Shales form in quiet environ-ments. depending on the amount of included iron oxide. Normally gray to black. It is generally very thin-bedded and splits along the bedding planes. Black shale.
MORE CLUES TO SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
CHEMICAL: Rocks are crystalline
LIMESTONES: Composed of calcite and all WILL FIZZ vigorously in acid
Crystalline Looks sugary, usually gray or tan Fossiliferous Contains seashells (usually) or other aquatic organisms Travertine Looks sugary with bands of various colors Chalk White and soft (comes off on hands) Coquina Contains almost nothing but seashells or seashell fragments
CHERT: Cryptocrystalline QUARTZ
Very fine can NOT see crystals Waxy luster Conchoidal fracture (breaks like glass) Very hard will easily scratch glass May be ANY COLOR (Red = Jasper, Black = Flint, includes Silicified Wood)
White, gray, clear Very soft you can scratch with fingernail Clear sheets, fibrous or sugary Soft you can scratch it with fingernail Tastes like table salt (IT IS TABLE SALT!)
ROCK SALT: White to clear cubic shape COAL:
Black; Brittle; Lightweight May contain plant fossils Varieties: peat, lignite (incl. jet), sub-bituminous, bituminous White Very soft (comes off on your hands) Lightweight Will NOT fizz in HCl acid (unlike chalk)
Limestone - chemical
LIMESTONE is composed primarily of calcite. Generally it is dense, fine-grained, and usually white to dark gray. Its most distinguishing feature is its solubility in weak hydrochloric or acetic acid accompanied by brisk effervescence. The environment of deposition if generally warm, shallow seas.
Manufacture of lime and
Portland cement & to neutralize smokestack gases. Finely ground, used as a functional filler in products such as paint, countertops & plastics. The dust on chewing gum is ground limestone. Mild abrasive additive to toothpaste. Soil conditioner Flux in processing iron and copper ores. Building and ornamental stone.
LIMESTONE - chemical
Pleistocene, Rocky Point, Mexico Redwall Limestone Travertine Mayer, AZ
CHERT - chemical
CHERT is crypto-crystalline quartz. It is often the result of the dissolution of volcanic ash and is sometimes found in extensive beds, such as the novaculite of Arkansas. It has waxy luster, is translucent and fractures conchoidally. Chert can be any color, but extensive beds are generally white to gray.
NM . Satin Spar and Selenite. Three varieties are: Alabaster. as an agricultural amendment and to control the set/cure time of Portland cement. such as ocean basin or playa lake. Gypsum & Anhydrite (water-less calcium sulfate). Carlsbad.chemical Alabaster Satin Spar Selenite GYPSUM (calcium sulfate) is found in geographically wide-spread deposits resulting from the evaporation of a body of water.GYPSUM . Gypsum is mined for use in wallboard and plasters. It is soft (H=2) & usually white to gray.
ROCK SALT . Rock salt is used as a source of chlorine and sodium. CA . as a food supplement.chemical ROCK SALT (halite – sodium chloride) is also a deposit resulting from evaporation of a marine basin or playa lake. Halite Trona. in water softeners and as a road deicer. It has cubic cleavage and tastes salty.
although it is not composed of minerals. low oxygen environment. Coal (sub-bituminous) out of the Cretaceous Dakota Formation of north-eastern Arizona.COAL . Peat. . Lignite and Sub-Bituminous & Bituminous are sedimentary varieties of coal and are used as fuels. but rather the decomposed remains of large volumes of vegetation that accumulated in a wet.chemical COAL is considered a rock. such as a swamp or marsh.
It is light weight and is generally white.chemical DIATOMITE.DIATOMITE . filtering medium. insecticide. is composed of the siliceous shells of microscopic alga called diatoms. Diatomite is used as an abrasive. and paint “flattener”. AZ . San Manuel. also known as DIATOMITE diatomaceous earth.
. daughter ).pressure and .Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Definitions Definitions • Metamorphic • Metamorphic "Meta"= "Meta"= Change (Grk) "Morph"= form (Grk) "Morph"= form (Grk) Rock Rock a --rock that has been changed from its original form ( parent) by heat . fluid activity into a new rock ( into a new rock (daughter).
