WITHOUT LEAVES, WITHOUT BUDS, WITHOUT FLOWERS: YET THEY FORM FRUIT.

AS A MEDICINE, AS A FOOD, AS A TONIC: THE ENTIRE CREATION IS PRECIOUS.

MUSHROOM IS A MACROFUNGUS WITH A DISTINCTIVE FRUITING BODY WHICH CAN BE EITHER EPIGEOUS OR HYPOGEUOS AND LARGE ENOUGH TO BE SEEN WITH NAKED EYE AND TO BE PICKED BY HAND.

Mushroom Structure

Life Cycle

Mushrooms may be
Unpalatable, and others

even poisonous, the mushrooms of many species are not only edible but delicious and nutritious.

Truffles Tuber melanosporum

Boletus, Boletus, cep

Important wild edible mushrooms in Pakistan
Black morels, Morchella species Khumbi, Podaxis pistillaris Khappa, Phellorina inquinanse Khamiri, Agaricus bitorquis

Black morels, Morchella species
Appears in Northern Areas after snow melts. 60-70 tons of morels exported annually.

Khamiri, Agaricus bitorquis

Wild edible mushroom of Baluchistan, used for eating by local inhabitants.

Khumbi
Podaxis pistillaris

Importance  

  



It is not land dependant as it is grown indoor. Medicinal and nutritional value Grown on waste materials Can be developed as cottage industry Source of income Export potential

Before becoming involved consider the following questions
How do mushrooms grow? What is the mushrooms industry? Why grow mushrooms? What knowlelge and training are necessary? What problems may be consider in growing and marketing. Where can you get for further information?

How do mushrooms grow?  

In nature Mushrooms appear infrequently. Fungi which can produce mushrooms do so only when nutritional and environmental conditions are right. Mushroom cultivation requires firstly the preparation of substrates and secondly management of growing environments.

Present Status of Mushroom Industry in Pakistan 

At present, mushrooms are generally cultivated in underdeveloped agricultural areas using simple low-cost methods mostly under natural conditions with low labour costs, frequently as a part time activity. Standard methods for Agaricus cultivation are adopted for small-scale production in some parts of Pakistan.

Why grow mushrooms?  

 

 

To provide full-time occupation and primary source of income. As a part-time occupation & secondary income. To utilize existing facilities such as building or stores not currently in use. To efficiency in a complemantary business. To utilize more fully existing marketing and distribution systems. For life-cycle change, perhaps to µget back to nature¶ growing a crop with strong natural rhythm.

Important Cultivated Mushrooms 
   



Button mushroom, Agaricus species Oyster, Pleurotus species Shiitake, Lentinus edodes Straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea Wood¶ear, Auricularia species Winter mushroom, Flammulina velutipes

Capital requirements   

Mushroom production requires considerable capital outlay. You have to consider whether to convert existing buildings for mushroom growing. This also depends upon the type of production system to be adopted

Variable costs 
  



For the purchase of spawn For the purchase of substrates for the preparation of composts. Capital investment for the construction of building and purchase of machinery. Energy costs Labour costs

Production systems

Which production system you will choose? Some requires high investments, other less, but you must exceed a break even yield to be profitable.

Training
A start-up programme and training is essential before any new production system unit will achieve economic yield.

Problems  

Pests and diseases can be devastating and their control in mushroom is a constant cost which is involved and complicated. Growers cannot depend chemical pesticides as the crop is extremely sensitive.

Marketing  



Market outlets must be assured before beginning. These requires continuous supply which involves accurate crop programming. Having grown a crop, it needs to be harvested µseven days a week¶. There is room only for top quality mushrooms. A new producer must rely on whole-sale markets. Initially due to lack of continuity and high quality direct outlets cannot be contemplated.

