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Attitudes and Intentions
Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
What is an Attitude? Attitude A person¶s overall evaluation of a concept Affective system Cognitive system Overall evaluation from integrating knowledge. meanings. or beliefs Personal relevance Favorable or unfavorable Stored in memory Accessibility 6-2 .
Attitudes toward what? Attitude toward the object (Ao) Various physical and social objects Intangible objects Attitude toward the behavior (Aact) Own behavior or action Past Future intentions 6-3 .What is an Attitude? cont.
Levels Product class Product form Brand Model General situation Specific situation Examples Fast-food restaurants Pizza restaurants McDonald¶s White Lane McD¶s Lunch w/ friends at White Lane McD¶s Dinner w/ kids at White Lane McD¶s after soccer game 6-4 Hamburger restrnts Burger King Hageman McD¶s Dinner w/ kids at White Lane McD¶s Dinner w/ kids at White Lane McD¶s for a birthday party .What is an Attitude? cont.
favorable consumer-brand relationship Can obtain brand equity in three ways Build it Borrow it Buy it 6-5 .What is an Attitude? cont. positive brand attitude Based on favorable meanings and beliefs Accessible in memory Creates a strong. Marketing implications Brand equity Involves a strong.
What is an Attitude? cont. Attitude tracking studies Marketers can use measures of consumers¶ attitudes to indicate the success of marketing strategies 6-6 .
Attitudes Toward Objects cont. Fishbein (Attitude Toward the Object) theory Salient beliefs Overall attitude (A) is a function of two factors Strengths of the salient beliefs (b) Evaluation of those beliefs (e) Ao ! § biei i !1 6-7 n .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ei: -3 = negative evaluation of attribute. +3 = positive evaluation of attribute.Attitudes Toward Objects cont. 9=high likelihood. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Ao ! § biei i !1 6-8 n . Measurement issues bi: 1 = low probability that object possesses attribute.
Attitudes Toward Objects cont. +1 Caddy Shack -2 bi 7 14 8 24 5 5 3 -6 37 6-9 bi 4 8 5 15 7 7 9 -18 12 bi 9 18 8 24 3 3 2 -4 41 . Which candy bar will the individual prefer? Attribute Snickers Ao ! § biei i !1 Baby Ruth New n ei Creamy chocolate +2 Fresh tasting +3 Low cost/oz.
Attitudes Toward Objects cont. Marketing implications Understanding customers Diagnosis of marketing strategies Understanding situational influences 6-10 .
Attitude-change strategies Adding a new salient belief Increasing the strength of a positive belief (b) Improving the evaluation of a belief (e) Making an existing favorable belief more salient Ao ! § biei i !1 6-11 n .Attitudes Toward Objects cont.
Attitudes Toward Behavior Theory of reasoned action Behavior intention (BI) Subjective norms (SN) Attitude toward the behavior (Aact) B ~ BI = Aact(w1) + SN(w2) 6-12 .
Attitudes Toward Behavior cont. Assumes consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative behaviors under consideration and choose the one that leads to the most desirable consequences Any reasonably complex voluntary behavior is determined by the intention to perform that behavior Not relevant for extremely simple or involuntary behaviors 6-13 .
Attitudes Toward Behavior cont. Marketing implications The situational context in which behavior occurs can have powerful influences on consumers¶ behavioral intentions 6-14 .
Intentions and Behaviors Factors that can weaken the relationship between behavioral intentions and behaviors Intervening time Different levels of specificity Unforeseen environmental event Unforeseen situational context Degree of voluntary control Stability of intentions New information 6-15 .
Summary Defined attitude as a consumers¶ overall evaluation of an object Attitude objects vary in levels of abstraction and specificity Attitude toward the object model Theory of reasoned action The problems of using measures of behavioral intentions to predict actual behaviors 6-16 .