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Tao Xing, Shanti Bhushan and Fred Stern

IIHR Hydroscience & Engineering C. Maxwell Stanley Hydraulics Laboratory The University of Iowa 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes http://css.engineering.uiowa.edu/~fluids/ October 5, 2010

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What, why and where of CFD? Modeling Numerical methods Types of CFD codes CFD Educational Interface CFD Process Example of CFD Process 57:020 CFD Labs

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What is CFD?

CFD is the simulation of fluids engineering systems using modeling (mathematical physical problem formulation) and numerical methods (discretization methods, solvers, numerical parameters, and grid generations, etc.) Historically only Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD) and Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD). CFD made possible by the advent of digital computer and advancing with improvements of computer resources (500 flops, 1947 20 teraflops, 2003 1.3 pentaflops, Roadrunner at Las Alamos National Lab, 2009.)

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**Why use CFD?
**

Analysis and Design

1. Simulation-based design instead of build & test

More cost effective and more rapid than EFD CFD provides high-fidelity database for diagnosing flow field

**2. Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are difficult for experiments
**

Full scale simulations (e.g., ships and airplanes) Environmental effects (wind, weather, etc.) Hazards (e.g., explosions, radiation, pollution) Physics (e.g., planetary boundary layer, stellar evolution)

Knowledge and exploration of flow physics

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**Where is CFD used?
**

Where is CFD used? Aerospace Automotive Biomedical

Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports

Automotive Aerospace

Biomedical

F18 Store Separation

Temperature and natural convection currents in the eye following laser heating.

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prediction of flow separation and residence time effects.Where is CFD used? Chemical Processing Where is CFD used? Aerospacee Automotive Biomedical Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports HVAC Streamlines for workstation ventilation Polymerization reactor vessel . Hydraulics 6 .

Where is CFD used? Marine (movie) Sports Where is CFD used? Aerospace Automotive Biomedical Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports Oil & Gas Flow of lubricating mud over drill bit Power Generation Flow around cooling towers 7 .

Governing equations 4. Geometry and domain 2. Selection of models for different applications 8 . Initial and boundary conditions 6.Modeling Modeling is the mathematical physics problem formulation in terms of a continuous initial boundary value problem (IBVP) IBVP is in the form of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) with appropriate boundary conditions and initial conditions. Flow conditions 5. Coordinates 3. Modeling includes: 1.

Modeling (geometry and domain) Simple geometries can be easily created by few geometric parameters (e.g. . etc. z). 9 .g. The three coordinates: Cartesian system (x.z). . cylindrical for circular pipe). and spherical system(r. ) should be appropriately chosen for a better resolution of the geometry (e. STEP. circular pipe) Complex geometries must be created by the partial differential equations or importing the database of the geometry(e. cylindrical system (r. ACIS.y. or IGES. airfoil) into commercial software Domain: size and shape Typical approaches Geometry approximation CAD/CAE integration: use of industry standards such as Parasolid.g.

J) J General Curvilinear Coordinates General orthogonal Coordinates 10 .y.U.z) z y x x U r y x U r y z Spherical (r.U.Modeling (coordinates) z Cartesian (x.z) z Cylindrical (r.

Modeling (governing equations) Navier-Stokes equations (3D in Cartesian coordinates) « x 2u x 2 u x 2 u » Ö xu xu xu xu xp Vu Vv Vw ! Q¬ 2 2 2 ¼ V xt xx xy xz xx xy xz ½ xx « x 2v x 2v x 2v » Ö xv xv xv xv xp Vu Vv Vw ! Q¬ 2 2 2 ¼ V xt xx xy xz xy xy xz ½ xx x V xt x Vu xx x Vv xy Ö x xp V ! xz xz « x2 Q¬ 2 xx x2 xy 2 x2 » ¼ xz 2 ½ Local acceleration Convection Piezometric pressure gradient xV xt x .

V u x .

V v x .

V xz xx xy Viscous terms Continuity equation Equation of state Rayleigh Equation 11 ! 0 p ! VRT D 2R R Dt 2 3 DR 2 p p ( ) ! v VL 2 Dt .