Some Important cultivated Mushroom 

Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus Species Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus/bitorquis Shiitake Mushroom, Lentinus edodes Straw Mushroom, Volvariella volvacea   

Oyster Mushroom

Natural Growth on Logs

Nutritional Value 
 

Source of proein (25-35% on dry wt., basis) Source of vitamin B,C and niacin Very low fat contents

Medicinal value 
  

 

Anti-tumor (tumor reduction and control) Immune response (boost bodies ability to fight disease) Anti-inflammatory (relief tension due to muscle inflammation) Antiviral (as an immune response) Antibiotics (as an immune response) Lower cholestrol and triglycerol levels as well as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in blood plasma

Substrates 
   

Cotton Waste Paddy straw Wheat straw Cotton Boll locules Dry banana leaves

Growing Techniques
Soaking and fermentation of Substrates Filling in trays or bags Pasteurization Spawning Management of crop

Addition of water

The Straw or other materials are chopped and partly shredded and then mixed with water. The optimum water content is about 70%.

Soaking and fermentation of cotton waste 
  

Cotton waste is soaked in water. 5% wheat straw may also be mixed. Lime 2% is added. The mixture is piled up and covered with plastic sheet for 4-6 days. 4-

Soaking

Fermentation

Containers for cultivation 
Oyster

mushroom can be grown in plastic or polypropylene bags as well as in vertical or horizontal trays.

Heat treatment
(Sterilization and pasteurization) 

In order to destroy the vegetative form of competing microorganisms, the substrate is subjected to sterilization or pasteurization.

Hot water treatment

Wheat or paddy straw can be treated with hot water (65°C ± 5°C) for 10 (65° minutes to one hour. The excess water is drained off and discarded.

Steaming in drums  

Sterilization by steaming at 100°C in drums is more acceptable because cost is low. Steam the bags for 1-2 hours depending upon the substrate and volume.

Pasteurization in Drums

Pasteurization by using steam generator Substrate filled bags or containers are placed in a room. Steam is introduced into the room from steam generator and the bags or containers are kept at 5860°C for 4-6 hours.

Pasteurazation by steam generator

Pasteurization: Inner view

Spawning
Mixing of spawn into the substrate is called spawning

Grain spawn  

After the heat treatment is completed and the substrate has cooled down to 20-25°C it can be inoculated. Pure culture grain spawn is commonly used. The quantity of spawn can be varies from 11.5% on the wet weight of the substrate.

Method of spawning
‡ Through spawning: Spawn is mixed through out the substrate. ‡ Surface spawning: Spawn is placed on top of the substrate. It is generally recommended for bag cultivation.

Spawning

Spawned bag

Tying
The mouth of the bags is tied loosely with thread or rubber bands.  Small holes should be made in bigger plastic bags.  Plastic foil is used for covering the trays. 

Tying

Incubation
The spawned bags are then kept preferably in a dark room until the mycelium has fully penetrated the substrate downward. It takes about 34 weeks. During spawn running stage the temperature is ranged between 2528°C.

Incubation

Rows of Plastic Bags

Spawn running

Fructification or cropping   

Fructification or fruit-body formation is started as soon as the substrate is fully impregnated with mycelial growth. Ventilation, temperature and relative humidity play important role. By means of ventilation the temperature is decreased to desired level.

Completion of spawn running

Temperature
The optimum temperature for pinpin-head formation and development of fruit-body of fruitdifferent Pleurotus species is ranged between 16-26°C. 16-26°

Relative humidity 

Desired relative humidity during the formation of pinheads should be 90-95%. 90It should be lowered to 808085% during the development of fruit bodies. 

Production trend
‡ The mushrooms produce in flushes. ‡ The first flush gives higher yield. ‡ There are total 3-5 flushes. ‡ The interval between the flushes is 8-12 days.

