CLIMATE CHANGE and THE HVAC INDUSTRY: Exposing the Link

By Varun Pahwa

DESICCANT ROTORS INTERNATIONAL Pvt. Ltd.

CLIMATE CHANGE 101

THE EARTH IS HEATING UP. .

14 DECEMBER 2007 .UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE BALI. 3 .

GLOBAL WARMING IS HERE TO STAY. .

0.75 ppm 0 .6% 4.30 ppb Anthropogenic Sources Fossil Fuel Burning.7 ppb 275 .4% 11. Combustion Urban Pollution GWP 1 21 3400+ 310 Proportion of Total Effect (Approximate) 60% 20% 14% 6% GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL .9% 1.2000 280 .310 ppb 15 .2% SHARE OF EMISSIONS 2006 Greenhouse Gas Carbon Dioxide Methane Halocarbons Nitrous Oxide Ozone Concentration 1800s . Fuel Leakage Refrigerants Agriculture.1.370 ppm 0. Deforestation Agriculture.2% 18.4% 1.Rank 1 2 3 4 15 19 Country WORLD USA CHINA EU RUSSIA INDIA FRANCE AUSTRALIA Annual emission MMT 27.246 6049 5010 3115 1525 1343 374 327 % of total emissions 100% 22.4% 5.75 .

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Buildings HVAC Equipment Environmental Impact .Consume 12% of world¶s fresh water 40% of world¶s energy Produce 40% of waste going to landfills 40% of emissions BUILDINGS Electricity use is the main source of GHG emissions in commercial buildings.Electricity . Many commercial buildings are responsible for upto 200 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per square meter of floor space annually.Water .Embodied Energy . being responsible for 89% of all emissions.Refrigerants .

14 KG of CO2 per KW of electricity CONCEPTUAL ILLUSTRATION OF CO2 EMISSIONS FROM ELECTIC END USE OF ENERGY.500 Btu) 1 kWh delivered to end use (Thermal equivalent assuming 33% plant efficiency) Coal Fuel . .37 kWh Thermal (11.1.Fuel Energy In Power Plant Electric powered System or process Transmission and Distribution 1.1kWh 3.

Carbon Emissions for Electricity Generation Coal 0.4% Hydro 26. Hydro < 0.8 Kg of CO2 / kwh of electricity used . Nuclear.05 Kg / kwh CO2 INDIA SOURCES OF POWER Coal 53. Wind.9 Kg / kwh CO2 Gas 0.6 Kg / kwh CO2 Solar.6% T&D LOSES Average 8 ± 10 % India 22% 0.5% Gas 10.

. Nearly 70% of electricity produced at US power plants is consumed by the existing residential.76 million residential buildings . commercial. another 38 million buildings are expected to be constructed. and industrial buildings.5 million commercial buildings By the year 2010.THE US STORY .

3% of all energy consumed in the US is for space conditioning in commercial and residential buildings using HVACR systems and products (includes heating. Space conditioning accounts for 44% and 30% of the energy consumption in the US residential and commercial sector respectively. Approximately 14. cooling and parasitic equipment) Sector Residential Major Uses 32% space heating 13% water heating 12% lighting 11% air conditioning 8% refrigeration 5% electronics 5% wet-clean (mostly clothes dryers) 25% lighting 13% heating 11% cooling 6% refrigeration 6% water heating 6% ventilation 6% electronics Commercial Energy consumption characteristics of US commercial buildings HVAC systems .Overall.

Cooling Heating PRIMARY ENERGY USE ± HVAC EQUIPMENT BREAKDOWN .

. The commercial sector HVACR emission is approximately 373 MMTons.8%) commercial sector 1056 MMT (17. 2005 emissions in the US were 5954 MMTons Residential sector 1243 MMT (20.PARASITIC PRIMARY ENERGY USE ± EQUIPMENT BREAKDOWN Parasitic energy use in commercial building HVAC systems accounts for about 10% of commercial sector energy use.7%) Space conditioning or HVACR equipment in the US for commercial & residential sectors uses energy which can be equated to approximately 700 to 900 MMTons.

. hotels. 80 million square feet of offices and 200 townships.Slated for construction by 2010 12 million homes. 600 shopping malls. hospitals and schools. Commercial Buildings 32 % for ac / 60 % for lighting / 8 % others Emission in the commercial sector can be estimated between 11 and 14 MMT on account of installed space conditioning equipment. along with airports. India¶s electricity consumption stands at 587 billion Kwh in 2006. out of which currently 8% is being used by the commercial sector and 25% in the residential segment.

This new annual installed base of centrifugal and screw chillers alone in India represents an addition of over 1. In 2005.The central plant market in India is currently growing at 23% per year and the market for large chillers (centrifugal and screw) is expected to grow at 30% per year.000 cooling tonnes. the centrifugal chillers market is estimated at 60. in the case of India. . HVACR energy use in commercial buildings currently represents over 6% of total country emissions in US 1 to 2% of total country emissions in India However.000 cooling tonnes and the market for screw chillers is estimated at 300.2 MMTos of emissions. this percentage is rising extremely fast on account of 12% growth in demand for electricity in commercial buildings.

UAE is world¶s second largest per capita carbon emitter after Qatar.Dubai 1985 Dubai 2005 .70% was utilized in commercial and residential buildings. power demand will double up. AUSTRALIA By 2010. . HVACR energy use in commercial buildings will be responsible for 21 Mt of emissions annually or nearly 4% of Australia's total emissions.By 2015. . .

Global Warming Climate Change Sustainability Clean-Tech Carbon Credits EVERYONE IS TALKING IN A NEW LANGUAGE : µGREEN¶ .

renewable energy. including energy efficiency. and address issues such as historical preservation. create a healthy and comfortable environment. reduce operation and maintenance costs. consider environmental impacts and waste minimization. . access to public transportation and other community infrastructure systems. The entire life cycle of the building and its components should be considered. and water conservation features. as well as the economic and environmental impact and performance.Building µGREEN¶ promotes resource conservation.

370 ppm 0.75 .310 ppb 15 . GHG in Kyoto Protocol . Fuel Leakage Refrigerants Agriculture.30 ppb Anthropogenic Sources Fossil Fuel Burning.7 ppb 275 .2000 280 .Greenhouse Gas Carbon Dioxide Methane Halocarbons Nitrous Oxide Ozone Concentration 1800s .75 ppm 0 .06 percent of humaninduced global warming.1. HFCs account for only 0.0. Combustion Urban Pollution GWP 1 21 3400+ 310 Proportion of Total Effect (Approximate) 60% 20% 14% 6% CFCs HCFCs HFCs -Ozone depletion -Global Warming HCFCs -ozone depleting effect 10% of CFCs. Deforestation Agriculture.

embodied energy is an indicator of the level of energy consumption for a building. to transport. Material Steel kg carbon equivalent per tonne produced 300 to 850 (depending on % scrap steel) . it is a major source of energy consumption within a building.from the raw material extraction. assembly. Like operational energy. installation as well as the capital and other costs of a specific material . manufacturing. Different methodologies produce different understandings of the scale and scope of application and the type of energy embodied. Some commercial buildings the embodied energy can be equivalent to 20 to 37 years of operational energy and consequently.Embodied energy is the sum total of the energy necessary .to produce a service or product and finally its disassembly and/or deconstruction.

SAVING THE PLANET HAS SUDDENLY BECOME GOOD BUSINESS. .