This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

)

Tao Xing, Shanti Bhushan and Fred Stern

IIHR Hydroscience & Engineering C. Maxwell Stanley Hydraulics Laboratory The University of Iowa 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes http://css.engineering.uiowa.edu/~fluids/ October 5, 2010

Outline

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What, why and where of CFD? Modeling Numerical methods Types of CFD codes CFD Educational Interface CFD Process Example of CFD Process 57:020 CFD Labs

2

What is CFD?

CFD is the simulation of fluids engineering systems using modeling (mathematical physical problem formulation) and numerical methods (discretization methods, solvers, numerical parameters, and grid generations, etc.) Historically only Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD) and Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD). CFD made possible by the advent of digital computer and advancing with improvements of computer resources (500 flops, 1947 20 teraflops, 2003 1.3 pentaflops, Roadrunner at Las Alamos National Lab, 2009.)

3

**Why use CFD?
**

Analysis and Design

1. Simulation-based design instead of build & test

More cost effective and more rapid than EFD CFD provides high-fidelity database for diagnosing flow field

**2. Simulation of physical fluid phenomena that are difficult for experiments
**

Full scale simulations (e.g., ships and airplanes) Environmental effects (wind, weather, etc.) Hazards (e.g., explosions, radiation, pollution) Physics (e.g., planetary boundary layer, stellar evolution)

Knowledge and exploration of flow physics

4

**Where is CFD used?
**

Where is CFD used? Aerospace Automotive Biomedical

Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports

Automotive Aerospace

Biomedical

F18 Store Separation

Temperature and natural convection currents in the eye following laser heating.

5

prediction of flow separation and residence time effects.Where is CFD used? Chemical Processing Where is CFD used? Aerospacee Automotive Biomedical Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports HVAC Streamlines for workstation ventilation Polymerization reactor vessel . Hydraulics 6 .

Where is CFD used? Marine (movie) Sports Where is CFD used? Aerospace Automotive Biomedical Chemical Processing HVAC Hydraulics Marine Oil & Gas Power Generation Sports Oil & Gas Flow of lubricating mud over drill bit Power Generation Flow around cooling towers 7 .

Initial and boundary conditions 6. Governing equations 4. Selection of models for different applications 8 . Geometry and domain 2.Modeling Modeling is the mathematical physics problem formulation in terms of a continuous initial boundary value problem (IBVP) IBVP is in the form of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) with appropriate boundary conditions and initial conditions. Coordinates 3. Flow conditions 5. Modeling includes: 1.

circular pipe) Complex geometries must be created by the partial differential equations or importing the database of the geometry(e. 9 . The three coordinates: Cartesian system (x.y.Modeling (geometry and domain) Simple geometries can be easily created by few geometric parameters (e. . ACIS. airfoil) into commercial software Domain: size and shape Typical approaches Geometry approximation CAD/CAE integration: use of industry standards such as Parasolid. and spherical system(r. cylindrical for circular pipe). cylindrical system (r. STEP. .g. z).g.g. etc. or IGES. ) should be appropriately chosen for a better resolution of the geometry (e.z).

U.z) z Cylindrical (r.z) z y x x U r y x U r y z Spherical (r.Modeling (coordinates) z Cartesian (x.U.J) J General Curvilinear Coordinates General orthogonal Coordinates 10 .y.

Modeling (governing equations) Navier-Stokes equations (3D in Cartesian coordinates) « x 2u x 2 u x 2 u » Ö xu xu xu xu xp Vu Vv Vw ! Q¬ 2 2 2 ¼ V xt xx xy xz xx xy xz ½ xx « x 2v x 2v x 2v » Ö xv xv xv xv xp Vu Vv Vw ! Q¬ 2 2 2 ¼ V xt xx xy xz xy xy xz ½ xx x V xt x Vu xx x Vv xy Ö x xp V ! xz xz « x2 Q¬ 2 xx x2 xy 2 x2 » ¼ xz 2 ½ Local acceleration Convection Piezometric pressure gradient xV xt x .