Modeling (flow conditions) Based on the physics of the fluids phenomena. Da) etc 12 . laminar (Re) Incompressible vs. inviscid (Re) External flow or internal flow (wall bounded or not) Turbulent vs. K. Gr. multi-phase (Ca) Thermal/density effects (Pr.vs. Ec) Free-surface flow (Fr) and surface tension (We) Chemical reactions and combustion (Pe. CFD can be distinguished into different categories using different criteria Viscous vs. compressible (Ma) Single.

steady/unsteady flows) ICs should not affect final results and only affect convergence path. CFD codes are usually run in the steady mode for a few iterations for getting a better initial conditions 13 .Modeling (initial conditions) Initial conditions (ICS.e. i. number of iterations (steady) or time steps (unsteady) need to reach converged solutions. More reasonable guess can speed up the convergence For complicated unsteady flow problems.

outlet (constant pressure. periodic. velocity convective.du/dr=0 Axisymmetric 14 .u=c. such as acoustics). constant pressure. dp/dr=0. and nonreflecting (for compressible flows. mass flow rate. etc. p=c Periodic boundary condition in spanwise direction of an airfoil o x v=0. inlet (velocity inlet. etc. No-slip walls: u=0.v=0 Inlet .v=0 r Outlet. numerical beach. zero-gradient).Modeling(boundary conditions) Boundary conditions: No-slip or slip-free on walls.).

vs. cavitation model. Ec. two-fluid model) Thermal/density effects and energy equation (Pr. conservation of energy) Free-surface flow (Fr. Gr. level-set & surface tracking model) and surface tension (We. inviscid (Re) Turbulent vs. Turbulent models) Incompressible vs.Modeling (selection of models) CFD codes typically designed for solving certain fluid phenomenon by applying different models Viscous vs. compressible (Ma. laminar (Re. multi-phase (Ca. equation of state) Single. bubble dynamic model) Chemical reactions and combustion (Chemical reaction model) etc 15 . K.

Free-surface models: Surface-tracking method: mesh moving to capture free surface.Modeling (Turbulence and free surface models) Turbulent flows at high Re usually involve both large and small scale vortical structures and very thin turbulent boundary layer (BL) near the wall Turbulent models: DNS: most accurately solve NS equations. limited to small and medium wave slopes Single/two phase level-set method: mesh fixed and level-set function used to capture the gas/liquid interface. capable of studying steep or breaking waves. LES in separated regions. 16 . but too expensive for turbulent flows RANS: predict mean flow structures. LES: accurate in separation region and unaffordable for resolving BL DES: RANS inside BL. efficient inside BL but excessive diffusion in the separated region.

Examples of modeling (Turbulence and free surface models) URANS.4) for turbulent flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60 degrees URANS. contour of vorticity for turbulent flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60 degrees DES. Iso-surface of Q criterion (0. Re=105. Re=105. Wigley Hull pitching and heaving 17 .

2. Discretization methods Solvers and numerical parameters Grid generation and transformation High Performance Computation (HPC) and postprocessing 18 .Numerical methods The continuous Initial Boundary Value Problems (IBVPs) are discretized into algebraic equations using numerical methods. 3. 4. Assemble the system of algebraic equations and solve the system to get approximate solutions Numerical methods include: 1.

etc. However. central differences schemes. Beam-Warming method) 19 . usually for regular grid) and finite volumes and finite element methods (usually for irregular meshes) Each type of methods above yields the same solution if the grid is fine enough.Discretization methods Finite difference methods (straightforward to apply. such as 2nd order upwind scheme. Runge-Kutta.g. Higher order numerical methods usually predict higher order of accuracy for CFD. etc.) or implicit method (e. some methods are more suitable to some cases than others Finite difference methods for spatial derivatives with different order of accuracies can be derived using Taylor expansions. but more likely unstable due to less numerical dissipation Temporal derivatives can be integrated either by the explicit method (Euler.

