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Unit-V

1. What is a Cloud Computing?


• Cloud is a metaphor for the Internet
• Cloud Computing is a distributed computing
paradigm that focuses on providing a wide range of
users with distributed access to virtualized
hardware and/or software infrastructure over the
Internet.
• Cloud computing is on demand.
• Cloud Computing architecture contains 2 main
sections are front end i.e. computer with user and
back end is data centre and virtualization software.
• Components are clients ,services, application,
platform, storage and Infrastructure.
• The cloud lets users contract for
services at three levels:

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• Cloud Computing: Cloud computing is
Internet-based computing, whereby
shared resources, software and
information are provided as a service
to computers and other devices on-
demand.
• The architectural service layers of
Cloud computing is
1. Software as a Service – SaaS
2. Platform as a Service- Paas
3. Infrastructure as a Services - Iaas
• Virtualization:
– Increase use of hardware resources
– Reduces management and resource cost
– Improves business flexibility
– Improves security and reduce downtime
• Data Centre: Physical hard drive
storage aggregates into storage pools
from which logical storage is created.

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1. Infrastructure-as-a-Service:
– Delivers storage and computing power
– Grids of virtualized servers, storage & networks.
– Examples include Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud(EC2) and
Simple Storage Service(S3) and Joyent.
2. Platform-as-a-Service:
– Computing platform is provided as service
– Supplies tools and development environment
– Customers interact with platform through API
– The abstraction of applications from traditional limits of
hardware allowing developers to focus on application
development and not worry about operating systems,
infrastructure scaling, load balancing and so on.
– Examples include Force.com and Microsoft's Azure investments.
3. Software-as-a-Service:
– Application is offered is service
– Managed by the provider
– Applications with a Web-based interface accessed via Web
Services and Web 2.0.
– Examples include Google Apps, SalesForce.com and social
network applications such as FaceBook.
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• Cloud Solutions
1. Google Apps
2. Microsoft Online
3. Salesforce.com
4. Zimbra
5. SecureMX

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• Cloud Architecture
• Cloud Architectures are designs of software
applications that use Internet-accessible on-
demand services.
• Applications built on Cloud Architectures are such
that the underlying computing infrastructure is
used only when it is needed, draw the necessary
resources on-demand, perform a specific job, then
relinquish the unneeded resources and often
dispose themselves after the job is done.
• While in operation the application scales up or
down elastically based on resource needs.

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Cloud computing sample architecture
Cloud computing architecture
Cloud storage
• With cloud storage, data is stored on multiple third-party
servers, rather than on the dedicated servers.
• When storing data, the user sees a virtual server—that is,
it appears as if the data is stored in a particular place with
a specific name.
• In reality, the user’s data could be stored on any one or
more of the computers used to create the cloud.
• Data stored in the cloud is secure from accidental erasure
or hardware crashes, because it is duplicated across
multiple physical machines.
Characteristics
• On-demand service: Get computing capabilities
as needed automatically