Metamorphic rocks When rocks are baked by heat of molten magma or squeezed by the movements of huge tectonic plates or by the pressure of overlying thick succession of rocks They are altered or changed beyond their recognition i. texture and structure Metamorphic rocks . change in Chemical composition.e.
Metamorphism Metamorphism is the mineralogical and structural adjustment of solid rocks to physical and chemical conditions which have been imposed at depths below the surface zone of weathering and cementation. Important feature of metamorphic changeThe bulk chemical composition of the metamorphic rock is the same as that rock from which it is formed. The change in metamorphism take place in an essentially solid medium . The textural and structural characteristics of the metamorphic rocks are the out come of the structure and structure of the pre-existing rocks and temperature and pressure conditions of the metamorphic change . Thus metamorphic change are isothermal changes.
Temperature – 200 to 1200 0C 2.Agents of Metamorphism 1. Chemically active fluids .Hydrostatic or uniform pressure b. Pressure a.Directed pressure or stress 3.
Injection Metamorphism.It is the mineralogical adjustment of an igneous assemblage to the falling temperature as the body of the igneous rock cools.When rock are simply crystallised without new mineral formation.Following type of metamorphism are the result of temperaturePyro metamorphism. Noraml contact metamorphism.It occurs around larger intrusive at comperatively lower temperature. .With intrusion of magma or its residual liquid may alter the intruded rock substantially. Contact Metamorphism. Auto-metamorphism.The composition of the rock is vastly modified depending upon the addition of material from magmatic emanantions.At 800 to 1000 0 C in the immediate vicinity of intrusive. Metasomatic metamorphism.
Dynamic or cataclastic metamorphism. It is known as plutonic metamorphism. Regional Metamorphism. Load Metamorphism. Chemically Active Fluids: These are from the following sourcesMeteoric water & Juvenile water . Uniform pressure and temperature can both dominate at greater depth. Its result in crushing and granulation of minerals without formation of new minerals. There is reduction in volume of rock and change in mineralogical composition . It dominates at or near the surface. Directed Pressure: It is produced due to orogenic movements.It is hydrostatic pressure increase with depth.It is due to vertically acting stress of rock masses at high temperature.Caused by extreme pressure and heat. Happens over wide “regions Uniform Pressure.Where mineralogical rearrangement of high temperature assemblage to a low temperature on take place.Retrograde Metamorphism.
between 5 to 10 miles. epidote. phyllite. Temperature is 300 to 500 0 C and pressure is moderately high. andalusite. muscovite-schist. Garnet.Biotite.Biotite. orthoclase. biotite. plagioclase. Muscovite. andalusite Rocks. Temperature is 100 to 300 0 C and pressure is moderate. almandine. Minerals.It is a zone of low grade metamorphism. Minerals-Seicite.Slate. chlorite-schists. silliminite.Grade of MetamorphismEpi Zone. It occurs at an intermediate depth i. Rocks-Phyllite and mica-schist Keta Zone. cordierite. Minerals. quartz. talc. actinolite.High grade metamorphism. Temperature is 500 to 650 0 C and pressure is quite high. It occurs at the depth of 9 to 13 miles.e.Gneisses and hornfelse . illieminite. It is characterized by the presence of hydrous minerals. biotite -schist Meso Zone.Medium grade metamorphism. quartz. kynite Rocks. chlorite. Alkali feldspar. hypersthene.
PARENT ROCK sedimentary LOW-GRADE METAMORPH IC ROCK MEDIUMGRADE METAMORPH IC ROCK .
NON-FOLIATE METAMORPHIC ROCKS Non-Foliates are metamorphic rocks that have no cleavage at all. quartzi marb te le . Quartzite and marble are two examples of non-foliates .
tourmaline. gray or red PHYLLITE: Like slate.CLUES TO METAMORPHIC ROCKS FOLIATED: Rocks have layers or banding SLATE: Rock breaks into very thin layers Beginning to look polished. but shinier (“phyllitic sheen” similar to satin) SCHIST: Very shiny you can SEE CRYSTALS (usually MICA) Is layered May have crystals (of garnet. etc.) growing with the mica GNEISS: Crystalline Black & White BANDING (due to segregation of minerals) . Is harder than shale Cannot see crystals Black .