Usually. Stability: A discretization method is said to be stable if it does not magnify the errors that appear in the course of numerical solution process. such as multi-phase flows. 20 . but need efforts on efficiency. higher-order temporal discretization is used when the spatial discretization is also of higher order. accuracy and special requirements. such as shock wave tracking.Discretization methods (Cont d) Explicit methods can be easily applied but yield conditionally stable Finite Different Equations (FDEs). etc. which are restricted by the time step. Selection of discretization methods should consider efficiency. Pre-conditioning method is used when the matrix of the linear algebraic system is ill-posed. flows with a broad range of Mach numbers. Implicit methods are unconditionally stable.

m-1) L-1 L x l xu vm l l «um 1 um » FD Sign( v l )<0 ! v ½ xy (y l vm l l «um um 1 » BD Sign( l )>0 ! ½ (y v 2nd order central difference i. i.e. theoretical order of accuracy Pkest= 1 l xu um l l «um um1 » ! u ½ xx (x x 2u Q Q 2 ! 2 «u l 1 2u l u l 1 » ½ xy (y 21 .m+1) xu xx u xv !0 xy (L-1... 1st order upwind scheme.m) m=1 m=0 y m=MM+1 m=MM xu x ¨ p¸ xu xu ! © ¹Q 2 v xy xx ª e º xy xx (L. theoretical order of accuracy Pkest= 2.m) 2 (L.e.Discretization methods (example) 2D incompressible laminar flow boundary layer (L.

Discretization methods (example) 3 1 B1 « B2 » FD l l ¬ ul » l « Q » l vm vm 2Q ¼ l « Q (y l m FD ¼ um 1 ¬ 2 BD ¼ um 1 vm 2 ¼ um ¬ 2 ¬ 1 (y (y ¬ (x (y ½ (y ½ BD (y ¼ ¬ ¼ (y ½ B B1u l 1 B2u l B3u l 1 ! B4u l 1 « B2 ¬B ¬ 1 ¬ ¬ ¬0 ¬0 B3 B2 0 0 0 B3 y 0 0 0 0 y 0 0 0 0 y 0 0 0 0 y B1 0 B2 B1 0 0 x l p / e .

xx l um l 1 x ! um ( p / e)lm (x xx B4 ¡¡ To be stable. Matrix has to be Diagonally dominant. ¡¡ ¡¡ 0 » « u1l ¼ ¬ 0¼ ¬ y ¼v¬ y ¼ ¬ B3 ¼ ¬ y B2 ¼ u l ½ ¬ l « x ¨ p¸ l 1 ¬ B4u1 © ¹ xx ª e º1 » ¬ ¼ ¬ y ¼ ¬ ¼!¬ y ¼ ¬ y ¼ ¬ l ¼ x ¨ p¸ ½ ¬ l 1 ¬ B4u © ¹ xx ª e º ¬ » Solve it using ¼ ¼ Thomas algorithm ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ½ 22 .

Different numerical schemes Monitor residuals (change of results between iterations) Number of iterations for steady flow or number of time steps for unsteady flow Single/double precisions 23 . Under relaxation factor. convergence limit. Gauss-Seidel method. PETSC solver. multi-grid solvers. pentadiagonal solvers.Solvers and numerical parameters Solvers include: tridiagonal. solution-adaptive solver. Gauss elimination. LU decomposition) or iterative (Jacobi method. etc. etc. Solvers can be either direct (Cramer s rule. SOR method) Numerical parameters need to be specified to control the calculation.

Depends upon type of discretization scheme and application Scheme Finite differences: structured Finite volume or finite element: structured or unstructured Application Thin boundary layers best unstructured resolved with highly-stretched structured grids Unstructured grids useful for complex geometries Unstructured grids permit automatic adaptive refinement based on the pressure gradient. or regions interested (FLUENT) 24 .Numerical methods (grid generation) Grids can either be structured structured (hexahedral) or unstructured (tetrahedral).

important for body-fitted grids.z) 25 .y. The partial xf xf x\ xf xL xf xf ! ! \y Ly derivatives at these two domains have the xy x\ xy xL xy x\ xL relationship (2D as an example) Transformation between physical (x.y Numerical methods (grid transformation) L Transform o Physical domain x o Computational domain xf xf x\ xf xL xf xf ! ! \x Lx xx x\ xx xL xx x\ xL \ and computational (\L^) domains.

CFD codes need to be developed using the Massage Passing Interface (MPI) Standard to transfer data between different blocks.g. As required by the multi-block technique. limited by the memory requirements. Figure: Strong scalability of total times without I/O for CFDShip-Iowa V6 and V4 on NAVO Cray XT5 (Einstein) and IBM P6 (DaVinci) are compared with ideal scaling. Weak scalability. 3D unsteady flows) are usually very expensive which requires parallel high performance supercomputers (e. Emphasis on improving: Strong scalability.g. 26 . main bottleneck pressure Poisson solver for incompressible flow. IBM 690) with the use of multi-block technique. Figure: Weak scalability of total times without I/O for CFDShip-Iowa V6 and V4 on IBM P6 (DaVinci) and SGI Altix (Hawk) are compared with ideal scaling.High performance computing CFD computations (e.