– Broad Network Access: Services available over the


net using desktop, laptop, PDA, mobile phone

– Resource pooling: Provider resources pooled to


server multiple clients

– Rapid Elasticity: Ability to quickly scale in/out service

– Measured Service: control, optimize services based


on metering
• SERVICES
• AaaS - Architecture as a Service
• BaaS - Business as a Service
• CaaS - Computing as a Service
• DaaS - Data as a Service
• DBaaS -Database as a Service
• EaaS - Ethernet as a Service
• FaaS - Frameworks as a Service
• GaaS - Globalization or Governance as a Service
• HaaS - Hardware as a Service
• IaaS - Infrastructure or Integration as a Service
• IDaaS - Identity as a Service
• LaaS - Lending as a Service
• MaaS - Mashups as a Service
• OaaS - Organization or Operations as a Service
• SaaS - Software as a Service
• StaaS - Storage as a Service
• PaaS - Platform as a Service
• TaaS - Technology or Testing as a Service
• VaaS - Voice as a Service
• COMPANIES OFFERINGS CLOUD SERVICES
• 3Tera Grid-based Platform For Cloud Apps
• Akamai Application Performance Services
• Amazon.com Amazon Web Services
• AretiInternet Virtual Hosting
• Bungee Labs Virtual Labs-as-a-Service software
• CohesiveFT Cloud Platform
• Elastra Hosted Elastic Computing
• EMC Storage Cloud – Decho(Mozy, Pi) + Cloud Infrastructure
& Services Division
• Enki Computing Utility
• Flexiscale Utility Computing on Demand
• Fortress ITX DynamicGrid
• Google Search Services
• HP Adaptive Infrastructure as a Service
• iCloud Desktop Cloud
• IBM Computing Cloud, Advanced UIs, Deep Capacity on
Demand
• Joyent Accelerator for Applications
• Layered Technology GridLayer
• Microsoft CRM, email and IM Services
• Mosso Hosting Cloud
• Salesforce.com Force.com
• Terremark Infinistructure
• XCalibre FlexiScale
Cloud deployment Models
• Public
– External cloud describes in such a way resources
are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-
service basis over the Internet, via web
applications/web services.
– Owned and operated by third parties.
• Private
– On-premise Private Cloud
– Externally hosted Private Cloud
• Hybrid
– Service providers can utilize 3rd party Cloud
Providers in a full or partial manner.
– Increases flexibility of computing.
• Community.
Implementation/usage
• Users select a task or service (either starting an
application or opening a document).
• User’s request goes to the system management,
which finds the correct resources and then calls the
system’s appropriate provisioning services.
• These services
> Carve out the necessary resources in the cloud
> Launch the appropriate web application
> Opens the requested document.
• Web application is launched System’s monitoring
functions track the usage of the cloud so that
resources are apportioned and attributed to the
proper user(s).
• User is charged according to the amount of utilities
and resources used.
Implementation/usage
Service Consumers
Datacenter
Infrastructure
Monitor & Manage Access
Services & Resources Services

Cloud
Administrator
IT Cloud Component Vendors /
Software Publishers

Service Catalog,
Component Publish & Update
Library Components,
Service Templates

Fig: Providers perspective


C lo u d C o m p u t in g
U s e r s s e l e c ts G r e e n
p r o v id o r s
B u tto n fr o m w i th i n
A p p l i c a ti o n

E n c ry p te d →
P ro c e s s re q u e s t
ta s k
←P ro c e s s re s u lt

In te r G r i d A g g r e g a te s
O r S e t u p a n A c c o du en mt a n d a n d b u y s a t th e
b e s t r a te fr o m C l o u d
C o m p u ti n g P r o v i d e r s

U S$0.0 1c
c p u/ h r
Fig: Users perspective
Cloud Components
• Cloud Computing will require persons with different
expertise, experiences and backgrounds.
• Clients
• Services
• Application
• Platform
• Storage
• Infrastructure
• The Client – The End User
• The Service – the Functions in Cloud Computing
• Front end is USER computer
• Back end is cloud and Interface is Internet

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1.The Client – The End

User
Everything ends with the client. The hardware
components, the application and everything else
developed for cloud computing will be used in the
client. Without the client, nothing will be possible.
• The client could come in two forms: the hardware
component or the combination of software and
hardware components. Although it’s a common
conception that cloud computing solely relies on the
cloud (internet), there are certain systems that
requires pre-installed applications to ensure smooth
transition. The hardware on the other hand will be the
platform where everything has to be launched.
• Optimization is based on two fronts: the local hardware
capacity and the software security. Through optimized
hardware with security, the application will launch
seamlessly.
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2. The Service – the Functions in Cloud
Computing
• Cloud computing always has a purpose.
One of the main reasons cloud
computing become popular is due to
the adoption of businesses as the
easier way to implement business
processes. Cloud computing is all about
processes and the services launched
through cloud computing always has to
deal with processes with an expected
output.
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Cloud Computing
infrastructure Models
• There are 3 types of clouds
1. Public cloud
2. Private cloud
3. Hybrid cloud

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Software for Cloud
• Cloud computing OS is
– Windows Azure
– eyeOS
– Cloud
– vSphere4
– Google chrome OS
– CloudSlim is a cloud computing simulator