V u x .

V v x .

V xz xx xy Viscous terms Continuity equation Equation of state Rayleigh Equation 11 ! 0 p ! VRT D 2R R Dt 2 3 DR 2 p p ( ) ! v VL 2 Dt .

Da) etc 12 .Modeling (flow conditions) Based on the physics of the fluids phenomena. multi-phase (Ca) Thermal/density effects (Pr. Gr. inviscid (Re) External flow or internal flow (wall bounded or not) Turbulent vs. K. Ec) Free-surface flow (Fr) and surface tension (We) Chemical reactions and combustion (Pe. laminar (Re) Incompressible vs. CFD can be distinguished into different categories using different criteria Viscous vs.vs. compressible (Ma) Single.

number of iterations (steady) or time steps (unsteady) need to reach converged solutions. More reasonable guess can speed up the convergence For complicated unsteady flow problems. i. CFD codes are usually run in the steady mode for a few iterations for getting a better initial conditions 13 . steady/unsteady flows) ICs should not affect final results and only affect convergence path.e.Modeling (initial conditions) Initial conditions (ICS.

etc. dp/dr=0.v=0 Inlet . numerical beach. No-slip walls: u=0.Modeling(boundary conditions) Boundary conditions: No-slip or slip-free on walls. zero-gradient). etc.). mass flow rate. such as acoustics).u=c. periodic. inlet (velocity inlet. p=c Periodic boundary condition in spanwise direction of an airfoil o x v=0.du/dr=0 Axisymmetric 14 . outlet (constant pressure. constant pressure. velocity convective. and nonreflecting (for compressible flows.v=0 r Outlet.

two-fluid model) Thermal/density effects and energy equation (Pr. inviscid (Re) Turbulent vs. conservation of energy) Free-surface flow (Fr. compressible (Ma. multi-phase (Ca. bubble dynamic model) Chemical reactions and combustion (Chemical reaction model) etc 15 . Turbulent models) Incompressible vs. Ec. laminar (Re.vs. Gr. K. cavitation model. equation of state) Single.Modeling (selection of models) CFD codes typically designed for solving certain fluid phenomenon by applying different models Viscous vs. level-set & surface tracking model) and surface tension (We.

efficient inside BL but excessive diffusion in the separated region. but too expensive for turbulent flows RANS: predict mean flow structures. LES: accurate in separation region and unaffordable for resolving BL DES: RANS inside BL. Free-surface models: Surface-tracking method: mesh moving to capture free surface.Modeling (Turbulence and free surface models) Turbulent flows at high Re usually involve both large and small scale vortical structures and very thin turbulent boundary layer (BL) near the wall Turbulent models: DNS: most accurately solve NS equations. limited to small and medium wave slopes Single/two phase level-set method: mesh fixed and level-set function used to capture the gas/liquid interface. 16 . capable of studying steep or breaking waves. LES in separated regions.

Examples of modeling (Turbulence and free surface models) URANS. contour of vorticity for turbulent flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60 degrees DES. Wigley Hull pitching and heaving 17 . Iso-surface of Q criterion (0.4) for turbulent flow around NACA12 with angle of attack 60 degrees URANS. Re=105. Re=105.

Numerical methods The continuous Initial Boundary Value Problems (IBVPs) are discretized into algebraic equations using numerical methods. 2. Discretization methods Solvers and numerical parameters Grid generation and transformation High Performance Computation (HPC) and postprocessing 18 . Assemble the system of algebraic equations and solve the system to get approximate solutions Numerical methods include: 1. 4. 3.

