Energy Scenario Of Zimbabwe
Prepared by :
Energy balance – Countr y Analysis
Ø Energy Consumption by Source. Ø Energy consumption by Sector. Ø Energy produced by Source. Ø Detail on Renewable Resouces. Ø Short desciption on GHG. Ø Conclusion.
Energy Flow Diagram
SECONDARY ENERGY SECONDARY ENERGY TRANSMISSON & DISTN. SYSTEMS FINAL ENERGY END USE ACTIVITY
COAL, Biomass, fuelwood Hydropower, ELECTRICITY Mainly Road transport and Railways WHAT CONSUMED BY DILIVERED ENERGY
DISTANCE TRAVELLED, ILLUMINATION, COOKED FOOD, ETC.
Energy Consumption by Source
is the total amount of primary energy consumed from the usage of a specified fuel . Primary energy includes losses from transportation, friction, heat loss and other inefficiencies. Specifically, consumption equals indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and international marine bunkers. The IEA calls this value Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES).
Energy Consumption by Sector
Energy Consumption by Sector 2005 of Zimbabwe
by Sector 2005 of India
Energy Production by Source of India
Energy Production by Source
Fossil Fuel Reserves , Production , and Trade 2005 of India
Fossil Fuel Reserves , Production , and Trade 2005 of Zimbabwe
ØFuel wood is the most important domestic fuel in the country. ØIt is the major source of energy for cooking, lighting and heating for over 80% of the population mainly in the rural and peri-urban areas. Ø ØCoal is the most abundant source of primary energy found in Zimbabwe apart from fuel wood. Ø ØZimbabwe has 30 billion tonnes of probable bituminous coal reserves in 21 deposits of which in situ reserves are estimated at between 10 and 20 billion. Ø ØProven reserves can last for 107 years and total reserves for over 200years at the present
Energy demand by Sector in India
Energy demand by Fuel in India
ØIndia is the 5th largest contributor to the world pollution. Ø India accounts for 3.5% of greenhouse emission.
Electricity generating Power Station
Hwange Thermal Power Station Kariba Hydro Electric Power Station Thermal Power Stations at Harare Bulawayo Munyati Electricity genrating Power Station
920MW 666MW 135MW 120MW 120MW
Biomass Reserve for Zimbabwe
Classification Area Covered(million hectares)
Fuelwood Timber Non-Productive Total
8.4 12.1 14.2 34.7 have a mixture of
ØThe energy supply options for Zimbabwe hydroelectricity coal and renewable.
ØAfter the development and refurbishment of some coal fired thermal power plants in the past years the thrust is now on developing hydroelectric power plants as well. Ø ØRural Zimbabwe as well as the low-income urban households are highly dependent on fuelwood. ØFuelwood is legally not a commercial fuel as the collection and sale of fuelwood
Major coalfields in Zimbabwe
Coalfield Hwange Dahlia Hankano Lubimbi Lusulu Kaonga and Sessami Mkushwe Sengwa Total Reserves in million tonnes 480 1400 7850 11800 3000 1000 4300 400 30230
Technical potential for Renewable Energy ( MW ) in Zimbabwe
Technology Installed Capacity(MW) 0 .8 10000 units 1 .7 1 250 units Technical Potential(MW) >300 1 million 20 15 5000 units
Solar PV Solar WH Mini Hydro Micro Hydro Biogas
Wind Power generation 0 from sawmill waste
ØSolar Photovoltaic installed in the country is mainly in rural areas at service centers like schools and hospitals as well individual homes. ØIn rural areas PV is used for lighting, radio and television. ØPV has a lot of potential given the country’s annual insolation of over 2000kWh/m2 and the fact that, of Zimbabwe’s over 2million households only 23% are electrified. ØWith an estimated installed capacity of 800kWp the annual increase growth of this sector is estimated at 3%. ØThe recently ended GEF project facilitated large-scale importation and installation of a lot of PV systems around the country. This created a good number of companies who provided Solar PV services. Solar Water Heaters Ø ØIt is estimated that over 10 000 solar water heating units are installed in the country. ØInstalled units have capacities ranging from 50litres each to 1000 litres of water per unit. ØThese units are mainly afforded by the middle to high-income groups in the country due to high capital costs of over US$1000. ØThe greatest market potential for these units however exists in low-income households who however do not have the capital to acquire such units.