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Advantages
• Extremely cost efficient
• Device and location independency
• Scalability
• Unlimited storage capacity
• Flexibility
• Reduced s/w maintenance
• Increased data reliability
• Agility
• Improved document format
compatability 27
Disadvantages
• Requires constant internet connection
• Doesn’t work with well low speed
connection
• Can be slow
• Data store might not be secure
• Stored data can be lost

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• Cloud Computing enables a shift from the
computer to the user, from applications to tasks,
and from isolated data to data that can be
accessed from anywhere and shared with anyone.
• Cloud computing offers real alternatives to IT
departments for improved flexibility and lower cost.
• The user no longer needs to remember where the
data is. All that matters is that the data is in the
cloud, and its available to user.
• Markets are developing for the delivery of software
applications, platforms, and infrastructure as a
service to IT departments over the “cloud”.
• Good career opportunities.
2. Why Cloud Computing
• Cloud computing refers to both the
applications delivered as services over
the Internet and the hardware and
systems software in the datacenters
that provide those services.
• The services themselves have long
been referred to as Software as a
Service (SaaS), so we use that term.
• The datacenter hardware and software
is what we will call a Cloud.
• 10 reasons Why Cloud Computing is
the Wave of the Future

• Software as a Subscription
• Reduced Software Maintenance
• Increased Reliability
• Increased Scalability
• Cost Reduction
• Environmentally Friendly
• Matches Current Computing Trends
• Portability/Accessibility
• Efficient Use of Computer Resources
• Versionless Software
• Cloud computing consists of shared
computing resources that are virtualized and
accessed as a service, through an API.
• The cloud enables users in an organization
to run applications by deploying them to the
cloud, a virtual datacenter.
• The physical resources may reside in a
number of locations inside and outside of an
organization: on local hardware, in an
enterprise data center, or at remote or
managed service providers on a pay-to-use
basis.
• Cloud computing resources are offered as a
service on an as-needed basis, and
delivered by IP-based connectivity, providing
highly scalable, reliable on-demand services
with agile management capabilities.
• Cloud Application Characteristics
1. Incremental Scalability. Cloud environments allow users to
access additional compute resources on-demand in response to
increased application loads.
2. Agility. As a shared resource, the cloud provides flexible,
automated management to distribute the computing resources
among the cloud's users.
3. Reliability and Fault-Tolerance. Cloud environments take
advantage of the built-in redundancy of the large numbers of
servers that make them up by enabling high levels of availability
and reliability for applications that can take advantage of this.
4. Service-oriented. The cloud is a natural home for service-
oriented applications, which need a way to easily scale as
services get incorporated into other applications.
5. Utility-based. Users only pay for the services they use, either
by subscription or transaction-based models.
6. Shared. By enabling IT resources to be consolidated, multiple
users share a common infrastructure, allowing costs to be more
effectively managed without sacrificing the security of each
user's data.
7. SLA-driven. Clouds are managed dynamically based on service-
level agreements that define policies like delivery parameters,
costs, and other factors.
8. APIs. Because clouds virtualize resources as a service they must
have an application programming interface (API).
• Related Technologies
• cloud computing is enabled by grid computing, virtualization, utility
computing, hosting and software as a service (SaaS). Yet these
technologies differ from cloud computing in the following ways:
1. Grid Computing: Originally designed for computationally intensive
batch applications, grid computing was developed as a way to share
computers and data. From these beginnings, modern grid computing
technologies have evolved as a way to harness inexpensive servers in
a data center to solve a variety of business problems. Traditionally,
grids have lacked the automation, agility and simplicity characterized
by cloud computing.
2. Virtualization: Virtualized infrastructures are available on-demand
and capable of supporting multiple users, but lack the automation
required for the self-managing, self-healing property of the cloud.
3. Hosting: Hosting services provide space on servers for use by clients
as well as providing IP-based connectivity, typically in a data center.
Because hosting does not enable on-demand, elastic scalability, it
cannot be considered cloud computing.
4. SaaS: Although Software-as-a-Service offerings are often hosted on
true clouds, SaaS is an application as a service and cloud computing is
IT infrastructure as a service.
5. Utility computing: In the utility computing model, computing
resources like applications, infrastructure and storage are packaged
and sold as a service, with users paying only for what they consume,
like electricity. In many respects, cloud computing is closely related to
the utility computing model, with cloud computing being a broader
concept that relates to the underlying architecture in which the
services are designed.
• Benefits:
1. You receive secure, managed hosting at very
inexpensive costs.
2. You do not need to purchase additional hardware
as your space requirements grow.
3. Your server will have offsite backup in case
something goes wrong.
4. If something does goes wrong, you can get the
support of your service providers.