Runge-Kutta. some methods are more suitable to some cases than others Finite difference methods for spatial derivatives with different order of accuracies can be derived using Taylor expansions.g. central differences schemes.Discretization methods Finite difference methods (straightforward to apply. usually for regular grid) and finite volumes and finite element methods (usually for irregular meshes) Each type of methods above yields the same solution if the grid is fine enough. However.) or implicit method (e. etc. etc. such as 2nd order upwind scheme. Beam-Warming method) 19 . Higher order numerical methods usually predict higher order of accuracy for CFD. but more likely unstable due to less numerical dissipation Temporal derivatives can be integrated either by the explicit method (Euler.

Discretization methods (Cont d) Explicit methods can be easily applied but yield conditionally stable Finite Different Equations (FDEs). such as multi-phase flows. higher-order temporal discretization is used when the spatial discretization is also of higher order. Pre-conditioning method is used when the matrix of the linear algebraic system is ill-posed. flows with a broad range of Mach numbers. Usually. such as shock wave tracking. but need efforts on efficiency. accuracy and special requirements. Selection of discretization methods should consider efficiency. which are restricted by the time step. Implicit methods are unconditionally stable. Stability: A discretization method is said to be stable if it does not magnify the errors that appear in the course of numerical solution process. etc. 20 .

e.m) m=1 m=0 y m=MM+1 m=MM xu x ¨ p¸ xu xu ! © ¹Q 2 v xy xx ª e º xy xx (L. i.m-1) L-1 L x l xu vm l l «um 1 um » FD Sign( v l )<0 ! v ½ xy (y l vm l l «um um 1 » BD Sign( l )>0 ! ½ (y v 2nd order central difference i.e. theoretical order of accuracy Pkest= 1 l xu um l l «um um1 » ! u ½ xx (x x 2u Q Q 2 ! 2 «u l 1 2u l u l 1 » ½ xy (y 21 .Discretization methods (example) 2D incompressible laminar flow boundary layer (L. 1st order upwind scheme.m+1) xu xx u xv !0 xy (L-1... theoretical order of accuracy Pkest= 2.m) 2 (L.

Discretization methods (example) 3 1 B1 « B2 » FD l l ¬ ul » l « Q » l vm vm 2Q ¼ l « Q (y l m FD ¼ um 1 ¬ 2 BD ¼ um 1 vm 2 ¼ um ¬ 2 ¬ 1 (y (y ¬ (x (y ½ (y ½ BD (y ¼ ¬ ¼ (y ½ B B1u l 1 B2u l B3u l 1 ! B4u l 1 « B2 ¬B ¬ 1 ¬ ¬ ¬0 ¬0 B3 B2 0 0 0 B3 y 0 0 0 0 y 0 0 0 0 y 0 0 0 0 y B1 0 B2 B1 0 0 x l p / e .

Matrix has to be Diagonally dominant. xx l um l 1 x ! um ( p / e)lm (x xx B4 ¡¡ To be stable. ¡¡ ¡¡ 0 » « u1l ¼ ¬ 0¼ ¬ y ¼v¬ y ¼ ¬ B3 ¼ ¬ y B2 ¼ u l ½ ¬ l « x ¨ p¸ l 1 ¬ B4u1 © ¹ xx ª e º1 » ¬ ¼ ¬ y ¼ ¬ ¼!¬ y ¼ ¬ y ¼ ¬ l ¼ x ¨ p¸ ½ ¬ l 1 ¬ B4u © ¹ xx ª e º ¬ » Solve it using ¼ ¼ Thomas algorithm ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ¼ ½ 22 .

Under relaxation factor.Solvers and numerical parameters Solvers include: tridiagonal. Gauss-Seidel method. SOR method) Numerical parameters need to be specified to control the calculation. LU decomposition) or iterative (Jacobi method. multi-grid solvers. Gauss elimination. pentadiagonal solvers. etc. etc. solution-adaptive solver. Solvers can be either direct (Cramer s rule. convergence limit. PETSC solver. Different numerical schemes Monitor residuals (change of results between iterations) Number of iterations for steady flow or number of time steps for unsteady flow Single/double precisions 23 .