25. free=surface colored using z for fully appended Athena. etc. Re=2. Visualize the CFD results (contour. 27 . Fr=0.). Tecplot360 is used for visualization. streamlines. streak lines. CFD UA: verification and validation using EFD data (more details later) Post-processing usually through using commercial software Figure: Isosurface of Q=300 colored using piezometric pressure. and iso-surface in 3D. velocity vectors.Post-Processing Post-processing: 1. pathlines.9×108. and 2.

Gridgen. CFX/AEA. Tecplot. etc.Types of CFD codes Commercial CFD code: FLUENT. Research CFD code: CFDSHIP-IOWA Public domain software (PHI3D. and WinpipeD. StarCD.g.) Other CFD software includes the Grid generation software (e. HYDRO. etc. FieldView) CFDSHIPIOWA 28 . CFDRC.g. Gambit) and flow visualization software (e.

Validation using EFD Lab 2: Airfoil Flow 1. 6. Developing length of laminar and turbulent pipe flows. Effect of order of angle of attack 3. ³C´ and ³O´ Meshes 4. Definition of ³CFD Process´ 2. Boundary conditions 3. Grid error 5. Effect of angle of attack/turbulent models on flow field 5. Verification using AFD 7. Iterative error 4. Validation using EFD 29 . Boundary conditions 2.CFD Educational Interface Lab1: Pipe Flow 1. Grid generation topology.

Solve 5. etc. CFD process is the steps to set up the IBVP problem and run the code: 1. Reports 6. etc. Post processing 30 . different CFD codes can be chosen for different applications (aerospace. Mesh 4.CFD process Purposes of CFD codes will be different for different applications: investigation of bubble-fluid interactions for bubbly flows. Depend on the specific purpose and flow conditions of the problem. Geometry 2.) Once purposes and CFD codes chosen. marines. multi-phase flows. combustion. study of wave induced massively separated flows for free-surface. Physics 3.

CFD Process Geometry Physics Mesh Solve Reports PostProcessing Contours Select Geometry Heat Transfer ON/OFF Unstructured (automatic/ manual) Steady/ Unsteady Forces Report (lift/drag. shear stress. etc) Geometry Parameters Compressible ON/OFF Structured (automatic/ manual) Iterations/ Steps XY Plot Vectors Domain Shape and Size Flow properties Convergent Limit Verification Streamlines Viscous Model Precisions (single/ double) Validation Boundary Conditions Numerical Scheme Initial Conditions 31 .

like FlowLab) For research code.g. commercial software (e. like Gambit.) For commercial code. or combined together.Geometry Selection of an appropriate coordinate Determine the domain size and shape Any simplifications needed? What kinds of shapes needed to be used to best resolve the geometry? (lines. Gridgen) is used. 32 . ovals. circular. etc. geometry is usually created using commercial software (either separated from the commercial code itself.

or turbulent. user needs specify them for different applications. and thermal conductivity. 3. etc. viscosity. Flow conditions: inviscid. Flow conditions and properties usually presented in dimensional form in industrial commercial CFD software. 2. 33 . viscous. whereas in nondimensional variables for research codes. etc. laminar. Fluid properties: density. Selection of models: different models usually fixed by codes. options for user to choose Initial and Boundary Conditions: not fixed by codes.Physics Flow conditions and fluid properties 1.

Gambit.) or research code (using algebraic vs.) The mesh. Re).Mesh Meshes should be well designed to resolve important flow features which are dependent upon flow condition parameters (e. such as the grid refinement inside the wall boundary layer Mesh can be generated by either commercial codes (Gridgen. together with the boundary conditions need to be exported from commercial software in a certain format that can be recognized by the research CFD code or other commercial CFD software. 34 . etc. conformal mapping. PDE based. etc.g..

pressure and integral quantities (lift. turbulence intensity. incompressible flows) Solve the momentum.g. pressure Poisson equations and get flow field quantities. drag forces) 35 . such as velocity.Solve Setup appropriate numerical parameters Choose appropriate Solvers Solution procedure (e.

pressure and temperature. XY plots could present the centerline velocity/pressure distribution. pressure coefficient distribution (airfoil flow). AFD or EFD data can be imported and put on top of the XY plots for validation 36 .Reports Reports saved the time history of the residuals of the velocity. etc. such as total pressure drop. etc. friction factor distribution (pipe flow). lift and drag coefficients (airfoil flow). friction factor (pipe flow). Report the integral quantities.