It may be gray. . Note the relatively dull luster of slate.SLATE . flagstone. Uses include roofing. black.which allows it to split readily into sheets.foliated SLATE is derived from shale. but one in which parallel planes are very evident in its slaty foliation – a feature resulting from the alignment of clay and mica minerals. green or red. pool table tops and “blackboards”. It is a dense. microcrystalline rock.
.foliated PHYLLITE is somewhat more metamorphosed than slate.PHYLLITE . The name comes from its leaflike (many fine layers) appearance. Note the phyllitic sheen. satiny shine referred to as “phyllitic sheen”. The platy crystals of mica have grown and the rock displays a subtle.
tourmaline) to grow in the rock. Schist is added to clay mixtures as a strengthening material in vitreous pipe (red Crumpling of schist due to sewer) and clay roof tiles. pressure and collapse of mica crystals tourmaline porphyroblast – note alignment garnet porphyroblast . staurolite. with prominent parallel mineral orientation. Typically.SCHIST .foliated SCHIST is medium to coarse-grained. it is predominately muscovite mica. which lends a silvery white to gray sparkly appearance. crystalline. It is not unusual for accessory minerals (such as garnets.
separation of dark & light minerals is just beginning Well banded gneiss Augen = quartz pebble resistant to compression Augen Gneiss kink in gneiss .Gneissic granite – GNEISS . Because the rock becomes plastic. the banding is often contorted (squiggly).foliated GNEISS formed under conditions of high temperatures and pressures at great depth during regional metamorphism. It is characterized by foliation expressed as black and white banding.
These changes take place in the solid state. Through the agents of metamorphism it changes to rocks that are stable at higher temperatures and pressures.metamorphism of shale SHALE is the most common sedimentary rock. GRANITE MELTING Produces GRANITE Slate Shale Increasing Temperature and Pressure Phyllite Schist Gneiss .
CLUES TO METAMORPHIC ROCKS NON-FOLIATED: Shows NO layers or banding MARBLE: Sugary looking Will fizz in HCl (acid) Often is multi-colored. BUT it is harder (BREAKS THROUGH PEBBLES) and often the pebbles are squished & aligned (it is at this point foliated) SERPENTINITE: Composed of members of the serpentine family (includes chrysotile asbestos) Generally light greenish gray to greenish black Waxy luster Often exhibit curved and slickensided surfaces . may be white Soft will not scratch glass QUARTZITE: Very dense MAY look a bit sandy Very hard will easily scratch glass METACONGLOMERATE: Looks like sedimentary conglomerate.
green. The colors can vary from pure white to gray. paper and adhesives. brown. landscaping. AZ Hewitt Canyon. plastics. due to high pressure and temperature. black. poultry grit. Aguila. floors. paving/roofing. Bands or streaks result from plastic flow during extreme deformation. yellow. AZ . It is calcite or dolomite and will fizz in weak acids. and as filler/extender for paint. Marble is used for building facades. statuary. countertops.MARBLE – non-foliated MARBLE is metamorphosed limestone or dolomite. red or any combination thereof. depending on the ‘impurities’ in the parent limestone.
It is a very dense. It can be any color. microcrystalline rock (but still may retain a slightly sandy look). tan or pink. but tends to be white. massive.durable. .QUARTZITE – non-foliated QUARTZITE is metamorphosed quartz sand-stone.
AZ . Chrysotile asbestos Salt River Canyon. often associated asbestos and common slickensided surfaces are clues to its identity. such as at convergent boundaries.SERPENTINITE – non-foliated SERPENTINITE is composed of one or more minerals in the serpentine family. waxy luster. It is common where wet basalts or mantle rocks are metamorphosed. Its green colors.
It retains its pebbly appearance. but while a sedimentary conglomerate will break around the pebbles. the pebbles may become squished or flattened and will be elongated parallel to each other (becomes foliated). a metaconglomerate will break through the pebbles.METACONGLOMERATE – non-foliated Conglomerate METACONGLOMERATE is metamorphosed conglomerate. If temperatures are high enough in the presence of pressure. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.