Depends upon type of discretization scheme and application Scheme Finite differences: structured Finite volume or finite element: structured or unstructured Application Thin boundary layers best unstructured resolved with highly-stretched structured grids Unstructured grids useful for complex geometries Unstructured grids permit automatic adaptive refinement based on the pressure gradient. or regions interested (FLUENT) 24 .Numerical methods (grid generation) Grids can either be structured structured (hexahedral) or unstructured (tetrahedral).

important for body-fitted grids.y.z) 25 . The partial xf xf x\ xf xL xf xf ! ! \y Ly derivatives at these two domains have the xy x\ xy xL xy x\ xL relationship (2D as an example) Transformation between physical (x.y Numerical methods (grid transformation) L Transform o Physical domain x o Computational domain xf xf x\ xf xL xf xf ! ! \x Lx xx x\ xx xL xx x\ xL \ and computational (\L^) domains.

High performance computing CFD computations (e.g. IBM 690) with the use of multi-block technique. 26 .g. Emphasis on improving: Strong scalability. 3D unsteady flows) are usually very expensive which requires parallel high performance supercomputers (e. Figure: Strong scalability of total times without I/O for CFDShip-Iowa V6 and V4 on NAVO Cray XT5 (Einstein) and IBM P6 (DaVinci) are compared with ideal scaling. As required by the multi-block technique. Weak scalability. limited by the memory requirements. main bottleneck pressure Poisson solver for incompressible flow. Figure: Weak scalability of total times without I/O for CFDShip-Iowa V6 and V4 on IBM P6 (DaVinci) and SGI Altix (Hawk) are compared with ideal scaling. CFD codes need to be developed using the Massage Passing Interface (MPI) Standard to transfer data between different blocks.

and iso-surface in 3D. streamlines. velocity vectors. and 2. Fr=0.).9×108. Re=2. etc. Tecplot360 is used for visualization. pathlines. streak lines. CFD UA: verification and validation using EFD data (more details later) Post-processing usually through using commercial software Figure: Isosurface of Q=300 colored using piezometric pressure.Post-Processing Post-processing: 1. free=surface colored using z for fully appended Athena. Visualize the CFD results (contour. 27 .25.

Gridgen. etc. CFX/AEA. HYDRO. FieldView) CFDSHIPIOWA 28 .g. Research CFD code: CFDSHIP-IOWA Public domain software (PHI3D. CFDRC. etc. StarCD.g.Types of CFD codes Commercial CFD code: FLUENT.) Other CFD software includes the Grid generation software (e. Gambit) and flow visualization software (e. and WinpipeD. Tecplot.

Definition of ³CFD Process´ 2. Iterative error 4. Validation using EFD 29 . Boundary conditions 2. Verification using AFD 7. Boundary conditions 3. Grid generation topology. ³C´ and ³O´ Meshes 4. Effect of angle of attack/turbulent models on flow field 5. Validation using EFD Lab 2: Airfoil Flow 1.CFD Educational Interface Lab1: Pipe Flow 1. Developing length of laminar and turbulent pipe flows. Effect of order of angle of attack 3. 6. Grid error 5.

Depend on the specific purpose and flow conditions of the problem. Post processing 30 . study of wave induced massively separated flows for free-surface.) Once purposes and CFD codes chosen. marines. Reports 6. etc. CFD process is the steps to set up the IBVP problem and run the code: 1. different CFD codes can be chosen for different applications (aerospace. Solve 5. etc. multi-phase flows.CFD process Purposes of CFD codes will be different for different applications: investigation of bubble-fluid interactions for bubbly flows. Mesh 4. combustion. Geometry 2. Physics 3.

