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Family & Its Types
It is defined as two or more persons related by
±blood, marriage or adoption who reside together.
Families sometimes are referred to as households
±but not all households (unmarried couples, roommates) are families.
Family & Its Types
In most western societies, 4 types of families dominate:
±The married couple ± a husband and a wife ±The nuclear family ± a husband and a wife with one or more children constitute a nuclear family ±The extended family ± the nuclear family together with at least one grandparent living within the household is called an extended family. ±Single parent family ± one parent and at least one child
. ±Should Cadbury advertise to mothers or to children Should Amul focus on the entire family or on the housewife What is the role and influence of family members ±in shaping a product purchase decision.Family ± Important primary group Family is an important primary group having major influence ±on the consumer buying decisions and behavior.g. E.
Purchaser or Decision maker ± ±Wife Therefore. marketer should consider the views of both ±i. E.e.Family ± Consumer decision making unit Family is the most consumer decision making unit ±so major decision maker as well as primary user¶s attitude and behavior needs to be examined.g. Illustration ± Macho Ad . Primary user for Inner T-shirt is ±Men and Children. user and decision maker to obtain a right picture of the consumption process.
Decision Making in the Family Types of family decision making ±Husband Dominant ±Wife Dominant ±Syncratic or Joint ±Autonomic or independent Marketer through their consumer research should determine the type of decision making ±in their specific target market that a typical family uses ±in terms of specific product purchases. .
. Lets understand what are these roles. family decision making regarding specific product is based on ±individual members¶ judgment or ±need or ±on consensus or ±compromise among members Therefore it is important for a marketer to understand that ±the individual may play a certain role in the process of making purchases.Decision Making in the Family ± Based on Thus.
Decision Making in the Family ± 9 Roles Key family consumption roles that family members take on in the process of making purchases are: ± Initiator ± Information collector ± Influencer (S) ± Decision maker (S) ± Purchaser (S) ± Preparers ± Consumer (S) ± Maintainer ± Disposer The objective is to provide ± how family members interact in their various consumption related roles. . however it depends upon family to family and from product to product.
Decision Making in the Family Initiator ± Need recognizer ± Who recognizes the unsatisfied need for a specific product or brand to be purchased.g. ± E. . ± This role is on sharing basis.g.g. A father or mother may initiate the idea to send a child to school. This person originates the idea. time and responsibility to purchase the specific product or brand. In case of a purchase of a video game. it¶s the child of the family who will generally collect the information with the help of his parents. A child may initiate the idea that the family subscribe to a children¶s magazine ± E. Interested ± Who has the maximum interest. Information Collector ± Max. ± E.
g. ± a father may influence the budget. (Child for toy purchase) E. ± Usually the decision maker in the specific product purchase situation in the final analysis is the primary influencer. the child for whom the toy is being chosen will influence the purchase by voicing his or her wants. ± mother may influence the child¶s development related choice and ± if provided the opportunity to choose. Toy purchase situation. .Decision Making in the Family Influencer (Information provider who can modify our decision) ± It depends on the family decision making structure applying the specific item and purchase situation.
±It actually depends on different purchases and situations as different members in the family could individually or jointly be decision makers in specific product or brand ±E.Decision Making in the Family Decision Maker (Who have power whether to buy or not) ±This is the individual or individuals in the family who have a direct bearing on what is purchased in the specific situation. In purchase of a car.g. features etc. children will decide about the color. . father is the decision maker for budget.
product and retail outlet guidelines or may have the greater latitude or freedom in selecting the item. (Refer example on next slide) ±This also vary in different situations and depends on how family arrived at the particular purchase decision and ± who was delegated the role of the purchaser. .Decision Making in the Family Purchaser (Actual buyer) ±One or more of the members of the family may finally purchase the product or brand decided on. ±The purchaser may be given very specific brand.
premiums offered. Mother ± Directed him or her to buy this specific brand from Mohan¶s shop with specific size and amount of money. Brand ± Tata Tea.g. Brand ± Tata Tea. Child ± Purchaser. ±E. ± In this situation the purchaser has no latitude.Decision Making in the Family Purchaser (Actual buyer) . Mother ± Purchaser. Size ± She can decide depending upon the POP information ± such as discounts. » In this situation the mother has the greater latitude or freedom. . Bargain between nearest shops.Examples ±E.g.