Post-processing Analysis and visualization Calculation of derived variables Vorticity Wall shear stress Calculation of integral parameters: forces. moments Visualization (usually with commercial software) Simple 2D contours 3D contour isosurface plots Vector plots and streamlines (streamlines are the lines whose tangent direction is the same as the velocity vectors) Animations 37 .

UV: Validation Uncertainty E UV Validation achieved 38 ¢ £ Error: H S ! S T ! H SM H SN Uncertainty: 2 2 2 US ! US US ¤ . assumed composed of additive modeling SM and numerical SN errors: Simulation error: the difference between a simulation result uncertainties USN and. when conditions permit. estimating the sign and magnitude of the modeling error SM itself. T: Time step. when conditions permit. estimating the sign and magnitude Delta *SN of the simulation numerical error itself and the uncertainties in that error estimate USN H S ! H I H G HT H P ! H I §H j I: Iterative. 2 2 2 U V ! U D U SN E ! D S ! H (H H ) D S S Validation: process for assessing simulation modeling D: EFD Data. P: Input parameters J j !1 2 SN Verification: process for assessing simulation numerical ! 2 I 2 G 2 T 2 P uncertainty USM by using benchmark experimental data and. G : Grid.Post-processing (Uncertainty Assessment) S and the truth T (objective reality).

Oscillatory divergence: Rk<0. Oscillatory Convergence: Rk<0. Consider the solutions corresponding to fine S k 1 . | Rk|>1 Monotonic Divergence Oscillatory Convergence Grid refinement ratio: uniform ratio of grid spacing between meshes. medium S k 2 . | Rk|<1 (iii). rk ! (xk2 (xk1 ! (xk3 (xk2 ! (xkm (xkm1 39 .Post-processing (UA.and coarse meshes S k 3 I k 21 ! Sk 2 Sk 1 I k 32 ! S k 3 S k 2 Monotonic Convergence Rk ! I k 21 I k 32 (i). Monotonic divergence: Rk>1 (iv). Verification) Convergence studies: Convergence studies require a minimum of m=3 solutions to evaluate convergence with respective to input parameters. Monotonic convergence: 0<Rk<1 (ii).

The accuracy of the estimates depends on how many terms are retained in the expansion. the magnitude (importance) of the higher-order terms. and the validity of the assumptions made in RE theory 40 . generalized RE is used to estimate the error *k and order of accuracy pk due to the selection of the kth input parameter. The error is expanded in a power series expansion with integer powers of (xk as a finite sum. RE) Generalized Richardson Extrapolation (RE): For monotonic convergence.Post-processing (Verification.

RE) ¦ * SC ! S H S Power series expansion Ö S km ! S km H * I km Ö Skm ! SC § (xkm i !1 Ö S k1 ! SC (xk1 .Post-processing (Verification.

2 k Ö S k3 ! SC r (xk1 .

pk ! ln I k32 I k21 ln .

rk .

j { k §H J H k*m ! § (xk m i !1 n . ¥ * HS ! HS IS is the error in the estimate SC is the numerical benchmark SN ¥ ¥ ! SC H ( pk i ) * km J Finite sum for the kth parameter and mth solution * jm j !1.

.

p ki .

g ki n .

g (1) k g (i ) k J j !1. j { k §H * jm (i pk ) order of accuracy for the ith term ( p k1 ) §H J * j1 Ö S k 2 ! SC rk (xk1 * j3 . j { k j !1.

j { k §H * j2 ( p k1 ) g (1) k j !1. ( pk1 ) g (1) k J j !1. j { k §H ! Three equations with three unknowns H !H * k1 * RE k 1 I k 21 rkpk 1 41 .

Verification. cont d) Monotonic Convergence: Generalized Richardson Extrapolation pk ! ln .Post-processing (UA.

I k 32 I k 21 ln .

Correction factors ®9.rk * H REk 1 ! Ck ! rkpk 1 rk pkest 1 1.6 .