CFD Process Geometry Physics Mesh Solve Reports PostProcessing Contours Select Geometry Heat Transfer ON/OFF Unstructured (automatic/ manual) Steady/ Unsteady Forces Report (lift/drag. shear stress. etc) Geometry Parameters Compressible ON/OFF Structured (automatic/ manual) Iterations/ Steps XY Plot Vectors Domain Shape and Size Flow properties Convergent Limit Verification Streamlines Viscous Model Precisions (single/ double) Validation Boundary Conditions Numerical Scheme Initial Conditions 31 .

geometry is usually created using commercial software (either separated from the commercial code itself.) For commercial code.Geometry Selection of an appropriate coordinate Determine the domain size and shape Any simplifications needed? What kinds of shapes needed to be used to best resolve the geometry? (lines. circular. Gridgen) is used. like FlowLab) For research code. or combined together. 32 . commercial software (e.g. like Gambit. etc. ovals.

viscosity. 33 . 2. Selection of models: different models usually fixed by codes. Flow conditions: inviscid. Fluid properties: density. and thermal conductivity. Flow conditions and properties usually presented in dimensional form in industrial commercial CFD software. options for user to choose Initial and Boundary Conditions: not fixed by codes. etc. etc. laminar. user needs specify them for different applications.Physics Flow conditions and fluid properties 1. viscous. 3. or turbulent. whereas in nondimensional variables for research codes.

etc. etc.Mesh Meshes should be well designed to resolve important flow features which are dependent upon flow condition parameters (e. Re).) The mesh. together with the boundary conditions need to be exported from commercial software in a certain format that can be recognized by the research CFD code or other commercial CFD software.g. conformal mapping. such as the grid refinement inside the wall boundary layer Mesh can be generated by either commercial codes (Gridgen.. Gambit.) or research code (using algebraic vs. 34 . PDE based.

Solve Setup appropriate numerical parameters Choose appropriate Solvers Solution procedure (e. pressure Poisson equations and get flow field quantities. turbulence intensity. incompressible flows) Solve the momentum. pressure and integral quantities (lift. drag forces) 35 . such as velocity.g.

such as total pressure drop.Reports Reports saved the time history of the residuals of the velocity. pressure coefficient distribution (airfoil flow). AFD or EFD data can be imported and put on top of the XY plots for validation 36 . etc. etc. pressure and temperature. Report the integral quantities. friction factor (pipe flow). lift and drag coefficients (airfoil flow). XY plots could present the centerline velocity/pressure distribution. friction factor distribution (pipe flow).

moments Visualization (usually with commercial software) Simple 2D contours 3D contour isosurface plots Vector plots and streamlines (streamlines are the lines whose tangent direction is the same as the velocity vectors) Animations 37 .Post-processing Analysis and visualization Calculation of derived variables Vorticity Wall shear stress Calculation of integral parameters: forces.

estimating the sign and magnitude of the modeling error SM itself. UV: Validation Uncertainty E UV Validation achieved 38 ¢ £ Error: H S ! S T ! H SM H SN Uncertainty: 2 2 2 US ! US US ¤ . estimating the sign and magnitude Delta *SN of the simulation numerical error itself and the uncertainties in that error estimate USN H S ! H I H G HT H P ! H I §H j I: Iterative. when conditions permit.Post-processing (Uncertainty Assessment) S and the truth T (objective reality). when conditions permit. 2 2 2 U V ! U D U SN E ! D S ! H (H H ) D S S Validation: process for assessing simulation modeling D: EFD Data. G : Grid. P: Input parameters J j !1 2 SN Verification: process for assessing simulation numerical ! 2 I 2 G 2 T 2 P uncertainty USM by using benchmark experimental data and. assumed composed of additive modeling SM and numerical SN errors: Simulation error: the difference between a simulation result uncertainties USN and. T: Time step.

