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By the end of this lesson, you should be
able to:
1. State the necessity for cell
specialisation in multicellular organisms
2. Describe cell specialisation in
multicellular organisms
3. Describe cell organisation in the
formation of tissues, organs and
systems in multicellular organisms.
Ä rganisms are divided to two types:
  single cell organism (›  sp.
and   sp.)
  larger organism with more than
one cell.
Ä ach cell is one organism for unicellular org.
and its able to carry out all the function of life
Ä he larger org. (multicellular org) need many
different of cell to carry out all the different
function of life.
Ä ach cell has to change in shape and structure
   to become specific
cells in order to perform different function.
piving Process in Unicellular
Ä  . are small and simple
org. consisting   each.
Ä ach cell or org is a complete unit of
life; able to carry out all the living
processes to survive.
Ä ›  sp. and   sp. are
the example of unicellular org.
1. Amoeba sp. live in water, including water in the
soil. It has no fixed shape since its shape
change as its move.

a) Movement:
by extending temporary     (false feet)
and anchoring the tips on the ground. he rest of
the cytoplasm slowly flows into this extension,
hence moving the org. along.

Ä eproduction:
Amoeba reproduce by     , its nucleus
divides to form two daughter nuclei and cytoplasm
then divides to form two daughter of amoeba.
under adverse condition (drought)   form
c) Feeding:
Feeds by process called    . Use
pseudopodia to engulf the food. Pseudopodia
enclosed the food particle and packaged in a
food vacuole.
food particle fuses with lysosome and will
digest by enzyme (lysozyme).

± he exchange of gases, nutrients and waste

substances occur through plasma membrane
by diffusion.
± Water diffuses into cell by osmosis and fill

Ä  are     than
unicellular org.
Ä xample: hydra, spirogyra, ferns, other
plants, human beings.
Ä he larger org need many different types
of cell to carry out their life processes.
Ä his achieved through cell specialisation
and cell organisation.
Ä ach type of cell is different in size, shape,
and structure.
Ä ach cell is not capable of performing all
the life processes such as respiration,
digestion and secretion.
Ä So, multicellular org. need a cell
specialisation to enable them to perform
different functions.
Ä his is achieved through   
  (cell begin to change in shape
and structure as they grow)
Ä he cells acquire special structures and
become    .
Ä   of  performs only one
  . Known as division of
Ä hrough cell specialisation and   
   , different functions in the body
can be performed at the same time.
Ä All the life process can be carry out
smoothly and efficiently.
|ell rganisation
Ä rganisation of cell allow every part of a
multicellular org to perform various
functions efficiently.
Ä ach part of a multicellular org is
organised on the basis of:

cell tissues organ system organism

Ä | are the  
 of life in all org.
Ä |ells of the same type which carry out a
common function are organised into
Ä   is a  of  
performing a particular function.
Ä Different type of tissues group together to
form an organ.
Ä   is a group of tissues that performs
a specialised function.
Ä Several organs are found within a  .
|ell rganisation in Animal
Ä Different types of tissue have different
structure that are suited to their functions.
Ä Four main types of animal tissue; epithelial
tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue and
connective tissue.
Ä |onsist of epithelial cells arranged in a
continuous layer.
Ä |over body surface (exterior) or line the
cavities within the body.
Ä Protect the underlying cells from mechanical
Ä Act to absorb food and water by diffusion.
Ä Form secretory glands which produce
Ä xample: surface of skin, lining of stomach,
small intestine, trachea and lungs.
Ä |onsist of muscle cells which can contract
to perform work.
Ä Most abundant tissue in body.
Ä |ause body movement by means
Ä hree types of muscle tissue: smooth
muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.
Ä xample: smooth muscle (intestine, blood
vessels, urinary and reproductive tracts),
skeletal muscle (in arms and legs- attached
to the bones), cardiac muscle (wall of heart)
Ä |ontraction and relaxation of smooth
muscle are responsible for involuntary
body activities (peristaltic movement )
Ä Skeletal muscle involve for voluntary
movement. Its contract and relax to move
the bones.
Ä |ardiac muscles contract to pump the
blood to the body. he contraction is
Ä |onsist of nerve cells called neurones.
Ä ach neuron consist of cell body and nerve
fibres called dendrites and axons.
Ä Send and receive impulses to coordinate the
activities of the body.
Ä Found in the brain and spinal cord
Ä xample: afferent neurone, efferent
neurone, interneurone.
Ä |onsist of   and   
Ä oin together body structures, as well as
protect, hold and support the cell in the
Ä |an store and transport materials.
  bind epithelia to
underlying tissues and holds organ in place.
Ä ! 
collagenous fibres packed closely together.
Found in tendons (connect muscles to
bones) and ligaments (join bones together at
Ä |  - strong and flexible connective
tissue. Provide support to nose, ears and
covers the end of bones at joints.

Ä Also form the disc between vertebrae (act

as cushions to absorb pressure)

Ä "  consist of cells embedded in a

matrix of collagen which are hardened by
mineral deposits such as calcium.

Ä Provides protection to organ and support

the body.
Ä " 
  produced in bone marrow.

Ä # 
  tightly packed cells that
stores fat. Found in the dermis of the skin
and around the major organ.

Ä Act as energy reserve and provide

insulation and protection.
Ä Is formed by two or more types of tissues
working together to perform particular
Ä xample: heart, stomach, skin, kidneys and
Ä Skin covers the body. Act as barrier against
infection and water loss.
Ä Skin composed of two main layers:
epidermis and dermis.
Ä pidermis- outer layer of skin (made up of
epithelial tissue)
Ä !  - composed of connective tissue,
nerve tissue, epithelial tissue and muscle
Ä Blood is supplied to the skin through a
network of blood capillaries.
Ä arious sensory nerve endings are
scattered throughout the dermis and
Ä hese nerve endings act as receptors-
transmit nerve impulses for pressure,
temperature, touch and pain.
Ä Specialised epithelial cells in the skin form
structures such as hair follicles- produce
hair, sweat glands (secrete sweat), oil
glands (secrete sebum onto the skin
Ä Several organs which work together to carry
out a specific function called organ system.
Ä he human body has 11 major system
which carry out major body functions.
Ä Integumentary system, muscular system,
circulatory system, endocrine system,
lymphatic system, nervous system, digestive
system, skeletal system, excretory system,
respiratory system and reproductive system.