1» H * « k ± ½ REk 1 U k ! ¯ * ± « 2 1 Ck 1» H REk 1 ½ ° * ?2 ® .4 .1 C 2 1.

125 1 Ck u 0.U kc is the uncertainties based on numerical benchmark SC * U kc ! .25 U k is the uncertainties based on fine mesh solution.25 I k 21 rkpk 1 2nd pkest Ck is the theoretical order of accuracy.1AH REk 1 U kc ! ¯ ?1C 1AH * * H1 [| °1 kCk |] |REkRE | k1 1 Ck 0.1C k 2 0. 2 for order and 1 for 1st order schemes is the correction factor * U k ! Fs H REk 1 1 C k u 0.125 1 Ck 0.

but without 1 signs and magnitudes of the errors.Fs 1 H REk 1 FS: Factor of Safety Oscillatory Convergence: Uncertainties can be estimated. U k ! .

GCI approach 42 . such as ³Uk´ will be ³Ug´ 2. So. all the variables with subscribe symbol k will be replaced by g.SU S L 2 Divergence In this course. only grid uncertainties studied.

Post-processing (Verification. Asymptotic Range) Asymptotic Range: For sufficiently small (xk. the solutions are in the asymptotic range such that higher-order terms are negligible and the .

i assumption that pk.

i and g k are independent of (xk is valid. To achieve the asymptotic range for practical geometry and conditions is usually not possible and number of grids m>3 is undesirable from a resources point of view est 43 . pk will be close to the theoretical value pk . When Asymptotic Range reached. and the correction factor Ck will be close to 1.

Post-processing (UA. L2 norm of the IG21 and IG32 are used to define RG and PG ln I G IG RG ! I G21 2 I G32 2 pG ! . Verification. cont d) Verification for velocity profile using AFD: To avoid illdefined ratios.

32 2 21 2 ln .

can be plot with +Ug and ±Ug.rG Where <> and || ||2 are used to denote a profile-averaged quantity (with ratio of solution changes based on L2 norms) and L2 norm. So. NOTE: For verification using AFD for axial velocity profile in laminar pipe flow (CFD Lab1). the difference between CFD and AFD. there is no modeling error. respectively. 44 . and +Ugc and ±Ugc to see if solution was verified. E. only grid errors.

The number of order magnitude drop and final level of solution residual can be used to determine stopping criteria for iterative solution techniques (1) Oscillatory (2) Convergent (3) Mixed oscillatory/convergent (a) (b) Typical CFD solution techniques for obtaining steady state solutions UI ! 1 ( SU S L ) 2 Iteration history for series 60: (a).Post-processing (Verification: Iterative Convergence) involve beginning with an initial guess and performing time marching or iteration until a steady state solution is achieved. Solution change (b) magnified view of total resistance over last two periods of oscillation (Oscillatory iterative convergence) 45 .

Post-processing (UA. Validation) Validation procedure: simulation modeling uncertainties was presented where for successful validation. Uv. Interpretation of the results of a validation effort UV E Validation not achieved 2 2 U V ! U SN U D Validation example Example: Grid study and validation of wave profile for series 60 § ¨ E U V Validation achieved E ! D S ! H D (H S H S ) 46 . the comparison error. is less than the validation uncertainty. E.

C shape domain is applied The radius of the domain Rc and downstream length Lo should be specified in such a way that the domain size will not affect the simulation results 47 .Example of CFD Process using CFD educational interface (Geometry) Turbulent flows (Re=143K) around Clarky airfoil with angle of attack 6 degree is simulated.

Example of CFD Process (Physics) No heat transfer 48 .

Example of CFD Process (Mesh) Grid need to be refined near the foil surface to resolve the boundary layer 49 .

Example of CFD Process (Solve) Residuals vs. iteration 50 .

Example of CFD Process (Reports) 51 .

Example of CFD Process (Post-processing) 52 .

18 CFD Labs instructed by Shanti.engineering. 21 Nov. 19.57:020 CFD Labs Schedule CFD Lab Dates CFD PreLab1 CFD Lab1 CFD PreLab2 CFD Lab 2 Oct. Bhushan.14 Visit class website for more information http://css. Akira Hanaoka and Seongmo Yeon Use the educational interface FlowLab 1.edu/~fluids 53 .2.uiowa. 11 Nov. 12. 14 Oct. 9. 16.

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