Oscillatory Convergence: Rk<0. | Rk|<1 (iii). Monotonic convergence: 0<Rk<1 (ii). Verification) Convergence studies: Convergence studies require a minimum of m=3 solutions to evaluate convergence with respective to input parameters. Oscillatory divergence: Rk<0.Post-processing (UA. rk ! (xk2 (xk1 ! (xk3 (xk2 ! (xkm (xkm1 39 . Monotonic divergence: Rk>1 (iv).and coarse meshes S k 3 I k 21 ! Sk 2 Sk 1 I k 32 ! S k 3 S k 2 Monotonic Convergence Rk ! I k 21 I k 32 (i). | Rk|>1 Monotonic Divergence Oscillatory Convergence Grid refinement ratio: uniform ratio of grid spacing between meshes. Consider the solutions corresponding to fine S k 1 . medium S k 2 .

The error is expanded in a power series expansion with integer powers of (xk as a finite sum. The accuracy of the estimates depends on how many terms are retained in the expansion. generalized RE is used to estimate the error *k and order of accuracy pk due to the selection of the kth input parameter. and the validity of the assumptions made in RE theory 40 . RE) Generalized Richardson Extrapolation (RE): For monotonic convergence.Post-processing (Verification. the magnitude (importance) of the higher-order terms.

RE) ¦ * SC ! S H S Power series expansion Ö S km ! S km H * I km Ö Skm ! SC § (xkm i !1 Ö S k1 ! SC (xk1 .Post-processing (Verification.

2 k Ö S k3 ! SC r (xk1 .

pk ! ln I k32 I k21 ln .

rk .

¥ * HS ! HS IS is the error in the estimate SC is the numerical benchmark SN ¥ ¥ ! SC H ( pk i ) * km J Finite sum for the kth parameter and mth solution * jm j !1. j { k §H J H k*m ! § (xk m i !1 n .

.

p ki .

g ki n .

g (1) k g (i ) k J j !1. j { k j !1. j { k §H * jm (i pk ) order of accuracy for the ith term ( p k1 ) §H J * j1 Ö S k 2 ! SC rk (xk1 * j3 .

( pk1 ) g (1) k J j !1. j { k §H * j2 ( p k1 ) g (1) k j !1. j { k §H ! Three equations with three unknowns H !H * k1 * RE k 1 I k 21 rkpk 1 41 .

cont d) Monotonic Convergence: Generalized Richardson Extrapolation pk ! ln .Post-processing (UA. Verification.

I k 32 I k 21 ln .

Correction factors ®9.6 .rk * H REk 1 ! Ck ! rkpk 1 rk pkest 1 1.

1 C 2 1.4 .1» H * « k ± ½ REk 1 U k ! ¯ * ± « 2 1 Ck 1» H REk 1 ½ ° * ?2 ® .

U kc is the uncertainties based on numerical benchmark SC * U kc ! .25 I k 21 rkpk 1 2nd pkest Ck is the theoretical order of accuracy. 2 for order and 1 for 1st order schemes is the correction factor * U k ! Fs H REk 1 1 C k u 0.25 U k is the uncertainties based on fine mesh solution.125 1 Ck u 0.1C k 2 0.125 1 Ck 0.1AH REk 1 U kc ! ¯ ?1C 1AH * * H1 [| °1 kCk |] |REkRE | k1 1 Ck 0.

U k ! . but without 1 signs and magnitudes of the errors.Fs 1 H REk 1 FS: Factor of Safety Oscillatory Convergence: Uncertainties can be estimated.

GCI approach 42 . only grid uncertainties studied. all the variables with subscribe symbol k will be replaced by g.SU S L 2 Divergence In this course. So. such as ³Uk´ will be ³Ug´ 2.

Asymptotic Range) Asymptotic Range: For sufficiently small (xk. the solutions are in the asymptotic range such that higher-order terms are negligible and the .Post-processing (Verification.

i assumption that pk.

pk will be close to the theoretical value pk . To achieve the asymptotic range for practical geometry and conditions is usually not possible and number of grids m>3 is undesirable from a resources point of view est 43 .i and g k are independent of (xk is valid. and the correction factor Ck will be close to 1. When Asymptotic Range reached.