Decision Making in the Family Preparer: transformed for usage ±Family members who transform the product into a form suitable for consumption by other family members. .
±E.g. there are primary. .g. ±E. A toy bought as a birthday gift for Naveen is the primary user where as other children in the family are secondary users.Decision Making in the Family Consumer (who actually consume) ±Final user of the product or brand in the family. secondary and general users. Toothpaste is used by all the family members so they are called general users. ±In certain specific situations.
Decision Making in the Family Maintainer ± who repairs ±Family Member(s) who repair the product for continual usage Disposer ±Family member(s) who initiate the disposal of a particular product or service. Note: .Discuss True value case here. .
.Decision Making in the Family Certain roles that family members take on in the process of making purchases are: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Initiator Information collector Influencer (S) Decision maker (S) Prepares Purchaser (S) Consumer (S) Maintainer Disposer The above role can be taken by non family members as well depending upon ± ± ± ± ± What the need is Who has the expertise How the purchase is made Where and how it is used Who uses it etc.
Examples Product consumed by entire family ±Tooth paste ±Soap ±Shampoo ±Orange Juice ±A. .C ±Art glass collection etc. Product consumed by single user ±Razor ±Tooth brush ±Towel etc.
g. Food and financial decisions ± Wife Dominated .g. Automobile ± Husband Dominated ±E.Decision Making in the Family ± H&W Husband wife decision making ±The relative influence of husband and wife can be classified as Husband dominated Wife dominated Joint Autonomic (Independent) ±It depends in part on the product and service ±E.
g. China culture in Rural areas Husband dominated decisions for many household purchases ±E.Decision Making in the Family ± H&W Husband wife decision making ±It is also related to cultural influence. ±E.g. China culture in larger cities such as Beijing Joint decision making is followed ±E.g. Asian Indians in India Wife dominated decisions . China¶s one child policy and custom of treating a single child as a little emperor Many parents purchase decision are influenced by the input of their child ±E.g.
Decision Making in the Family ± Child role Role of children: Children are active performer in the decision making process these days due to the following reasons: ±Fewer Children (1 or 2) ±Dual income to satisfy children wants ±Media encouragement to allow children to express themselves E.g. A research shows that Kids in supermarkets with a parent make ±an average of 15 request out of which half are typically granted .
Decision Making in the Family ± Tactics by children Tactics used by children to influence their parents: Pressure tactics ± The child make demands. . Consultation tactics ± The child seeks your involvement in taking a decision such as admission in college. uses threats (not having food) Upward appeal ± Which is supported by an approval of some other person such as teacher or older member of the family (Grandfather) Exchange tactics ± Promise to serve some sort of service like taking care of the baby in return Coalition tactics ± Others support such as uncle or friend to support his request Ingratiating tactics ± Child seeks to get you in a good mood before asking for something Rational Persuasion ± Child uses logical arguments and factual evidence such as Baby laptops Inspirational appeals ± Child makes a proposal that arouses enthusiasm by appealing to your ideals like attending dancing class and participate in TV shows.
Decision Making in the Family The amount of influence children perceive they have w.t.r. their family¶s purchasing of a variety of items Casual clothes for me ± 91% Trainers for me ± 88 CDs for me ± 84% Sweets for me ± 83% Computers for me ± 83% Soft drinks for me ± 83% School shoes for me ± 80% A family trip to the cinema ± 73% Food for me for lunch at the weekend : 73% A holiday I would go on with the family: 63% Going out for a family meal: 52% A family car: 37% .
g. . Pluralistic parents ± Highest influence ±Parents give support to their children for their individual preferences and purchases E.g.Decision Making in the Family Another research shows that children influence is directly related to family¶s communication patterns with them. Consensual parents ± Medium influence ±Who encourage children to seek harmony E. Protective parents ± Lowest influence ±Parent makes their own Judgment for purchase and does not allow their children to have their own preferences. E.g.
Decision Making in the Family Another research shows teen internet maven contribute significantly to family decision making E.g.g. ±This helps in researching and evaluating family purchases E. Children spending more time on internet for specific product information. Laptop purchase. E.g. features. Washing Machine Purchase . where to buy and pricing related information.