Production 

Production depend on the types of substrates used, environmental control systems and personal experience. The yield varies between 25-100% 25calculated in proportion to the dry weight of the substrate, 

Pin head formation

Mushroom development

Picking stage

Growing in box

Vertical containers

Cropping

Cropping

Cropping

Cropping

Cultivation on wheat straw beds

Cropping

White Oyster, P. ostreatus

Grey tree oyster, P. ostreatus

Phoenix oyster, P. sajor-caju sajor-

Golden oyster, P. cornucopiae

P. citrinopileatus

Pink oyster, P. flabellatus

King Oyster, P. eryngii

Growing on logs

Pleurotus ostreatus in plastic bottles

Oyster Mushroom Farm, Korea

Inside view

Mushroom growing

Watering

Oyster Mushroom Farm, Horst, The Netherlands

Inner View, Cultivation in trays

Harvesting 

Oyster mushroom should be harvested before the mushrooms show slightly curled edges.

Button Mushroom The mostly widely grown mushroom of the world

Production 

Grown in Europe, USA, China and many other countries. China is the main producer. It accounted 32% of the total world supply  

Phases of mushroom technology
Compost preparation Pasteurization Spawning Spawn running Casing Strategies for pin-head formation Management of crop and harvesting

Composting
The purpose of composting is to prepare a nutritious medium of such characteristics that the growth of mushroom mycelium is promoted to the practical exclusion of competitor organisms.

Types of compost  

Horse manure compost: When compost: horse manure is used as basic ingredient or cereal straw is gathered from horse stables. Synthetic compost: It refers to compost: compost using no horse manure.

Supplements
Composting is a process of microbial decomposition. Microbes present in the compost need only the addition of water to become active. Nutrients are also added to enhance their growth. The supplements provide nitrogen and carbohydrates for microbial activity.

COMPOST FORMULA
Wheat Straw Chicken manure Gypsum Urea 1000 Kg 400 Kg 35 Kg 7 Kg

Composting

Composting

End of composting

Filling

Pasturization

Pasteurization-inner view Pasteurization-

Spawning

Covering

Spawn running

Completion of spawn running

Preparation of peat soil for casing

Spreading of casing soil

Casing soil has been applied

Watering after casing

Mycelial growth on casing soil

Mushroom formation

Further development

Cropping

Commercial white button

Commercial white button

Commercial crimini

Commercial crimini

Portebello Mushrom

Commercial Portebello

Commercial Portebello

High temperature Button Mushroom

Harvesting

Row of Mushroom Houses

Shelves

Mushroom House-Installation Houseof Shelves

Mushroom House-Inner View House-

Chinese Mushroom

Small tropical and subtropical edible mushroom having a white cap and long stem; an expensive delicacy in China and other Asian countries where it is grown commercially

Outdoor Cutivation

Shiitake Mushroom

Spawn Technology

Spawn
Spawn is seed of mushroom and successful mushroom production depends upon good quality spawn

Mushroom culture Laboratory is working on a broad range of strains capable of producing fruit-bodies of high fruitproductivity and good characters.

Main objectives of spawn research
1.

Maintenance of viability for longer period, thus permitting survival of the cultures. cultures. Maintenance of genetic, morphological and physiological stability, thus increasing the preservation of strain characteristics of scientific and commercial importance. importance. Maintenance of culture purity so that spawn is free of other microorganisms and viruses. viruses.

2.

3.

Spore Production

Spores produces on lamellae or gills when the fruit-body matures

Spore Print

Development of strains by mycelial transfusion

Spawn

Where you can go for help?

Mushroom lab, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad has advisers who can answer any question relating to mushroom growing

From Mushroom Lab you can get information on 
   

Specialist financial advice for your proposals Advise on building or environmental control Crop advise, both on site and by telephone Up-to-date recommendations for pests and disease problems Help in many other areas relevant to mushroom production

Address
Dr. Muhammad Asif Ali Associate Professor and Research Scientist Mushrooms Mushroom Lab, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Tel Off: 041-9200161-70 Ext. 2907,4041 041-9200161Res:041-8727885 Res:041Mobile: 0300-7608823 0300Email: masifali@hotmail.com

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