ØBiogas digesters dotted around the country have been installed by three organizations that are the Department of Energy, Silveira House and Biomass Users Network (BUN). ØTwo types of digesters are being promoted in the country namely the Chinese and the Carmetec ( Centre for Agricultural Mechanisation and Rural Technology in Tanzania) but the former is the most popular. ØThe units are located at schools, rural homes and selected industries. All these small digesters use livestock dung especially cow dung as the feed.
Briquetting and gasification
ØAlthough the country has a lot of sawmill dust from timber estates in the Eastern highlands there are not known operational briquetting schemes. ØTwo attempts have so far failed to take off the ground. ØIn 1992 a local NGO, BUN acquired a 26kW plant situated at Forestry Commission (a parastatal). ØThe concept of this project was to address the disposal problem of the sawdust. ØThe plant however did not address the problem as it could only briquette 2% of the sawdust. The briquettes produced were solid cylindrical, which were not popular with the locals. Ø
Micro and Minihydro
ØMicro and Minihydro potential exists in the country but mainly in the eastern part of the country due to its terrain and rainfall patterns. ØSeveral schemes, mostly private owned, are generating electricity mainly for private used with only one scheme feeding into the national grid. ØSchemes already in place include Claremont (250kW), Aberfoyle (25kW), Nyafaru (30kW), Rusitu (700kW), Mutsikira (3kW), Svinurai (10kW), Sithole-Chikate (25kW) and Kuenda (75kW). ØStudies done by the then Ministry of Energy, Water Resources and Development identified six existing dams that could be developed to have microhydro schemes. These are : Manyuchi(250kW), Mwenji (250kW), Ngezi Palawan (220kW), Ruti (250) and Smallbridge (220kW). Other bigger schemes identifies are Mazvikadei (700kW), Rusitu (4500kW), Lusitu (700kW), Sebakwe(310kW) and Siya (350kW).
ØZimbabwe as a landlocked country, does not have very large wind resources. ØPreliminary data, which was collected by the Department of Meteorological Services, indicates that the highest wind speeds at 10 meters above ground level are found near Harare, Chivhu, Gweru, Bulawayo Airport and Chipinge in the Eastern Highlands. The average wind speed of these areas is only3.8m/s. ØGiven such low wind speeds, the only feasible application of wind energy is in water Øpumping windmills. ØIn the eastern part of the country there are projects currently going on which are looking at using the energy produced by the windmills for battery charging. ØAnother project is also looking at measuring wind speed at 20 meters above ground, which is the useful height for electricity generation from wind.
Methane production from sewage plants using biodigesters in Zimbabwe .
Cubic meters/day Sewage Biogas Methane Produced
Harare Mutare Masvingo Bulawayo
300000 30000 16800 35000
140000 1107 621 2951
70000 554 311 1475
Industrial production growth rate (%) -10 -3.1 -14.7 -7.8 3.6 -1.8 -5 -14.7
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Definition of Industrial production growth rate : This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
GDP - per capita (PPP) (US$)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
2400 2500 2450 2400 1900 1900 2100 2100 200 200
Definition of GDP - per capita ( PPP ): This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
Oil consumption (bbl/day)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
23000 23000 23000 22500 22500 16000
Definition of Oil - consumption : This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
Electricity consumption (billion kWh)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
8.403 6.939 10.475 9.813 9.813 11.22 11.22 11 11.59 11.59
Definition of Electricity - consumption : This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
Electricity production (billion kWh)
2000 6.97 2001 5.78 2002 6.425 2003 6.735 2004 6.735 2005 8.839 2006 8.877 2007 9.412 2008 9.467 Definition of Electricity - production: This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between2009amount of electricity generated the 9.467 and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
Electricity exports (million kWh)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 34
Definition of Electricity - exports : This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Electricity imports (million kWh)
2000 1921 2001 1564 2002 4500 2003 3550 2004 3550 2005 3000 2006 3300 2007 2250 2008 2867 2009 2867 Definition of Electricity - imports : This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Oil - imports (bbl/day)
2006 2007 2008
23000 23000 13370
Definition of Oil - imports : This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
A Greenhouse Gas
is abbreviated GHG is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor , carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxide , and ozone. In the Solar System, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars, and Titan also contain gases that cause greenhouse effects. Greenhouse gases greatly affect the temperature of the Earth; without them, Earth's surface would be on average about 33 °C (59 °F) colder than at present. Greenhouse gases are harmful gases that cause global warming, this is what most people know of greenhouse gases. Indeed their role in global warming phenomenon is their most important role, and unfortunately the biggest ecological problem we are facing today. Greenhouse gases are causing so called " greenhouse effect ". Our planet gets plenty of radiation from the Sun that passes through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface where it gets released back into the atmosphere as Infrared radiation, of which some is absorbed by greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases then return this energy in form of heat back towards the Earth . The higher the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere the more radiation is absorbed causing in the end higher temperature. Greenhouse gases are very important and play crucial role in maintaining the temperature of the Earth, without them life on Earth wouldn't be possible because planet would be too cold .
Rank in 2000 with land-use change
Rank in 2000 without land-use change
Rank in 2005 without land-use change
Year 2000 Tonnes ofCO2 e with land-use change
Year 2000 Tonnes ofCO2 e without landuse change
Year 2005 Tonnes ofCO2 e without landuse change
6.5 1.8 6.8
2.7 1.9 5.6 3.4
World Asia 4.5
Projected World Peak Production of Petroleum
World Total Primary Energy Supply in 1998
**Other includes geothermal, solar, wind, heat, etc.
Why the growing Interest in Biomass Energy?
§ The link between biomass energy and poverty is strong § Biomass delivers energy in all forms – solid, liquid and gas § Meets energy needs without expensive technologies § The linkage with ghg emission mitigation is strong § By being locally-driven, it enhances energy security
Why the growing Interest in Biomass Energy? Cont...
§ ½ Million die annually in SSA as result of traditional fuelwood use (against 750,000 for malaria) § One billion in SSA will in 2030 be dependent on traditional woodfuel for energy § Access to modern energy is in decline in most of SSA countries
Decline in electricity use (kwh/capita) 1990 - 2004
COUNTRY Ghana Chad Cameroon S. Leone DRC Zimbabwe
Source: UNDP HDR, 2007/8
RATE OF DECLINE -22% -31.3% -8.9% -54.7% -42.1% -10%
Energy Resource Distribution REGION RESOURCES
West East South Central Oil, Gas & Hydro Hydro & Geothermal Coal & Hydro Hydro & Biomass
Zimbabwe Windpower - Powervision Project Proposal
The project aims to install 10 owner-operated income generating wind-charging systems around Zimbabwe
Suitable sites will be surveyed and if suitable a wind charger system will be installed. These will comprise:i) A tower ii) A Wind generator iii) A controller iv) A battery bank v) A DC-AC Inverter vi) An automatic battery charging system vii) Limited 220volt AC distributor
The owners will use the systems to: a) provide power for lights and entertainment for owner's use b) Operate a commercial battery charging system c) Sell limited Ac power to small business tenants
Barriers to be addressed by the project
1. Inadequate technology 2. Inappropriate technology 3. Unavailable funding 4. Private sector led development 5. High investment costs 6. Dissemination of information
a) b) c) d) Mr Elias Mabvuramiti- Chimanimani Mr. S. Ngwenya- Bulawayo Area Mr Moses Ruwana- Mt Darwin Mr Moyo- Nyanga
Project cost and financial Estimates Project Costing
Monthly Income and Expenditure Loan Repayment at 60% interest rate Monthly Income from battery charging Other business income Total Income Add Value of home power use Total equivalent income System Costing Turbine and controls Tower Batteries Inverter Transport and Installation Total
ZW$ 1520 ZW$ 1680 ZW$ 500 ZW$ 660 US$ ZW$ 300 1800 ZW$ 960 = UD$ 17 1000 800 750 750 5100
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