• Disadvantages:
1. 1. Additional cost of data transfer fees.
2. You do not have control over the remote servers,
their software, or their security.
3. Your data is at the mercy of a third-party company
(you better make sure you trust them).
4. It may be difficult (or even impossible) to migrate
massive amounts of data from the provider
• What are the limitations of  Cloud
Computing
• Cloud computing with all its benefits also has its own
set of limitations which restrict enterprises to move
their applications in the cloud.  Some of these
limitations are:
1. Customization is nearly impossible
2. Scalability problems with Sequential processing
3. Data privacy issues because of the common resources
4. Lack of high speed Internet connectivity
5. Reliability problems related to SLAs.  Alex Iskold wrote a great
post on cloud computing which also mentions about the SLAs
for cloud computing and what to expect.
6. Cost surpasses traditional hosting in case of very high usage.
7. New unstructured and non standard paradigm of programming
8. Restrictions on the programming model
9. A good local debugging experience
10. Appropriate metrics and documentation of programming best
practices
11. Ensuring availability of the cloud
12. Ensuring Consistency
13. Program verification 
• Cloud Computing Pros:
– Automatic Provisioning
– Automatic Deployment
– The Ability to Scale Quickly and Seamlessly
– Pay as You Go
• Cloud Computing Cons:
– Technology Still Evolving
– The Cost of Complex Cloud Computing Hosting
• Limitations and Restrictions of Cloud
Computing:
– Reliability
– Customization
– Sequential Processing and Scalability
– Cloud Computing and Privacy
– Bandwidth
– Cloud Computing and Hosting
• Cloud Computing Applications
1. Clients would be able to access their applications and data from
anywhere at any time
2. It could bring hardware costs down
3. Servers and digital storage devices take up space
4. Corporations might save money on IT support
5. Backup and recovery.
6. Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) 
7. Scalable Website
8. Grid Computing
9. Test & Development
10. Social Gaming Applications
11. compute and storage cloud architectures and implementations
12. map-reduce and its generalizations
13. programming models and tools
14. novel data-intensive computing applications
15. data intensive scalable computing
16. distributed data intensive computing
17. content distribution systems for large data
18. data management within and across data centers
19. models, frameworks and systems for cloud security
Cloud Computing
•“A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven
by economies of scale, in which a pool of abstracted,
virtualized, dynamically-scalable, managed computing power,
storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to
external customers over the Internet.” 1

•Cloud Computing is a distributed computing paradigm


that focuses on providing a wide range of users with
distributed access to virtualized hardware and/or
software infrastructure over the Internet.

1
I. Foster, Y. Zhau, R. Ioan, and S. Lu. “Cloud Computing and Grid Computing : 360-Degree Compared.” Grid Computing
Environments Workshop, 2008.
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Drivers for Cloud Computing
Adoption
Scalability Users have access to a large amount of resources
that scale based on user demand.
Elasticity The environment transparently manages a user’s
resource utilization based on dynamically
changing needs.
Virtualizati Each user has a single view of the available
on resources, independently of how they are
arranged in terms of physical devices.
Cost The pay-per-usage model allows an organization
to only pay for the resources they need with
basically no investment in the physical resources
available in the cloud. There are no infrastructure
maintenance or upgrade costs.
Mobility Users have the ability to access data and
applications from around the globe.
CollaboratioUsers are starting to see the cloud as a way to
Barriers for Cloud
SecurityComputing Adoption
The key concern is data privacy. Users do not
have control of or know where their data is
being stored.
Interoperabil A universal set of standards and/or interfaces
ity have not yet been defined, resulting in a
significant risk of vendor lock-in.
Control The amount of control that the user has over the
cloud environment varies greatly between
vendors.
Performance All access to the cloud is done via the internet,
introducing latency into every communication
between the user and the environment.
Reliability Many existing cloud infrastructures leverage
commodity hardware that is known to fail
unexpectedly.
Berkeley: Top 10 Obstacles
to Growth (List from Feb 2009)

