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DR.R.D.MISHRA SR.DY.DIRECTOR NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL, KANPUR
Stress-Definition & Research
Professor Dr. Hans Selye, an Australian born physician at Montreal used the word ³STRESS´ for the first time in 1936.
³STRESS´ word has been adopted from Engineering where it Is defined as an inherent capacity of the material to withstand Stain applied externally
In medical Science STRESS is ³the pressure of Stimulus which cannot be tolerated becomes STRESS
Stress on human being
* It is the emotional and physiological reactions to stressors * A stressor is a situation, demand or circumstance which disrupts a person s equilibrium and initiates the stress response. * The stress response is the reaction of a person which may be FLIGT and FIGHT syndrome.
Stress Often Develops When:
We Want to Give up a Behavior and Cannot Or We Want to Adopt a Behavior and Cannot
What do you experience when you are under stress? While stress is difficult to define. .Stress Management 5 Give some examples of situations that have caused you stress. there are many researchers that have provided us with insight into this stress phenomenon.
Stress Management 6 Stress Research-Reveals Dr. an endocrinologist. .Hans Selye.Walter Cannon was first to describe the fight-or-flight response. Dr. studied the effects of stressors on the internal organs and glands of rats and generalized his findings to the effects of stress on humans.
. camps.W. Simonton recognized the importance of symbolic stressors in the twentieth century and their possible relationship to psychosomatic disease.T.Stress Management 7 Stress Research reveals-cont Dr.A.Harold Wolff identified the effects of emotional stress on prisoners in WW II P.O.W. Dr.
C. Simonton used visualization in the treatment of cancer. Benson used meditation to help control hypertension. Dr.T.H.Stress Management 8 Some researchers focused on treatment of stress-related illnesses: Dr. Dr. . Budzinski used biofeedback for the relief of headaches.
Stress Management 9 .T. Dr. Dr. DeLongis both studied the relationship of daily hassles to the development of stress-related illnesses. Rahe studied the relationship between major life change and the subsequent development of illness. Lazarus and A.More recent research has focused on the causes of stress-related illnesses..R. Holmes and R.
Selye suggested that there are two types of stressors.Stress Management Stressors 10 A stimulus with the potential of triggering the fight-or-flight response. Eustress refers to the good things to which we must adapt. Dr. Distress refers to the bad things that force us to adapt. . EUSTRESS and DISTRESS.
Over time. this build-up can be unhealthy. stress products can build up. .Stress Management 11 Stress Reactivity Also called the fight-or-flight response. When not used. it is the body s physiological reaction that prepares us for swift action when needed.
Continued The likelihood of ill effects developing from built-up stress products is dependent on two factors. and DEGREE . DURATION .the amount of physiological variance from the body s baseline.Stress Management 12 Stress Reactivity. Of the two. duration is the most important.the amount of time our body s physiology varies from the baseline. .
.Stress Management Goals of Stress Management are 13 Our goals in stress management are : to limit the harmful effects of stress To reduce the accidents due to occupational stress or otherwise maintain life s quality and vitality Keep in mind that illness may result from too little stress as well as too much stress.
Stress Management 14 Source of Stress at work (A) INTRINSIC TO JOB * Boredom * Physical Working Condition * Time Pressures and Deadlines * Technical Problem etc. (B) ROLES IN ORGANISATION * Role Conflict * Role Ambiguity * Responsibility for People * Target/Goal Achievement .
Stress Management 15 Source of Stress at work (C) CAREER DEVELOPMENT * Promotion * Lack of Job Security * Lack of Participation * Lack of Responsibility .
Stress Management 16 Job Stressors? Factors Intrinsic To Job Personal Characteristics Extraorganizatio nal Stressors .
Stress Management 17 Occupational Stress and Psychological Effects low self-esteem increased job tension decreased job satisfaction poor job performance increased absenteeism .
Stress Management 18 Occupational Stressors lack of participation role problems ± role overload ± role insufficiency ± role ambiguity ± role conflict job dissatisfaction ± motivation factors work environment .
Stress Management 19 Factors affecting stress levels based on other factors Health Status Poverty and Education Level Family Life Gender Age Physical Disability .
Stress Management 20 Burnout . . . the physical and emotional exhaustion due to too much work or frequent frustration at work. .
Stress Management 21 Symptoms of Burnout Diminished Sense of Humor Skipping Rest and Food Breaks Increased Overtime and No Vacations Increased Physical Complaints Social Withdrawal Changed Job Performance Self-medication Internal Changes .
Stress Management 22 CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSMENT OF STRESS PHYSICAL SIGNS * High Blood Pressure * Lack of Appetite * Frequent Heartburn * Inability to Sleep * Feeling of Constant Fatigue * Frequent Headache * Chronic Diarrhoea/Constipation * Excess weight w.to age .r.
Stress Management 23 CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSMENT OF STRESS MENTAL SIGNS * Constant Feeling of Uneasiness * Boredom with Life * Morbid Fear of Disease/Death * Sense of Suppressed Anger * Feeling of being unable to cope with life * Inability to have a good laugh .