Post-processing (UA. cont d) Verification for velocity profile using AFD: To avoid illdefined ratios. Verification. L2 norm of the IG21 and IG32 are used to define RG and PG ln I G IG RG ! I G21 2 I G32 2 pG ! .

32 2 21 2 ln .

and +Ugc and ±Ugc to see if solution was verified. can be plot with +Ug and ±Ug. So. 44 . respectively. the difference between CFD and AFD. NOTE: For verification using AFD for axial velocity profile in laminar pipe flow (CFD Lab1). E.rG Where <> and || ||2 are used to denote a profile-averaged quantity (with ratio of solution changes based on L2 norms) and L2 norm. only grid errors. there is no modeling error.

Solution change (b) magnified view of total resistance over last two periods of oscillation (Oscillatory iterative convergence) 45 . The number of order magnitude drop and final level of solution residual can be used to determine stopping criteria for iterative solution techniques (1) Oscillatory (2) Convergent (3) Mixed oscillatory/convergent (a) (b) Typical CFD solution techniques for obtaining steady state solutions UI ! 1 ( SU S L ) 2 Iteration history for series 60: (a).Post-processing (Verification: Iterative Convergence) involve beginning with an initial guess and performing time marching or iteration until a steady state solution is achieved.

Interpretation of the results of a validation effort UV E Validation not achieved 2 2 U V ! U SN U D Validation example Example: Grid study and validation of wave profile for series 60 § ¨ E U V Validation achieved E ! D S ! H D (H S H S ) 46 . is less than the validation uncertainty. Validation) Validation procedure: simulation modeling uncertainties was presented where for successful validation.Post-processing (UA. E. Uv. the comparison error.

Example of CFD Process using CFD educational interface (Geometry) Turbulent flows (Re=143K) around Clarky airfoil with angle of attack 6 degree is simulated. C shape domain is applied The radius of the domain Rc and downstream length Lo should be specified in such a way that the domain size will not affect the simulation results 47 .

Example of CFD Process (Physics) No heat transfer 48 .

Example of CFD Process (Mesh) Grid need to be refined near the foil surface to resolve the boundary layer 49 .

Example of CFD Process (Solve) Residuals vs. iteration 50 .

Example of CFD Process (Reports) 51 .

Example of CFD Process (Post-processing) 52 .

14 Oct.uiowa.engineering. 21 Nov.2. 9.57:020 CFD Labs Schedule CFD Lab Dates CFD PreLab1 CFD Lab1 CFD PreLab2 CFD Lab 2 Oct. Bhushan. 18 CFD Labs instructed by Shanti. 12. Akira Hanaoka and Seongmo Yeon Use the educational interface FlowLab 1.edu/~fluids 53 . 11 Nov. 19.14 Visit class website for more information http://css. 16.

- CFD in Ship Design
- Numerical Solution Algorithms for Compressible Flows
- Ship Resistance and Propulsion
- CFD_lecture_2004
- 086376 01 Introduction
- CFD Lecture (Introduction to CFD)
- computational fluid dynamics 2007 lec 2007
- Introduction DFC
- CFD_lecture_2004
- Introduction Cfd
- 182595042-CFD
- CFD Lecture 2007
- CFD Lecture (Introduction to CFD)-2012
- CFD (Introduction)
- CFD Lecture (Introduction to CFD)-2012
- CFD
- Chap01 Intro
- Chapter 5 CFD
- Analysis of the Flow Around a Cruise Ferry Hull by the Means of CFD
- Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics i To
- Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Introduction to CFD
- 29-03-2011CFD Modelling by DHI SoQ
- CFD Lecture
- CFD in Formula 1 Design
- Computational Fluid Mechanics simulation and computation with Gambit and Fluent
- CFDNotes06 (1)
- CFD
- Abaqus
- Workshop CFD
- CFD_Lecture_(Introduction_to_CFD)

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd