LHC | Large Hadron Collider | Atlas Experiment

Large Hadron Collider


The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator, intended to collide opposing particle beams of either protons at an energy of 7 TeV per particle, or lead nuclei at an energy of 574 TeV per nucleus. It is expected that it will address the most fundamental questions of physics, hopefully allowing progress in understanding the deepest laws of nature. The LHC lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference, as much as 175 metres (570 ft) beneath the FrancoSwiss border near Geneva, Switzerland.


the first proton±proton collisions were recorded. The LHC was down until February 2010.36 TeV. On 20 November 2009 the proton beams were successfully circulated again. the proton beams were successfully circulated in the main ring of the LHC for the first time. the operations were halted due to a serious fault between two superconducting bending magnets. with multiple bunches of protons circulating for several hours and data from over one million proton-proton collisions. Repairing the resulting damage and installing additional safety features took over a year. .On 10 September 2008.On 18 December 2009 the LHC was shut down after its initial commissioning run. which achieved proton collision energies of 2. On 23 November 2009. at the injection energy of 450 GeV per particle. On 19 September 2008.

Overview of LHC 1. Scientists hope that these events will tell us more about how the universe began and what it's made of. Once it's switched on. . The LHC is part of a project helmed by the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The LHC joins CERN's accelerator complex outside of Geneva. and then record the resulting events caused by the collision. also known as CERN. Switzerland. The LHC will cause the beams to collide with each other. 2. the LHC will hurl beams of protons and ions at a velocity approaching the speed of light.

It does not address the effects of gravity. It also deals with three of the four basic forces of the universe: strong nuclear force. It combines elements from Einstein's theory of relativity with quantum theory. The Higgs boson particle may answer questions about mass. 3. many of which seem to be true according to various experiments. This theory tries to define and explain the fundamental particles that make the universe what it is. weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force. the fourth fundamental force. Why does matter have mass? Scientists have identified particles that have no mass. The Standard Model makes several predictions about the universe. 2. But there are other aspects of the model that remain unproven. In an attempt to understand our universe.LHC¶s fields of Interest 1. including how it works and its actual structure. One of those is a theoretical particle called the Higgs boson particle. scientists proposed a theory called the standard model. . such as neutrinos.

Dark matter might also play an important role in LHC research. Another question scientists have about matter deals with early conditions in the universe. Scientists hope that their experiments will either provide further evidence for the existence of dark matter and dark energy or provide evidence that could support an alternate theory. . matter and energy were coupled. 5. Together. When we look at the movement of galaxies and other celestial bodies. particles of matter and antimatter annihilated each other. The other three-quarters would come from a force called dark energy. a hypothetical energy that contributes to the expansion of the universe. we see that their motions suggest there's much more matter in the universe than we can detect.4. Our current understanding of the universe suggests that the matter we can observe only accounts for about 4 percent of all the matter that must exist. Just after matter and energy separated. During the earliest moments of the universe. observable matter and dark matter could account for about 25 percent of the universe. Scientists named this undetectable material dark matter.

The equipment necessary to achieve that goal is far more complex. beams have divided into bunches. 6. The LHC is just one part of the overall CERN particle accelerator facility. The two beams converge at one of the six detector sites positioned along the LHC. First.245 trips around the LHC every second. the beams make 11. 2. 4. a machine that fires beams of protons into an accelerator called the PS Booster. Each bunch contains 1. That includes subatomic particles called quarks and a mitigating force called gluon . the beams continue to accelerate. you fire two beams of particles along two pathways. Inside the LHC. Once a beam of protons reaches the right energy level. scientists must strip electrons from hydrogen atoms to produce protons.808 bunches per beam [source: CERN]. This takes about 20 minutes.1 x 1011 protons. the protons enter the LINAC2. Before any protons or ions enter the LHC. 3. When two protons collide. they've already gone through a series of steps. with one beam traveling clockwise and the other going counterclockwise. You accelerate both beams to near the speed of light.Inside the collider 1. Then. By now. 7. The beams continue to pick up speed. they break apart into even smaller particles. Then. one going clockwise and the other going counterclockwise. These machines use devices called radio frequency cavities to accelerate the protons. First. the PS Booster injects it into another accelerator called the Super Proton Synchotron (SPS). At top speed. 5. The SPS injects beams into the LHC. and there are 2. you direct both beams toward each other and watch what happens.

000 gigabytes) gathered by the LHC detectors every year. the LHC would continue accumulating even more data CERN's solution to this problem is the LHC Computing Grid. Meanwhile. Once a computer completes its analysis.Scientists way of computing data gathered y With 15 petabytes of data (that's 15. it can send the findings on to a centralized computer and accept a new chunk of data. y Even using a supercomputer. scientists have an enormous task ahead of them. Within the computer industry this approach is called grid computing y . The grid is a network of computers. As long as scientists can divide the data up into chunks. the system works well. processing that much information could take thousands of hours.000. each of which can analyze a chunk of data on its own.

More than 100 Tier 2 sites will connect with the Tier 1 sites. the network of computers will be able to store and analyze data for every experiment conducted at the LHC. The Tier 1 sites will further process data and divide it up to send further down the grid. Most of these sites are universities or scientific institutions. Twelve Tier 1 sites located in several countries will accept data from CERN over dedicated computer connections. These connections will be able to transmit data at 10 gigabytes per second. y y y y . The connection between Tier 1 and Tier 2 is a standard network connection. The reason for that is to allow research institutions and universities the chance to focus on specific information and research. The structure for the system is organized into tiers: Tier 0 is CERN's computing system. which will first process information and divide it into chunks for the other tiers. Any Tier 2 site can access any Tier 1 site. the sites will push data back up the tier system.y Using a special kind of software called midware. Each site will have multiple computers available to process and analyze data. As each processing job completes.

Black holes are regions in which matter collapses into a point of infinite density. the black holes astronomers study result from an entire star collapsing in on itself. One fear is that the LHC could produce black holes. There's a big difference between the mass of a star and that of a proton. In contrast. One possible trait of strangelets is particularly worrisome. Cosmologists theorize that strangelets could possess a powerful gravitational field that might allow them to convert the entire planet into a lifeless hulk. Another theoretical particle the LHC might generate is a magnetic monopole y y y y .Will the LHC Destroy the World? y The LHC will allow scientists to observe particle collisions at an energy level far higher than any previous experiment. Another concern is that the LHC will produce an exotic (and so far hypothetical) material called strangelets. Some people worry that such powerful reactions could cause serious trouble for the Earth.

Higgs¶ Bosson .

which forms the basis of the Standard Model. unsurprisingly. This µunification¶ implies that electricity. .A major breakthrough in particle physics came in the 1970s when physicists realized that there are very close ties between two of the four fundamental forces ± namely. the electroweak force. so physicists Peter Higgs. the weak force and the electromagnetic force. Robert Brout and François Englert came up with a solution to solve this conundrum. it requires that the force-carrying particles have no mass. The two forces can be described within the same theory. We know from experiments that this is not true. light and some types of radioactivity are all manifestations of a single underlying force called. But in order for this unification to work mathematically. magnetism.

The more they interact. Here. The field prevails throughout the cosmos: any particles that interact with it are given a mass via the Higgs boson. They suggested that all particles had no mass just after the Big Bang.A Feynman diagram of one way the Higgs boson may be produced at the LHC. . the heavier they become. As the Universe cooled and the temperature fell below a critical value. which combine to make a neutral Higgs. two quarks each emit a W or Z boson. an invisible force field called the µHiggs field¶ was formed together with the associated µHiggs boson¶. whereas particles that never interact are left with no mass at all.

ATLAS Experiment .

When the proton beams produced by the Large Hadron Collider interact in the center of the detector. 3. ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the six particle detector experiments 2. ATLAS is intended to investigate many different types of physics that might become detectable in the energetic collisions of the LHC. Some of these are confirmations or improved measurements of the Standard Model. while many others are searches for new physical theories. a variety of different particles with a broad range of energies may be produced. . ATLAS is designed as a general-purpose detector. Rather than focusing on a particular physical process.1. ATLAS is designed to measure the broadest possible range of signals.


. and particles that could make up dark matter.The CMS experiment uses a general-purpose detector to investigate a wide range of physics. CMS detector Size: 21 m long. including the search for the Higgs boson. extra dimensions. France. it uses different technical solutions and design of its detector magnet system to achieve these. Although it has the same scientific goals as the ATLAS experiment. 15 m wide and 15 m high. Weight: 12 500 tonnes Design: barrel plus end caps Location: Cessy.

The ALICE Experiment is going in search of answers to fundamental questions.000 times the temperature at the centre of the Sun ? 2. Can the quarks inside the protons and neutrons be freed ? . using the extraordinary tools provided by the LHC: 1. Why do protons and neutrons weigh 100 times more than the quarks they are made of ? 3. What happens to matter when it is heated to 100.ALICE ALICE is the acronym for A Large Ion Collider Experiment. one of the largest experiments in the world devoted to research in the physics of matter at an infinitely small scale.

the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force just different manifestations of a single unified force. as predicted by various Grand Unification Theories? * Why is gravity so many orders of magnitude weaker than the other three fundamental forces? * What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy? .ADVANTAGES The LHC is meant to help answer a lot of questions. not just the discovery of the Higgs Boson. *Are electromagnetism.

On 27 March 2007 a cryogenic magnet support broke during a pressure test involving one of the LHC's inner triplet (focusing quadrupole) magnet assemblies. when an electrical fault in the bus between magnets caused a rupture and a leak of six tonnes of liquid helium. . Problems occurred on 19 September 2008 during powering tests of the main dipole circuit.‡. a technician was killed in the LHC tunnel when a crane load was accidentally dropped. provided by Fermilab and KEK. Construction accidents and delays On 25 October 2005.

. by Dan Brown. involves antimatter created at the LHC to be used in a weapon against the Vatican.Popular culture The novel Angels & Demons. CERN employee Katherine McAlpine's "Large Hadron Rap" surpassed 5 million YouTube views .

CERN published a "Science and Fiction" page interviewing Sawyer and physicists about the book and the TV series based on it. .The novel FlashForward. by Robert J. Sawyer. involves the search for the Higgs boson at the LHC.

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