Stress Management 24 DANGER SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF STRESS * General Irritability/Depression * Dryness of Throat and Mouth * Impulsive Behaviour * Urge to cry or to run/hide * Floating anxiety we are afraid * Sweating and Loss of appetite * Increased use of tranquilizers * Nightmares * Frequent need to urinate * Migraine headache * Inability to concentration .
Stress Management 25 DANGER SIGN AND SYMPTOMS OF STRESS * Insomnia * Trembling/Nervousness * Alcoholic/Drug addiction * Pain in neck or lower back * Neurotic Behaviour .
Stress Management 26 GOOD EFFECTS OF STRESS * Source of Motivation * Source of Enjoyment * Source of Strength and Endurance to body BAD EFFECTS OF STRESS * Lack of sleep. restlessness * Chronic fatigue * lack of appetite * Inconsistency in behaviour * Loss of memory * Disturbs Learning ability .
Damage or other Loss´ 70% accident is caused due to Human error.Stress Management Stress and Accident 27 Accident according to OHSAS 18001 definition ³Any undesired events giving rise to death. 30% accident is caused due to Machine error Any Stressful behaviors may deviate your attention from your Workplace may lead to Near Miss accident. A 40 major accidents may Lead to ONE FATAL ACCIDENT . A 300 Near Miss accident may lead to 40 MAJOR EVENT ACCIDENT. ill health. Injury.
Stress Management A Strategy for Decreasing Stressful Behavior Identify behaviors to change ± lifestyle ± health behavior Identify barriers that prevent behavior change Determine your locus of control ± internal ± powerful others Apply techniques to change behavior 28 .
Stress Management 29 Some techniques to change behavior Self-monitoring Tailoring Material and/or Social Reinforcement Self-contracting Contracting With a Significant Other Shaping Reminders Self-help Groups Professional Help .
«Yoga is a for of rogressi e relaxation tec ni e . .Stress Management 30 Stress reduction. .Through Progressive Relaxation Technique .a technique used to induce nerve-muscle (neuromuscular) relaxation.
Stress Management Progressive Relaxation-Exercise 31 find a quiet distraction-free environment control noise remove or loosen tight clothing or jewelry maintain a warm room temperature support areas behind your neck and under your knees note any cues that identify areas of muscular tension .
upper back chest. face. neck. then relaxing the muscle group spend twice as much time relaxing than tensing spend 4-5 minutes tensing/ relaxing muscle groups arms. calves Stress Management 32 . lower back hips. stomach. shoulders. thighs.Progressive Relaxation Exercises Exercises are done by contracting (tensing) a muscle group.
Stress Management Physiological Benefits of Progressive Relaxation 33 relaxes major muscle groups can relax smooth muscles causes relaxation of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems has been effective in treating migraine and tension headaches can help relieve backaches alleviates conditions caused by bracing or ineffective muscular contractions .
Vigorous Physical Exercise .Stress Management 34 Reducing stress through Physiological Interventions Exercise is a physiological intervention that uses stress products so they are not able to affect your health negatively.
and Circulatory System Increases Red Blood Cells and Oxygen Transport Normalizes Blood Pressure Lowers Heart Rate and Strengthens Heart Muscle .Stress Management 35 Physiological Benefits of Vigorous Exercise Improves Functioning of the Heart. Lungs.
Stress Management 36 Physiological Benefits of Vigorous Exercise Burns Calories and Reduces Body Fat Tones Muscles Increases Muscular Endurance Improves Posture Decreases Ldls and Blood Cholesterol Increases Hdls .
Stress Management 37 Psychological Benefits of Vigorous Exercise Improved Self-esteem Being Positively Perceived by Others Feeling More Alert and Able Having Fewer Illnesses and Accidents Decreased Feelings of Anxiety and Depression Improved Attitude .
Anaerobic Exercise .Stress Management Principles of Exercise 38 Intensity ± exercise at 60% to 80% of your maximum heart rate ± maximum heart rate = 220 minus your age in years Duration ± vigorous exercise should last at least 20-30 minutes per session Frequency ± exercise three to four times per week ± about every other day Aerobic vs.
don¶t strain Allow sufficient time to warm up the muscles . build intensity gradually Train.Stress Management 39 Tips for an Effective Exercise Program Get medical screening when appropriate Begin your program slowly.
40 Allow sufficient time for the muscles to cool down Dress properly Use appropriate equipment with a good fit Be aware of warning signs of over training Focus on stress reduction rather than on competition .Stress Management Tips for an Effective Exercise Program-cont.
Stress Management Swimming ± lap swimming ± aqua dynamics Rope Jumping Bicycling ± road riding ± stationary biking Walking ± natural-gait walking ± race walking Jogging Common Forms of Stress Reducing Exercise 41 Aerobic Dance Low-Impact Aerobics Stretching Hatha Yoga Rowing Skating. Skiing Many other activities .
IF ANY .Stress Management 42 YOU MAY PLACE YOUR QUESTIONS AND VALUABLE SUGGETIONS.
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