FLC is an important marketing tool to segment the families into 5 basic stages for market segmentation: ± Bachelorhood Young single adult living apart from parents ± Honeymooners Young married couple ± Parenthood Married couple with at least one child living at home ± Post-parenthood An older married couple with no children at home ± Dissolution One surviving spouse .Family Life Cycle ± Series of stages It is defined as a predictable series of stages ± through which most families progressed.
purchase and maintenance of automobiles. Cosmopolitan is for young single females. basic home furnishings. travel and entertainment.g. clubs etc.Bachelorhood ± Preferred purchase They are young single men and women ±who have established households apart from their parents. College students They spend their money on ±rent. clothing and accessories.g. . E. E.g. Playboy is for single male audience E.
bedroom and living room furniture. jewellery. carpeting.Honeymooners ± Preferred purchase This stage starts immediately after the marriage and ±generally continues until the arrival of the couple¶s first child. . travel to hill stations and a host of utensils and accessory item. dishes. Honeymooners have a considerable start up expenses when establishing a new home such as ±Major and minor appliances.
E.Parenthood or Full nest stage I ± 5 year child This stage starts when a couple has its first child and ±continues over more than a 20 year period. E. Insurance for children or family E. Diaper. Investments. During this period the interrelationship of the family members and the structure of the family gradually change. Cerelec.g.g. Bourn vita. saving plans etc. toys etc. Lectogen. .g. Complan. Horlics.
By now the father figure has advance in his profession and ±child oriented consumption decisions tend to shift from small toys to product like bi-cycles. Family now devote greater attention to the education of the children .Parenthood or Full nest stage II ± 6 years teenage This stage starts when a couple¶s youngest child is at least six years old.
renovations and major purchases and houses etc are typically undertaken.Parenthood or Full nest stage III ± Supporting dependent children In this stage the couple is older ±but is still supporting dependent (teenaged) children. Education and other expenses around the development of the children continue. However. .
leisure.PostPost-Parenthood Or Empty nest stage I & II This stage starts when older married couple without any dependent children living with them (Nest I) or when all the children have left home (Nest II) and the children have become self supporting. refurnish their home or sell it in favor of a condominium/apartment. . This a time for parents to do all the things such as ±travel.
E. new automobiles. . religious items and vacations to far off places or temples.g.PostPost-Parenthood Or Empty nest stage I & II They have higher disposable incomes ±because of savings and investments and they have fewer expenses. Therefore. Senior citizen discount in hotels. airlines. families in the post-parenthood stage are an important market for ±luxury goods. expensive furniture. banks.
±E. Matrimonial sites covering the second marriage option.g. . Usually the surviving spouse tends to follow a more economical life style.Dissolution Or Solitary Survivor stage This stage starts with the death of one spouse. When the surviving spouse is in good health and has ±adequate savings. Many surviving spouses seek each other for companionship and other enter into second marriages. family and friends then adjustment is easier.
. market potential etc. Consumer demographics are available from government or other published sources with consumption rates. ±marketing strategist can forecast market demand.Marketing and the FLC ± Matching Interest FLC is an important marketing tool ±to segment the families into 5 basic stages for market segmentation It also indicates the type of products and services ±that a household or family might be interested in at each stage.
Expanded model of FLC As traditional FLC model had some limitations therefore expanded FLC model has been introduced ±which includes divorce and later marriages ±with and without the presence of children. Scan Pg 368 .
Non Traditional FLC Stages These nontraditional stages include ± not only family households but also non family households as well. .
Adopts A single person who adopts one or more children ± Extended family It includes young studying children. divorced daughter or son. ± Single parents II Couple who has one or more children ± Single parents III .Non Traditional FLC Stages Family households includes ± Childless couples It includes career oriented married women and delayed marriages ± Couples who marry later in their life (30s or later) It includes more career oriented men and women who are likely to have fewer or ever no children ± Couples who have first child later in life (30s or later) It includes couples who are like to have fewer children and stress quality life ± Singles parents I .Divorcee High divorce rates contribute to a portion of single parent households. . newlyweds living with in-laws. grandchild.
±Widowed persons (most are elderly) .Non Traditional FLC Stages Non Family households includes ±Unmarried couples ±Divorced persons (no children) ±Single Persons (most are young) A result of delaying first marriage who never get married.