1. Availability of Service
2. Data Lock-in
3. Data Confidentiality & Auditability
4. Data Transfer Bottlenecks
5. Performance Unpredictability
6. Scalable Storage
7. Bugs in Large Distributed Systems
8. Scaling Quickly
9. Reputation Fate Sharing
10.Software Licensing

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3 Cloud Service Models
• Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS)
– Use provider’s applications over a network
– Hot Mail, Google Docs, Ghost.cc
• Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS)
– Deploy customer-created applications to a cloud
• Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
– Rent processing, storage, network capacity, and
other fundamental computing resources
– Amazon Web Services and Others

• To be considered “cloud” they must be deployed


on top of cloud infrastructure
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Cloud Related Service
Cloud Market
Types Offerings
Types of Offerings

• Rich Internet application web


Examples

• Flikr
Level of
Software-as- Abstraction
a-Service sites • Myspace.com
• Application as Web Sites • Cisco WebEx office
• Collaboration and email • Gmail
• Office Productivity • IBM Bluehouse
• Client apps using cloud
services

Application • APIs for specific service access • Amazon Flexible Payments Service
for integration and DevPay
Components
• Web-based software service • Salesforce.com’s AppExchange
-as-a-Service than can combine to create new • Yahoo! Maps API
services, as in a mashup • Google Calendar API
• zembly

Software • Development-platform-as-a- • Google App Engine and BigTable


service • Microsoft SQL Server Data Services
Platform-as-a-
• Database • Engine Yard
Service
• Message Queue • Salesforce.com’s Force.com
• App Servicer
• Blob or object data stores

Virtual • Virtual servers • Akamai


Infrastructure • Logical disks • Amazon EC2 and S3
-as-a-Service • VLAN networks • CohesiveFT
• Systems Management • Mosso (from Rackspace) 46
• Joyent Accelerators
Examples of Cloud IaaS
Environments
•Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)
– Provides users with a special virtual machine (AMI) that can be deployed and run
on the EC2 infrastructure

•Amazon Simple Storage Solution (S3)


– Provides users with access to dynamically scalable storage resources

•IBM Computing on Demand (CoD)


– Provides users with access to highly configurable servers plus value-added
services such as data storage

•Microsoft Live Mesh


– Provides users with access to a distributed file system; targeted at individual use

•Microsoft Azure Services Platform


– Provides users with on-demand compute and storage services as well as a
development platform based on Windows Azure
Examples of Cloud PaaS
Environments
•Google App Engine
– Provides users a complete development stack and allows them to run their
applications on Google’s infrastructure
•Yahoo! Open Strategy (Y!OS)
– Provides users with a means of developing web applications on top of the
existing Yahoo! platform, and in doing so leveraging a significant portion of
the Yahoo! resources
•Force.com
– From salesforce .com (SaaS leader), provides enterprise users a platform to
build and run applications and components bought from AppExchange or
custom applications
•Zoho
– Provides a large suite of web-based applications, mostly for enterprise use
•Akamai EdgePlatform
– Provides a large distributed computing platform on which organizations can
deploy their web applications; large focus on analysis and monitoring
Government Cloud Cloud User Tools

Computing Framework
Software as a Service (SaaS) / Applications
Citizen Engagement Gov Productivity Gov Enterprise Apps
Application
Integration
User/
Admin
Portal
Reporting
&
Analytics
Business Svcs
Wikis / Blogs Email / IM Customer /
Apps
Social Core Mission Account
Virtual Desktop Mgmt Analytic
Networking Apps API’s
Agency Website Office Legacy Apps Tools
Core Cloud Services

User
Hosting Automation (Mainframes) Profile
Workflow Data
Mgmt Mgmt
Engine
Platform as a Order
Testing Developer Reporting
Service (PaaS) Database
Tools Tools EAI
Mgmt

Directory Knowledg
DBMS Trouble
Services Mobile e Mgmt
Device Mgmt
Integration
Billing /
Infrastructure as a Virtual
Data Invoice
Storage Migration
Service (IaaS) Machines
Tools
Tracking

Server Product
Network Web Servers
Hosting ETL Catalog

Service Mgmt &


Cloud Service Delivery

Service Performance DR / Operations


Provisioning SLA Mgmt
Provisioning Monitoring Backup Mgmt
Capabilities

Security &
Data/Networ Certification & Authentication Auditing &
Data Privacy k Security
Data Privacy
Compliance & Authorization Accounting

Data Center Routers / Internet Hosting


Facilities LAN/WAN
Firewalls Access Centers

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GSA Deployment Model
COMMUNITY
CLOUD

PRIVATE CLOUD Shared by several


organizations and
Operated solely for supports a specific
an organization. community that has
shared concerns

HYBRID CLOUD
PUBLIC CLOUD
Composition of two or more
Made available to the clouds (private, community,
general public or a or public) that remain unique
large industry group entities but are bound
and is owned by an together by standardized or
organization selling proprietary technology that
cloud services. enables data and application
portability
Cloud Definition
Framework Hybrid
Clouds
Deployment
Privat Community Public
Models
e Cloud Cloud
Cloud
Service Software as a Platform as a Infrastructure as
Models Service (SaaS) Service (PaaS) a Service (IaaS)

On Demand Self-Service
Essential
Broad Network Access Rapid Elasticity
Characteristics
Resource Pooling Measured Service

Massive Scale Resilient Computing

Common Homogeneity Geographic Distribution


Characteristics Virtualization Service Orientation
Low Cost Software Advanced Security
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DISA Components for the
• Cloud
Platform-As-A-Service (PaaS)
– Delivers a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service
– Facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and
complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and
software layers

• Infrastructure-As-A-Service (IaaS)
– The delivery of computer IaaS, typically platform virtualization
– For example:
• Virtual desktops
• Grid computing

• Applications-As-A-Service (AaaS) /Software-As-A-Service (SaaS)


– Leverages the Cloud in software architecture
– Eliminates the need to install and run the application on the
customer's own computer
– Type:
• Commercial •Develops the SaaS
Ecosphere
• Government •Accelerates applications
development

Independent But Complementary Activities 52


CONSTRUCTIVE VIRTUAL

Cloud

Server-side Virtual World


Compute Power

LIVE 53
Simulation in the Cloud

NEW WORLD
•Soldier-centric
•Desktop Equipment
•Universal Access

ENABLERS
•Massive Computation
•Global Networks
•Cloud Services
•Distributed Management

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Training Event Servers in
the Cloud
• High Compute Power in Professionally
Managed Centers
– Scalable to large exercises and large
numbers of exercises
– On-demand access to resources
• Power to Model
– Finally put the “Reality” in “Virtual Reality”
– Tighter system connections reduces lag
• Server-side Computing for LVC
– Provide modeling for all types of exercises
and experiments
– Reduced sim-to-sim lag time
• Heterogeneous System-of-Systems
– Multi-site collaboration

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Simulation as a Cloud
Service
• Scalable Simulation Services
provided to remote customers
on the customers’ schedule
• Break the 1-to-1 relationship
between equipment and events
• Light simulation client as an
application on any military
system
– Browser-based
– Generic Sim Engine & Tools
– Flexible Game Engine
• Evolving Services at the core
– Computation on Demand

[Commercial SOA Diagram]

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• Benefits
• Cloud computing implementation are
designed for rapid delivery of
computing resources,
• providing a cost-efficient model for
provisioning processes,
• applications and services while making
IT management easier and
• more responsive to the needs of
business.

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Benefits
• Reduced cost
• Increased storage
• Flexibility
• Reliability
• Saving Energy
• Security
• Scalability
• Efficient computing
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