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Review Notes in Review Notes in

Police Photography Police Photography

MLLCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim MLLCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim
44
th th
Place, Criminologists Board Lxams, Place, Criminologists Board Lxams,
October J996, Manila October J996, Manila
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'IPs of Photography 'IPs of Photography
o.epb o.epb ^icepbore ^icepbore ^iepce ^iepce was was
able able to to obtain obtain camera camera
images images on on papers papers
sensitized sensitized with with silver silver
chloride chloride solution solution in in J8J6 J8J6. .
He He invented invented a a
photographic photographic process process
which which he he called called
´heliography,¨ ´heliography,¨ meaning meaning
´writing ´writing of of the the sun sun. .¨¨
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'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
ovi. ovi. acqve. acqve. Mavae Mavae Dagverre Dagverre
invented invented ´daguerreotype¨ ´daguerreotype¨. .
Daguerreotype Daguerreotype is is an an early early
photograph photograph produced produced on on a a
silver silver or or a a silver silver- -covered covered
copper copper plate plate, , at.o at.o: : the the
process process of of producing producing such such
photographs photographs. . It It formed formed an an
image image directly directly on on the the silver silver
surface surface of of a a metal metal plate plate. . It It
was was a a positive positive process, process,
thus thus it it yielded yielded one one- -of of- -a a
kind kind images images. .
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ittiav ittiav íevry íevry ío· ío· )atbot )atbot
invented invented a a process process called called
calotype calotype (a (a photographic photographic
process process by by which which a a large large
number number of of prints prints could could be be
produced produced from from a a paper paper
negative negative, , at.o at.o: : a a positive positive
print print so so made made. .) ) Calotype Calotype
used used paper paper with with surface surface
fibers fibers impregnated impregnated with with
light light sensitive sensitive compounds compounds. .
'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
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^ote ^ote:: Calotype Calotype vs vs Daguerreotype Daguerreotype
Iixation Iixation in in calotype calotype was was only only partial partial
while while images images in in daguerreotype daguerreotype were were made made
permanent permanent with with the the use use of of hypo hypo ( (.bort .bort tor tor
bypo.vttite bypo.vttite tbio.vttate tbio.vttate:: .oaivv .oaivv tbio.vttate tbio.vttate or or a a .otvtiov .otvtiov ot ot
.oaivv .oaivv tbio.vttate tbio.vttate) ). . Sodium Sodium thiosulfate thiosulfate or or hypo hypo
is is a a hygroscopic hygroscopic ( (reaaity reaaity ta/ev ta/ev vp vp ava ava retaivivg retaivivg
voi.tvre voi.tvre) ) crystalline crystalline salt salt used used esp esp. . as as a a
photographic photographic fixing fixing agent agent and and a a reducing reducing or or
bleaching bleaching agent agent. .
'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
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obv obv íreaeric/ íreaeric/
ittiav ittiav íer.cbet íer.cbet
coined coined the the term term
pbotograpby pbotograpby and and
applied applied the the terms terms
vegatire vegatire and and po.itire po.itire
to to photography photography..
'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
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He He made made
improvements improvements in in
photographic photographic
processes, processes,
particularly particularly in in
inventing inventing the the
cyanotype cyanotype process process
and and variations variations (such (such
as as the the chrysotype), chrysotype),
the the precursors precursors of of the the
modern modern blueprint blueprint
process process. .
'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
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He He discovered discovered sodium sodium
thiosulfate thiosulfate to to be be a a
solvent solvent of of silver silver halides halides
in in J8J9 J8J9, , and and informed informed
1albot 1albot and and Daguerre Daguerre of of
his his discovery discovery that that this this
"hyposulphite "hyposulphite of of soda" soda"
("hypo") ("hypo") could could be be used used
as as a a photographic photographic fixer, fixer,
to to "fix" "fix" pictures pictures and and
make make them them permanent, permanent,
after after experimentally experimentally
applying applying it it thus thus in in J839 J839. .
'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
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'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
Irederick Scott
Archer invented the
photographic
collodion process
which preceded the
modern gelatin
emulsion.
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'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
Collodion is a wound-dressing material
made of nitrated cotton dissolved in
ether and alcohol, and other chemicals
on sheets of glass.
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'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
Richard Leach
Maddox was an
Lnglish
photographer and
physician who
invented lightweight
gelatin negative
plates for
photography in J87J.
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'IPs 'IPs of of Photography Photography cont cont. .
George Lastman
founded the
Lastman Kodak
Company and
invented roll film,
helping to bring
photography to the
mainstream.
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Definition Definition of of 1erms 1erms
Photography Photography
o o Literal Literal Definition Definition: : )o )o rrite rrite ritb ritb tigbt tigbt. . Irom Irom 22
Greek Greek words words: : pbo. pbo. ÷÷ light light and and grapbia grapbia ÷÷
write write. .
o o Modern Modern Definition Definition: : It It is is an an art art or or science science
which which deals deals with with the the reproduction reproduction of of
images images through through the the action action of of light, light, upon upon
sensitized sensitized materials, materials, with with the the aid aid of of a a
camera camera and and its its accessories, accessories, and and the the
chemical chemical processes processes involved involved therein therein. .
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Definition Definition of of 1erms 1erms cont cont. .
Photography Photography
o o 1echnical/Legal 1echnical/Legal Definition Definition: : It It is is any any
means means for for chemical, chemical, thermal, thermal, electrical electrical or or
electronic electronic recording recording of of the the images images of of
scenes, scenes, or or objects objects formed formed by by some some type type of of
radiant radiant energy, energy, including including gamma gamma rays, rays, XX- -
rays, rays, ultra ultra- -violet violet rays, rays, visible visible light light and and
infrared infrared rays rays. .
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Definition Definition of of 1erms 1erms cont cont. .
Photography Photography
o o 1echnical/Legal 1echnical/Legal Definition Definition: : 1his 1his
definition definition is is broad broad enough enough to to include include not not
only only the the conventional conventional methods methods of of
photography photography but but almost almost any any new new process process
that that may may be be developed developed. .
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Definition Definition of of 1erms 1erms cont cont. .
Police Police Photography Photography ÷÷ An An art art or or science science
which which deals deals with with the the study study of of the the
principles principles of of photography, photography, the the
reproduction reproduction of of photographic photographic evidence, evidence,
and and its its application application to to police police work work. .
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Definition Definition of of 1erms 1erms cont cont. .
Iorensic Iorensic Photography Photography ÷÷ 1he 1he art art or or
science science of of photographically photographically
documenting documenting a a crime crime scene scene and and
evidence evidence for for laboratory laboratory examination examination
and and analysis analysis for for purposes purposes of of court court trial trial. .
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Aims Aims & & Purposes Purposes of of Photography Photography in in LL LL
Work Work
J. J. 1ake 1ake photographs photographs of of the the following following: :
a. a. Crime scene Crime scene
b. b. Suspects Suspects
c. c. Detainees Detainees
d. d. Prisoners Prisoners
e. e. Aliens Aliens
f. f. All apprehended All apprehended
persons persons
gg. . All All applicants applicants for for
clearances clearances
h h. . All All military military and and
civilian civilian personnel personnel
i. i. Unknown Unknown cadaver cadaver
j j. . Possessor Possessor and and
applicant applicant to to possess possess
firearms firearms
k k. . Other Other physical physical
evidence evidence
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Aims Aims & & Purposes Purposes of of Photography Photography in in LL LL
Work Work
2. 2. Conduct Conduct comparative comparative examination examination and and
analysis analysis of of questioned questioned photographs photographs or or
pictures pictures to to the the known known photographs photographs. .
3. 3. Process Process color color and and black black and and white white film, film,
print, print, reduce reduce and and enlarge enlarge picture picture. .
4. 4. Reproduce Reproduce picture picture and and other other printed printed
matters matters. .
5. 5. Compose Compose portrait portrait by by means means of of portrait portrait
composition composition. .
6. 6. Provides Provides photographic photographic intrusion intrusion detection detection
devices devices. .
7. 7. Maintain Maintain Rogues' Rogues' Gallery Gallery (a (a collection collection of of
pictures pictures of of persons persons arrested arrested as as criminals criminals. .) )
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Care Care and and Handling Handling of of
Camera Camera
Must Must be be carried carried using using a a portable portable bag bag or or
built built- -in in container container to to avoid avoid dust dust and and dirt dirt. .
Must Must be be kept kept dry dry and and avoided avoided contact contact with with
water water and and other other liquid liquid substances substances. .
Must Must be be repaired repaired only only by by qualified qualified
technician technician. .
Must Must not not be be cleaned cleaned by by oil oil. .
Must Must not not be be fixed fixed without without proper proper equipment equipment
and and tools tools to to avoid avoid serious serious damage damage on on it it. .
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
Camera Camera is is a a light light- -tight tight box box, , with with a a lens lens
to to form form an an image image with with a a shutter shutter and and
diaphragm diaphragm to to control control the the entry entry of of the the
image image, , a a means means of of holding holding a a film film to to
record record the the image/and image/and a a viewer viewer or or
viewfinder viewfinder to to show show the the photographer photographer
what what the the image image is is. .
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
Camera Camera originated originated from from the the term term camera camera
obscura obscura. . Camera Camera obscura obscura (Latin (Latin reitea reitea cbavber cbavber) ) is is an an
optical optical device device used, used, for for example, example, in in drawing drawing or or for for
entertainment entertainment. . It It is is one one of of the the inventions inventions leading leading to to
photography photography. . 1he 1he principle principle can can be be demonstrated demonstrated
with with a a box box with with a a hole hole in in one one side side (the (the box box may may be be
room room- -sized, sized, or or hangar hangar sized) sized). . Light Light from from a a scene scene
passes passes through through the the hole hole and and strikes strikes a a surface surface where where
it it is is reproduced, reproduced, in in color, color, and and upside upside- -down down. . 1he 1he
image's image's perspective perspective is is accurate accurate. . 1he 1he image image can can be be
projected projected onto onto paper, paper, which which when when traced traced can can
produce produce a a highly highly accurate accurate representation representation. .
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
A freestanding room-sized camera obscura at the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. One of
the pinholes can be seen in the panel to the left of
the door.
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
A freestanding room-sized camera obscura in the
shape of a camera located in San Irancisco at the
Cliff House in Ocean Beach (San Irancisco)
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
J. J. Light Light 1ight 1ight Box Box. . 1his 1his part part of of the the
camera camera is is very very essential essential because because of of its its
capability capability to to exclude exclude all all unwanted unwanted light light
that that may may expose expose the the sensitized sensitized
materials materials or or film film. . It It is is an an enclosure enclosure that that
is is devoid devoid of of light light. .
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
2. 2. Lens Lens. . 1he 1he lens lens is is the the only only responsible responsible
in in focusing focusing the the rays rays of of light light coming coming
from from the the subject subject. . It It is is one one of of the the most most
important important parts parts of of camera camera because because
without without lens, lens, it it is is impossible impossible to to form form a a
sharp sharp image image of of the the film film. .
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Basic Basic Camera Camera Parts Parts and and Iunctions Iunctions
3. 3. Iilm Iilm Holder Holder. . 1he 1he film film holder holder holds holds the the
film film firmly firmly inside inside the the camera camera. . It It is is
always always located located at at the the opposite opposite side side of of
the the lens lens of of the the camera camera. .
4. 4. Shutter Shutter. . 1he 1he shutter shutter served served as as the the
barriers barriers of of the the rays rays of of light light that that will will
enter enter and and effect effect the the film film inside inside the the
camera camera. . It It is is usually usually placed placed at at the the path path
of of the the light light passing passing thru thru the the lens lens
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Other Other Parts Parts of of the the
Camera Camera
J. J. 'iewing system 'iewing system
2. 2. Iilm advancer Iilm advancer
3. 3. Shutter speed Shutter speed
4. 4. Lens aperture Lens aperture
5. 5. Iocusing mechanism Iocusing mechanism
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
J. J. 'iewfinder 'iewfinder type type..
2. 2. Single Single Lens Lens Reflex Reflex..
3. 3. 1win 1win Lens Lens Reflex Reflex 1ype 1ype..
4. 4. 'iew 'iew or or Press Press 1ype 1ype. .
5. 5. Special Special Cameras Cameras. .
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
1he 1he smallest smallest and and
simplest simplest type type of of
camera camera. . 1his 1his is is also also
known known as as instamatic instamatic
camera camera. . 'iewfinder 'iewfinder
camera camera suffers suffers paratta· paratta·
error error. .
'iewfinder 1ype 'iewfinder 1ype
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
Single Single- -Lens Reflex 1ype Lens Reflex 1ype
Cross Cross- -section view of section view of
SLR system: SLR system:
J) Lens J) Lens
2) Mirror 2) Mirror
3) Shutter 3) Shutter
4) Iilm or sensor 4) Iilm or sensor
5) Iocusing screen 5) Iocusing screen
6) Condensing lens 6) Condensing lens
7) Pentaprism 7) Pentaprism
8) Lyepiece 8) Lyepiece SLR (ross Section
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
SLR (ross Section
1he 1he best best way way to to determine determine the the entire entire coverage coverage of of
the the camera camera is is to to look look behind behind the the lens lens of of the the camera camera. .
In In this this manner, manner, the the object object can can be be framed framed properly properly
and and recorded recorded on on the the film film. . 1his 1his type type of of camera camera
eliminates eliminates the the problem problem on on parallax parallax error error. .
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
1win 1win Lens Lens Reflex Reflex
Camera Camera ÷÷ 22 lenses lenses: : JJ. . for for
viewing viewing & & focusing focusing of of the the
subject, subject, & & 22. . for for taking taking lens lens. .
In In this this type type of of camera, camera, the the
image image to to be be photographed photographed is is
seen seen as as flat flat surface surface as as the the
image image is is reflected reflected by by the the
mirror mirror behind behind the the viewing viewing
lens lens. . 1his 1his suffers suffers also also
parallax parallax error error. .
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
Parallax Parallax ÷÷ 1he 1he difference difference between between what what
the the viewfinder viewfinder on on a a point point- -and and- -shoot shoot
camera camera sees sees and and what what the the lens lens sees sees (and (and
thus thus records records on on film) film). . At At close close shooting shooting
distances, distances, this this difference difference can can cause cause you you to to
crop crop off off the the top top of of a a subject's subject's head head. .
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
Parallax Parallax error error ÷÷ 1he 1he image image you you see see
through through the the viewfinder viewfinder is is different different from from
the the image image the the lens lens will will capture capture. .
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .

J. Lens Plane
2. Iront Standard
3. Lens Axis
4. Base
5. Iilm Holder/Ground
Glass
6. Rear Standard
7. Iilm Plane
'ILW OR PRLSS 1YPL
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
'ILW 'ILW OR OR PRLSS PRLSS 1YPL 1YPL CAMLRA CAMLRA. .
1he 1he biggest biggest and and most most sophisticated sophisticated
among among the the different different type type of of camera camera. . 1his 1his
type type of of camera camera is is practically practically useless useless for for
candid candid and and action action photography photography. .
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Major Major 1ypes 1ypes of of Camera Camera
cont cont. .
SPLCIAL SPLCIAL CAMLRAS CAMLRAS. . 1hese 1hese are are cameras cameras
that that have have been been devised devised that that offer offer unique unique
advantage advantage or or serve serve special special purposes purposes. .
Among Among the the special special cameras cameras are are: : a a.. potaroia. potaroia.
b b.. pavoravic pavoravic cavera.. cavera.. cc.. aeriat aeriat cavera.. cavera.. a a.. viviatvre viviatvre
ava ava vttra vttra· ·viviatvre viviatvre cavera. cavera. ee.. aigitat aigitat cavera. cavera. tv.ivg tv.ivg
covpvter covpvter proce..ivg) proce..ivg)
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Control Control of of
Cameras Cameras
Knowing Knowing the the controls controls on on camera camera is is
necessary necessary to to produce produce a a sharp sharp and and normal normal
image image and and negatives negatives after after photographing photographing. .
1here 1here are are three three important important controls controls in in a a
camera camera to to be be manipulated manipulated and and adjusted adjusted to to
its its proper proper setting setting. .
Iocusing Iocusing control control
Diaphragm/Aperture Diaphragm/Aperture control control
Shutter Shutter speed speed
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
IOCUSING IOCUSING CON1ROL CON1ROL. .
1he 1he camera camera lens lens bends bends light light rays rays to to
form form an an image image or or likeness likeness of of the the object object. .
Adjusting Adjusting the the lens lens to to form form the the clearest clearest
possible possible image image is is called called tocv.ivg tocv.ivg. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Iocusing Iocusing is is defined defined as as the the setting setting
of of the the proper proper distance distance in in order order to to
form form a a sharp sharp image image. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
1hree 1ypes of Iocusing 1hree 1ypes of Iocusing
Rangefinder Rangefinder 1ype 1ype e e..gg.. ·iewíinder. ·iewíinder.
instamatic instamatic camera camera and and mm mm cameras, cameras,
Ground Ground Glass Glass 1ype 1ype e e..gg.. twin twin--lens lens reílex reílex
camera camera and and digital digital camera, camera,
Scale Scale Bed Bed 1ype 1ype e e..gg.. press press and and ·iew ·iew
camera. camera. and and Polaroid Polaroid L·idence L·idence (amera, (amera,
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Rangefinder Rangefinder 1ype 1ype
1he rangefinder type is classified into two: 1he rangefinder type is classified into two:
Coincidence Coincidence type type ÷÷ the the object object to to be be
photographed photographed looks looks double double when when the the
focusing focusing control control is is not not in in proper proper distance, distance,
and and by by moving moving this this control, control, one one of of the the
objects objects will will move move and and coincide coincide with with the the
other other object object to to make make as as one one and and become become
accurate accurate appearance appearance of of an an object object. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Coincidence 1ype
Out of Iocus In Iocus
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Rangefinder Rangefinder 1ype 1ype cont cont. .
Split Split 1ype 1ype ÷÷ Splits Splits the the objects objects to to be be
photographed photographed into into two two. . While While
moving moving the the focusing focusing control, control, the the split split
image image will will move move and and unite unite to to form form an an
undivided undivided appearance appearance and and therefore therefore
the the focus focus is is accurate accurate and and perfect perfect. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Split 1ype
Out of Iocus In Iocus
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Ground Glass 1ype Ground Glass 1ype
Ground Ground glass glass type type focusing focusing
mechanism mechanism clearly clearly indicates indicates whether whether the the
object object distance distance and and the the camera camera is is out out of of
focus focus or or not not. . If If the the object object is is not not well well
focused, focused, the the object object to to be be photographed photographed
will will appear appear blurred blurred. . 1o 1o make make it it clear clear and and
accurate accurate the the focusing focusing ring ring of of the the camera camera
is is adjusted adjusted on on clockwise clockwise or or counter counter
clockwise clockwise to to get get the the desired desired clearness clearness of of
the the object object. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Scale Scale- -Bed or Iocusing Scale Bed or Iocusing Scale
In In the the scale scale or or bed bed type type focusing focusing
mechanism, mechanism, the the distance distance of of the the object object to to
be be photographed photographed is is calculated calculated by by means means
of of feet feet or or meter meter. . 1here 1here are are cameras cameras where where
estimated estimated distance distance from from the the camera camera to to
objects objects is is being being indicated indicated in in the the focusing focusing
ring ring. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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DIAPHRAGM DIAPHRAGM CON1ROL CON1ROL (lens (lens opening) opening)
A A device device called called a a diaphragm diaphragm usually usually
serves serves as as the the aperture aperture stop, stop, and and controls controls the the
aperture aperture. . 1he 1he diaphragm diaphragm functions functions much much like like
the the iris iris of of the the eye eye÷ ÷it it controls controls the the effective effective
diameter diameter of of the the lens lens opening opening. . Reducing Reducing the the
aperture aperture size size increases increases the the depth depth of of field, field,
which which describes describes the the extent extent to to which which subject subject
matter matter lying lying closer closer than than or or farther farther from from the the
actual actual plane plane of of focus focus appears appears to to be be in in focus focus. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Aperture Aperture and and shutter shutter speed speed are are the the
fundamental fundamental controls controls available available to to the the SLR SLR
user user: : 'arying 'arying one one or or other other of of these these opens opens
up up a a myriad myriad of of creative creative possibilities possibilities. . Both Both
also also control control how how much much light light reaches reaches the the
film film ÷÷ so so if if you you make make the the hole hole through through
which which the the light light passes passes into into the the camera camera
(the (the aperture) aperture) smaller smaller, , you you must must keep keep this this
hole hole open open for for longer longer (the (the shutter shutter speed) speed)
to to compensate compensate. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Iortunately, Iortunately, on on most most cameras cameras this this
adjustment adjustment is is made made automatically automatically. . 1he 1he
size size of of the the aperture aperture is is measured measured using using
f/numbers f/numbers (or (or f/stops) f/stops). . Confusingly, Confusingly, as as
f/numbers f/numbers represent represent fractions, fractions, the the larger larger
the the f/number f/number the the smaller smaller the the aperture aperture. .
1he 1he widest widest aperture aperture on on a a lens lens might might be be
f/ f/22, , whilst whilst the the smallest smallest aperture aperture available available
may may be be f/ f/22 22. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Minimum Minimum aperture aperture ÷÷ In In this this shot, shot, the the aperture aperture being being
used used is is f/ f/22 22 ÷÷ the the smallest smallest opening opening available available on on a a
J00 J00mm mm lens lens. . As As this this lets lets in in only only a a small small amount amount of of
light, light, the the aperture aperture was was opened opened for for longer longer than than when when
the the opening opening used used was was wider wider. . On On this this occasion, occasion, a a
shutter shutter speed speed of of JJ/ /30 30 sec sec was was needed needed so so that that the the film film
received received enough enough light light to to give give correct correct exposure exposure. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Mid Mid aperture aperture ÷÷ With With each each stop stop that that the the lens lens is is opened, opened,
twice twice as as much much light light is is let let in in as as the the one one before before. . Here Here
the the aperture aperture used used was was f/ f/88 ÷÷ 33 stops stops wider wider than than the the
f/ f/22 22 used used above above. . So So the the f/ f/88 setting setting means means 88 times times
more more light light reaches reaches the the film film than than with with the the shot shot above above. .
1o 1o get get the the same same exposure, exposure, the the shutter shutter has has to to be be open open
for for just just JJ/ /88 of of the the time time it it was was before before ÷÷ in in this this case, case,
just just JJ/ /250 250 sec sec. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Maximum Maximum aperture aperture ÷÷ Opening Opening the the lens lens a a further further 22
stops stops to to f/ f/44 lets lets in in 44 times times more more light light. . 1he 1he shutter shutter
needs needs only only to to be be open open for for a a quarter quarter of of the the time time
compared compared to to the the previous previous shot shot ÷÷ so so a a shutter shutter speed speed of of
JJ/ /J000 J000 sec, sec, the the fastest fastest on on many many cameras, cameras, was was used used. .
Notice Notice how how changing changing the the aperture aperture in in the the 33 shots shots has has
affected affected how how many many of of the the cups cups are are in in focus focus. . 1his 1his is is
known known as as depth depth of of field field. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
SHU11LR SHU11LR SPLLD SPLLD. .
Shutter Shutter is is a a device device that that allows allows light light
to to pass pass for for a a determined determined period period of of time, time,
for for the the purpose purpose of of exposing exposing
photographic photographic film film or or a a light light- -sensitive sensitive
electronic electronic sensor sensor to to light light to to capture capture a a
permanent permanent image image of of a a scene scene. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
1ypes 1ypes of of Shutter Shutter ( (a. a. to to po.itiov po.itiov) )
Central Central shutters shutters
Iocal Iocal- -plane plane
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Central Central Shutters Shutters
Central Central shutters shutters are are mounted mounted within within a a
lens lens assembly, assembly, or or more more rarely rarely behind behind or or
even even in in front front of of a a lens, lens, and and shut shut off off the the
beam beam of of light light where where it it is is narrow narrow. . A A leaf leaf
mechanism mechanism is is usually usually used used. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Iocal Iocal Plane Plane Shutter Shutter
In In camera camera design, design, a a focal focal- -plane plane shutter shutter
is is a a type type of of photographic photographic shutter shutter that that is is
positioned positioned immediately immediately in in front front of of the the
focal focal plane plane of of the the camera, camera, that that is, is, right right in in
front front of of the the photographic photographic film film or or image image
sensor sensor. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
A focal-plane shutter. 1he
plastic curtains travel vertically.
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
1ypes of Shutter ( 1ypes of Shutter (a. to vecbavi.v a. to vecbavi.v) )
Iocal Iocal- -Plane Shutters Plane Shutters
Leaf Shutters Leaf Shutters
Diaphragm Shutters Diaphragm Shutters
Central Shutters Central Shutters
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Iocal Iocal- -Plane Plane Shutters Shutters ( (a. a. to to vecbavi.v vecbavi.v) )
Iocal Iocal- -plane plane shutters shutters are are usually usually
implemented implemented as as a a pair pair of of cloth, cloth, metal, metal, or or
plastic plastic curtains curtains which which shield shield the the film film
from from light light. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Leaf Leaf Shutters Shutters
A A teat teat .bvtter .bvtter is is a a type type of of camera camera shutter shutter
consisting consisting of of a a mechanism mechanism with with one one or or
more more pivoting pivoting metal metal leaves leaves which which
normally normally does does not not allow allow light light through through the the
lens lens onto onto the the film, film, but but which which when when
triggered triggered opens opens the the shutter shutter by by moving moving
the the leaves leaves to to uncover uncover the the lens lens for for the the
required required time time to to make make an an exposure, exposure, then then
shuts shuts. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Leaf Shutters Leaf Shutters
Simple leaf shutter
J. Shutter plate
2. Aperture covered by leaf shutter
3. Aperture during exposure
4. Leaf blade
5. Catch mechanism
6. Butterfly spring
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Diaphragm Diaphragm Shutters Shutters
A A diaphragm diaphragm shutter shutter is is a a type type of of leaf leaf
shutter shutter consisting consisting of of a a number number of of thin thin
blades blades which which briefly briefly uncover uncover the the camera camera
aperture aperture to to make make the the exposure exposure. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Diaphragm Shutter Diaphragm Shutter
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Central Central Shutters Shutters
A A cevtrat cevtrat .bvtter .bvtter is is a a camera camera shutter shutter
normally normally located located within within the the lens lens
assembly assembly where where a a relatively relatively small small
opening opening allows allows light light to to cover cover the the entire entire
image image. . 1he 1he term term is is also also used used for for shutters shutters
behind, behind, but but near near to, to, the the lens lens. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Central Central Shutters Shutters cont cont. .
Interchangeable Interchangeable lens lens cameras cameras with with a a
central central shutter shutter within within the the lens lens body body
require require that that each each lens lens has has a a shutter shutter built built
into into it it. . In In practice practice most most cameras cameras with with
interchangeable interchangeable lenses lenses use use a a single single focal focal
plane plane shutter shutter in in the the camera camera body body for for all all
lenses, lenses, while while cameras cameras with with a a fixed fixed lens lens
use use a a central central shutter shutter. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
In In photography, photography, shutter shutter speed speed is is a a
common common term term used used to to discuss discuss exposure exposure
time, time, the the effective effective length length of of time time a a
shutter shutter is is open open, , the the total total exposure exposure is is
proportional proportional to to this this exposure exposure time, time, or or
duration duration of of light light reaching reaching the the film film or or
image image sensor sensor. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
1here 1here are are many many factors factors to to be be considered considered in in
using using this this control control. . Some Some of of these these factors factors are are: :
1he 1he light light sensitivity sensitivity of of the the film, film, which which are are
determined determined through through its its ISO ISO, ,
1he 1he lighting lighting condition condition, ,
1he 1he motion motion of of the the subjects subjects on on different different
angles angles, , and and
1he 1he purpose purpose of of the the photographs photographs to to be be
taken, taken, etc etc. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
1he 1he different different shutter shutter speeds speeds are are: :
JJ, , 22 or or JJ/ /22 sec, sec, 44 or or JJ/ /44 sec, sec, 88 or or JJ/ /88
sec, sec, J5 J5 or or JJ/ /J5 J5 sec, sec, 30 30 or or JJ/ /30 30 sec, sec, 60 60 or or
JJ/ /60 60 sec, sec, J25 J25 or or JJ/ /J25 J25 sec, sec, 250 250 or or JJ/ /250 250, ,
500 500 or or JJ/ /500 500 sec, sec, J000 J000 or or JJ/ /J000 J000, , 2000 2000 or or
JJ/ /2000 2000. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Camera Camera shutters shutters often often include include one one or or
two two other other settings settings for for making making very very long long
exposures exposures: :
B B (for (for bvtb bvtb) ) ÷÷ keep keep the the shutter shutter open open as as
long long as as the the shutter shutter release release is is held held. .
11 (for (for tive tive) ) ÷÷ keep keep the the shutter shutter open open
until until the the shutter shutter release release is is pressed pressed again again. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
Avoiding Avoiding Camera Camera Shake Shake
Unless Unless you you are are using using a a tripod, tripod, the the first first thing thing
you you should should ensure ensure when when choosing choosing the the shutter shutter
speed speed is is that that it it is is fast fast enough enough to to avoid avoid camera camera
shake shake. . However However tightly tightly you you hold hold your your camera, camera,
it it will will always always move move slightly slightly as as you you fire fire. . If If you you
use use too too slow slow a a shutter shutter speed speed this this will will mean mean
blurred blurred pictures pictures. . 1he 1he speed speed you you use use depends depends
on on the the focal focal length length of of lens lens you you are are doing doing. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
How How to to Hold Hold Your Your Camera Camera
1o 1o be be able able to to use use the the slowest slowest possible possible
handheld handheld speeds, speeds, you you must must hold hold the the
camera camera correctly correctly to to avoid avoid as as much much
vibration vibration as as possible possible. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Low-level shooting ÷
you don't always want
to take your pictures
from normal eye level.
1his kneeling
position allows you to
take shots at waist
level.
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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íocat tevgtb ot íocat tevgtb ot
tev. v.ea tev. v.ea
Mivivvv .bvtter .peea Mivivvv .bvtter .peea
J5mm J5mm
24mm 24mm
50mm 50mm
J00mm J00mm
200mm 200mm
400mm 400mm
J/30 sec J/30 sec
J/30 sec J/30 sec
J/60 sec J/60 sec
J/J25 sec J/J25 sec
J/250 sec J/250 sec
J/500 sec J/500 sec
Minimum shutter speeds for handheld shots
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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When to Use Slow Shutter Speeds When to Use Slow Shutter Speeds
By By using using a a tripod, tripod, or or other other camera camera
support, support, photographers photographers can can use use slower slower
shutter shutter speeds speeds than than usual usual. . 1hese 1hese allow allow you you to to
use use apertures apertures that that would would not not otherwise otherwise be be
possible possible when when using using a a handheld handheld camera camera ÷÷
and and to to shoot shoot in in the the lowest lowest light light. . Slow Slow shutter shutter
speeds speeds can can also also be be used used for for creative creative effect, effect, as as
moving moving subjects subjects will will become become artistically artistically
blurred blurred. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Maximizing Maximizing Sharpness Sharpness ÷÷ In In this this shot, shot, the the aperture aperture
used used is is the the smallest smallest available available (f/ (f/22 22 on on 35 35- -70 70mm mm zoom) zoom)
to to ensure ensure that that as as much much of of the the picture picture as as possible possible was was
sharp sharp. . 1his 1his meant meant using using a a shutter shutter speed speed of of JJ/ /J5 J5 sec sec ÷÷
which which if if used used handheld handheld would would not not have have been been fast fast
enough enough to to avoid avoid camera camera shake, shake, therefore therefore a a tripod tripod was was
used used to to hold hold the the camera camera steady steady. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Nightscapes ÷ With a solid tripod exposures lasting
several seconds ÷ or even minutes ÷ are possible.
1his means that you can shoot pictures throughout
the night. Ior this cityscape, the exposure used is 4
sec.
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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When to Use Iast Shutter Speeds When to Use Iast Shutter Speeds
Moving Moving subjects subjects require require you you to to consider consider
using using a a faster faster shutter shutter speed speed than than that that
needed needed to to avoid avoid camera camera shake shake. . Some Some blur blur
may may be be welcome welcome with with action action subjects, subjects, but but
often often we we want want to to freeze freeze the the action action. . Selecting Selecting
the the right right shutter shutter speed speed depends depends not not only only on on
the the velocity velocity of of the the subject, subject, but but also also on on the the
direction direction in in which which it it is is traveling traveling. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Irozen Irozen in in Mid Mid- -Air Air ÷÷ It It is is not not just just for for sport sport pictures pictures that that
you you need need fast fast shutter shutter speeds speeds. . 1here 1here is is movement movement in in
practically practically everything everything we we see see ÷÷ and and sometimes sometimes this this
needs needs to to be be frozen frozen crisply crisply. . In In this this shot shot the the boy boy jumped jumped
on on the the photographer's photographer's command, command, and and the the shutter shutter speed speed
used used was was JJ/ /J000 J000 sec sec. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Speed 1able Speed 1able
Subject Subject Direction of Movement Direction of Movement
1owards 1owards
Camera Camera
Diagonal Diagonal Across Across
Irame Irame
Pedestrian Pedestrian
Jogger Jogger
Sprinter Sprinter
Cyclist Cyclist
City traffic City traffic
Racing car Racing car
J/30 sec J/30 sec
J/60 sec J/60 sec
J/250 sec J/250 sec
J/J25 sec J/J25 sec
J/60 sec J/60 sec
J/500 sec J/500 sec
J/60 sec J/60 sec
J/J25 sec J/J25 sec
J/500 sec J/500 sec
J/250 sec J/250 sec
J/J25 sec J/J25 sec
J/J000 sec J/J000 sec
J/J25 sec J/J25 sec
J/250 sec J/250 sec
J/J000 sec J/J000 sec
J/500 sec J/500 sec
J/250 sec J/250 sec
J/2000 sec J/2000 sec
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A A lens lens is is an an optical optical device device with with
perfect perfect or or approximate approximate axial axial symmetry symmetry
which which transmits transmits and and refracts refracts light, light,
converging converging or or diverging diverging the the beam beam. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
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1he 1he Lens Lens
lens
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1he 1he Lens Lens
Lenses can be used
to focus light.
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1he 1he Lens Lens
1ypes of Lenses 1ypes of Lenses
J. Biconvex J. Biconvex
2. Biconcave 2. Biconcave
3. Plano 3. Plano- -convex/plano convex/plano- -concave concave
4. Convex 4. Convex- -concave or meniscus concave or meniscus
5. Positive or converging lens 5. Positive or converging lens
6. Negative or diverging lens 6. Negative or diverging lens
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1he 1he Lens Lens
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1he 1he Lens Lens
BICON'LX BICON'LX
A A lens lens is is bicovre· bicovre· (or (or aovbte aovbte covre· covre·, , or or just just
covre· covre·) ) if if both both surfaces surfaces are are convex convex..
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1he 1he Lens Lens
BICONCA'L BICONCA'L
A A lens lens with with two two concave concave surfaces surfaces is is
bicovcare bicovcare (or (or just just covcare covcare) ). .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
PLANO PLANO- -CON'LX CON'LX or or PLANO PLANO- -
CONCA'L CONCA'L
If If one one of of the the surfaces surfaces is is flat, flat, the the lens lens is is
ptavo ptavo· ·covre· covre· or or ptavo ptavo· ·covcare covcare depending depending on on
the the curvature curvature of of the the other other surface surface. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
MLNISCUS MLNISCUS
A A lens lens with with one one convex convex and and one one
concave concave side side is is covre· covre·· ·covcare covcare or or vevi.cv. vevi.cv.. . It It
is is this this type type of of lens lens that that is is most most commonly commonly
used used in in corrective corrective lenses lenses. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
POSI1I'L POSI1I'L OR OR CON'LRGING CON'LRGING LLNS LLNS
If If the the lens lens is is biconvex biconvex or or plano plano- -convex, convex, a a
collimated collimated or or parallel parallel beam beam of of light light traveling traveling
parallel parallel to to the the lens lens axis axis and and passing passing through through
the the lens lens will will be be converged converged (or (or tocv.ea tocv.ea) ) to to a a spot spot
on on the the axis, axis, at at a a certain certain distance distance behind behind the the
lens lens (known (known as as the the tocat tocat tevgtb tevgtb) ). . In In this this case, case, the the
lens lens is is called called a a po.itire po.itire or or covrergivg covrergivg lens lens. .
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POSI1I'L POSI1I'L OR OR CON'LRGING CON'LRGING LLNS LLNS
1his 1his lens lens is is always always thicker thicker at at the the
center center and and thinner thinner at at the the sides sides. . Light Light
passing passing through through it it is is bended bended toward toward
each each other other on on the the other other side side of of the the lens lens
meeting meeting at at a a point point. . It It produces produces a a real real
image image on on the the opposite opposite side side of of the the lens lens or or
where where light light is is coming coming from from. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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NLGA1I'L NLGA1I'L OR OR DI'LRGING DI'LRGING LLNS LLNS
If If the the lens lens is is biconcave biconcave or or plano plano- -concave, concave, a a
collimated collimated beam beam of of light light passing passing through through the the
lens lens is is diverged diverged (spread) (spread), , the the lens lens is is thus thus
called called a a vegatire vegatire or or airergivg airergivg lens lens. . 1he 1he beam beam after after
passing passing through through the the lens lens appears appears to to be be
emanating emanating from from a a particular particular point point on on the the axis axis
in in front front of of the the lens lens, , the the distance distance from from this this
point point to to the the lens lens is is also also known known as as the the focal focal
length, length, although although it it is is negative negative with with respect respect to to
the the focal focal length length of of a a converging converging lens lens. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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NLGA1I'L NLGA1I'L OR OR DI'LRGING DI'LRGING LLNS LLNS
1his 1his lens lens is is always always thinner thinner at at the the
center center and and thicker thicker at at the the sides sides. . Light Light
passing passing through through it it is is bended bended away away from from
each each other other as as if if coming coming from from a a point point. . It It
produces produces a a virtual virtual image image on on the the same same
side side of of the the lens lens or or where where light light is is coming coming
from from. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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Inherent Inherent Lens Lens Defects Defects or or Aberrations Aberrations
JJ. . Spherical Spherical Aberration Aberration
22. . Coma Coma
33. . Curvature Curvature of of Iield Iield
44. . Distortion Distortion
55. . Chromatic Chromatic Aberration Aberration
66. . Astigmatism Astigmatism
77. . Chromatic Chromatic Difference Difference of of Magnification Magnification
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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SPHLRICAL SPHLRICAL ABLRRA1ION ABLRRA1ION
When When light light passing passing through through near near the the
central central part part of of a a converging converging lens lens is is
bended bended more more sharply sharply than than those those rays rays
falling falling in in the the edge, edge, thus thus the the rays rays coming coming
from from the the edges edges are are focused focused on on a a plane plane
nearer nearer the the lens lens than than those those coming coming from from
the the central central part part. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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COMA COMA
1his 1his is is another another form form of of spherical spherical
aberration aberration but but is is concerned concerned with with the the
light light rays rays entering entering the the lens lens obliquely obliquely. .
1he 1he defect defect is is noticeable noticeable only only on on the the
outer outer edges edges and and not not on on the the central central part part
of of the the lens lens. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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COMA COMA cont cont. .
If If a a lens lens has has coma, coma, circular circular objects objects
reproduced reproduced at at the the corners corners of of the the
negative negative are are comet comet- -like like form form. . Just Just like like
the the spherical spherical aberration, aberration, it it is is reduced reduced by by
combinations combinations of of lenses lenses of of different different
curvatures curvatures. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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CUR'A1URL CUR'A1URL OI OI IILLD IILLD
1his 1his is is a a kind kind of of defect defect where where the the
image image formed formed by by a a lens lens comes comes to to a a
sharper sharper focus focus in in curved curved surface surface than than a a
flat flat surface surface. . 1he 1he correction correction of of this this defect defect
is is similar similar to to spherical spherical aberration aberration and and
coma coma. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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DIS1OR1ION DIS1OR1ION
A A lens lens with with distortion distortion is is incapable incapable of of
rendering rendering straight straight lines lines correctly correctly, , either either
horizontal horizontal or or vertical vertical lines lines in in an an object object. . 1his 1his is is
caused caused by by the the placement placement of of the the diaphragm diaphragm. . If If
the the diaphragm diaphragm is is placed placed in in front front of of the the lens, lens,
straight straight lines lines near near the the edges edges of of the the object object
tends tends to to bulge bulge outside outside. . 1his 1his is is known known as as the the
barrel barrel distortion distortion. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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DIS1OR1ION DIS1OR1ION cont cont. .
If If the the diaphragm diaphragm is is placed placed behind behind the the
lens, lens, straight straight lines lines near near the the edges edges tends tends
to to bend bend inward inward. . 1his 1his is is known known as as the the
pincushion pincushion distortion distortion. . Distortion Distortion is is
remedied remedied by by placing placing the the diaphragm diaphragm in in
between between the the lens lens component component and and the the
two two opposite opposite distortions distortions will will neutralize neutralize
each each other other. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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CHROMA1IC CHROMA1IC ABLRRA1ION ABLRRA1ION
1his 1his defect defect is is the the inability inability of of the the lens lens to to
bring bring photographic photographic rays rays of of different different
wavelengths wavelengths to to the the same same focus focus. . Ultraviolet Ultraviolet
rays rays are are bent bent the the most most while while infrared infrared rays rays are are
bent bent to to the the least least when when they they pass pass through through the the
lens lens. . 1his 1his defect defect is is reduced reduced by by utilizing utilizing
compound compound lenses lenses made made up up of of single single lens lens
made made up up of of glass glass of of different different curvatures curvatures. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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AS1IGMA1ISM AS1IGMA1ISM
1his 1his defect defect is is present present when when the the size size
of of image image produced produced by by photographic photographic rays rays
of of one one wavelength wavelength is is different different from from the the
size size produced produced by by another another. . Size Size of of the the
image image increases increases as as the the wavelength wavelength of of
the the rays rays decreases decreases. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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AS1IGMA1ISM AS1IGMA1ISM cont cont. .
In In color color photography photography it it produces produces a a
rainbow rainbow colored colored fringes fringes around around the the
edges edges of of objects objects while while in in black black and and
white white photography, photography, it it appears appears as as a a slight slight
blue blue. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
Classic example of astigmatism. Left wheel: no
astigmatism. In the presence of astigmatism
(middle and right wheels) one discriminates
between the sagittal and tangential foci.
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1ypes 1ypes of of Lenses Lenses (as (as to to degree degree of of correction correction to to
lens lens aberration) aberration)
JJ. . Achromatic Achromatic lens lens ÷÷ corrected corrected for for
chromatic chromatic aberration aberration. .
22. . Rapid Rapid- -rectilinear rectilinear lens lens ÷÷ corrected corrected for for
distortion distortion. .
33. . Anastigmat Anastigmat lens lens ÷÷ corrected corrected for for
astigmatism astigmatism as as well well as as the the other other lens lens defects defects. .
44. . Apochromatic Apochromatic lens lens ÷÷ also also corrected corrected for for
astigmatism astigmatism but but with with higher higher degree degree of of
correction correction to to color color. .
1he 1he Lens Lens
cont cont. .
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Iocal Iocal length length is is the the distance distance measured measured
from from the the optical optical center center of of the the lens lens to to the the
film film plane plane when when the the lens lens is is set set or or
focused focused at at infinity infinity position position or or far far
distance distance. .
Iocal Iocal distance distance is is the the distance distance from from
the the optical optical center center of of the the lens lens to to the the film film
plane plane. .
Iocal Iocal Length Length
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Iocal Iocal length length is is a a measure measure of of the the light light- -
bending bending power power of of a a lens lens. . It It is is invariably invariably
measured measured in in millimeters millimeters (mm) (mm). . 1he 1he
tovger tovger tbe tbe tocat tocat tevgtb tevgtb ot ot a a tev. tev., , the the varrorer varrorer tbe tbe
avgte avgte ot ot rier rier, , and and the the targer targer obiect. obiect. appear appear iv iv tbe tbe
riertivaer riertivaer without without the the need need to to move move any any
closer closer to to them them. . Long Long focal focal length length lenses lenses
are are called called telephotos telephotos ÷÷ short short focal focal
lengths lengths are are called called wideangles wideangles. .
Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
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Wide Wide- -angles angles
A A lens lens with with a a focal focal length length of of 50 50mm mm is is
known known as as a a .tavaara .tavaara tev. tev. ÷÷ the the view view that that it it
gives gives is is similar similar to to that that of of the the bvvav bvvav eye eye. .
Any Any lens lens with with a a shorter shorter focal focal length, length, and and
wider wider angle angle of of view, view, is is known known as as riae riae· ·
avgte avgte. .
Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
1his 1his picture picture
shows shows the the views views
afforded afforded by by
common common wide wide- -
angle angle lenses lenses. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
How Iocal Length Affects Image Size How Iocal Length Affects Image Size
Lenses Lenses work work on on the the principle principle that that
light light affecting affecting from from a a subject subject can can be be
bent bent using using the the refractive refractive properties properties
of of glass glass to to form form a a miniature miniature image image of of
the the subject subject. .
vetcov .. tapiva. v.criv
Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
How Iocal Length Affects Image Size cont. How Iocal Length Affects Image Size cont.
Lenses Lenses with with short short focal focal lengths, lengths,
such such as as the the wide wide- -angle angle lens, lens,
produce produce a a small small image image. .
1elephoto 1elephoto lenses, lenses, with with longer longer
focal focal lengths, lengths, produce produce a a larger larger
image, image, when when taken taken from from the the
same same distance distance. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
Wideangle Lens
short íocal
length results in a
smaller image.
1elephoto Lens
Long íocal
lengths bring
objects closer to
íill the írame.
vetcov .. tapiva. v.criv
Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
1elephoto Lenses 1elephoto Lenses
1elephotos 1elephotos are are lenses lenses with with focal focal
lengths lengths greater greater than than 50 50mm mm. . 1hey 1hey
range range from from 70 70mm mm short short telephotos telephotos
to to ·long ·long toms· toms· with with focal focal lengths lengths of of
J000 J000mm mm or or more more. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
Zoom Lens Zoom Lens
It It is is a a kind kind of of lens lens with with variable variable
focal focal length length. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
Does Does Iocal Iocal Length Length Affect Affect Depth Depth of of Iield? Iield?
Aperture Aperture is is not not the the only only factor factor that that
affects affects how how much much of of a a scene scene is is in in focus focus. .
You You should should also also take take into into account account the the
focal focal length length of of the the lens lens being being used used and and
the the distance distance that that the the lens lens is is focused focused at at
(generally (generally the the distance distance from from the the
camera camera to to your your subject) subject). . 1he 1he longer longer
the the focal focal length, length, the the more more restricted restricted
depth depth of of field field becomes becomes. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
So, So, all all things things being being equal, equal, a a wide wide- -
angle angle lens lens keeps keeps more more of of the the scene scene in in
focus focus than than a a telephoto telephoto one one. . In In
addition, addition, depth depth of of field field becomes becomes
increasingly increasingly more more limited limited the the closer closer
you you are are to to the the subject subject that that your your lens lens
is is focused focused on on. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
Iactors Affecting Depth of Iield Iactors Affecting Depth of Iield
1hese 1hese diagrams diagrams show show how how aperture, aperture,
focused focused distance distance and and focal focal length length can can
individually individually affect affect how how much much of of a a scene scene is is
in in focus focus. . 1he 1he shaded shaded area area indicates indicates the the
amount amount of of depth depth of of field field in in front front of, of, and and
behind, behind, the the subject subject. .
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Iocal Iocal Length Length cont cont. .
J. J. Aperture Aperture ÷÷ 1he 1he larger larger the the aperture aperture the the less less
depth depth of of field field. . Ior Ior maximum maximum depth depth of of
field, field, use use the the smallest smallest aperture aperture
2. 2. Iocused Iocused Distance Distance ÷÷ 1he 1he closer closer the the subject subject
you you focus focus on, on, the the less less depth depth of of field field. . Depth Depth
of of field field is is greater greater with with distance distance subjects subjects. .
3. 3. Iocal Iocal Length Length ÷÷ 1he 1he longer longer the the lens lens you you
use, use, the the less less depth depth of of field field you you will will have have. .
Wide Wide- -angle angle lenses lenses give give the the greatest greatest depth depth
of of field field. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
A. A. BLACK BLACK & & WHI1L WHI1L IILMS IILMS
J. J. Lmulsion Lmulsion - - a a suspension suspension of of a a sensitive sensitive
silver silver salt salt or or a a mixture mixture of of silver silver halides halides
in in a a viscous viscous medium medium (as (as a a gelatin gelatin
solution) solution) forming forming a a coating coating on on
photographic photographic plates, plates, film, film, or or paper paper. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
A. A. BLACK BLACK & & WHI1L WHI1L IILMS IILMS cont cont. .
2. 2. Gray Gray or or Anti Anti- -Halation Halation Backing Backing - - a a layer layer
found found in in modern modern photographic photographic films films. . It It
is is placed placed between between the the light light- -sensitive sensitive
emulsion emulsion and and the the tough tough film film base, base, or or
sometimes sometimes on on the the back back of of the the film film base base. .
1he 1he light light that that passes passes through through the the
emulsion emulsion and and the the base base is is absorbed absorbed by by
the the opaque opaque anti anti- -halation halation layer layer. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
A. A. BLACK BLACK & & WHI1L WHI1L IILMS IILMS cont cont. .
2. 2. Gray Gray or or Anti Anti- -Halation Halation Backing Backing - - 1his 1his
keeps keeps that that light light from from reflecting reflecting off off the the
pressure pressure plate plate or or anything anything else else behind behind
the the film film and and re re- -exposing exposing the the emulsion, emulsion,
reducing reducing contrast contrast. . 1he 1he anti anti- -halation halation
layer layer is is rendered rendered transparent transparent or or washed washed
from from the the film film (as (as in in K K- -J4 J4 films) films) during during
processing processing of of the the film film. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
A. A. BLACK BLACK & & WHI1L WHI1L IILMS IILMS cont cont. .
3. 3. Iilm Iilm Base Base - - A A film film base base is is a a transparent transparent
substrate substrate which which acts acts as as a a support support
medium medium for for the the photosensitive photosensitive emulsion emulsion
that that lies lies atop atop it it. . Despite Despite the the numerous numerous
layers layers and and coatings coatings associated associated with with the the
emulsion emulsion layer, layer, the the base base generally generally
accounts accounts for for the the vast vast majority majority of of the the
thickness thickness of of any any given given film film stock stock. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
A. A. BLACK BLACK & & WHI1L WHI1L IILMS IILMS cont cont. .
3. 3. Iilm Iilm Base Base - - Historically Historically there there have have been been
three three major major types types of of film film base base in in use use: :
cellulose cellulose nitrate, nitrate, cellulose cellulose acetate acetate
(cellulose (cellulose diacetate, diacetate, cellulose cellulose acetate acetate
propionate, propionate, cellulose cellulose acetate acetate butyrate, butyrate,
and and cellulose cellulose triacetate), triacetate), and and
polyethylene polyethylene trephthalate trephthalate polyester polyester
(Kodak (Kodak trade trade- -name name: : LS1AR) LS1AR). .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Characteristics Characteristics of of B B & & WW Iilms Iilms: :
J. J. Lmulsion Lmulsion Speed Speed
2. 2. Spectral Spectral Sensitivity Sensitivity
3. 3. Granularity Granularity or or Graininess Graininess
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Lmulsion Lmulsion Speed Speed
a. a. ASA ASA (American (American Standards Standards Association) Association)
rating rating. . 1his 1his is is expressed expressed in in arithmetical arithmetical
value value. .
b. b. DIN DIN (Deutsche (Deutsche Industrie Industrie Normen) Normen)
rating, rating, which which is is expressed expressed in in logarithmic logarithmic
value value. .
c. c. ISO ISO (International (International Standards Standards
Organization) Organization) rating rating. . 1his 1his is is expressed expressed
in in the the combined combined arithmetical arithmetical and and
logarithmic logarithmic values values. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Spectral Spectral Sensitivity Sensitivity
a. a. Blue Blue sensitive sensitive film film ÷÷ sensitive sensitive to to U' U'
rays rays and and blue blue color color only only
b. b. Orthochromatic Orthochromatic film film ÷ ÷ sensitive sensitive to to U' U'
rays, rays, to to blue blue and and green green color color. . It It is is not not
sensitive sensitive to to red red color color. .
c. c. Panchromatic Panchromatic film film ÷÷ sensitive sensitive to to U' U'
radiation radiation to to blue, blue, green, green, and and red red light light
or or all all colors colors. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Spectral Spectral Sensitivity Sensitivity cont cont. .
d d. . Infra Infra- -red red film film ÷÷ sensitive sensitive to to U' U' rays, rays, to to
blue, blue, green, green, red red light light and and infrared infrared rays rays. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Granularity Granularity or or Graininess Graininess
1his 1his refers refers to to the the size size of of the the metallic metallic
silver silver grains grains that that are are formed formed after after
development development of of an an exposed exposed film film. .
Generally, Generally, the the size size of of metallic metallic silver silver grains grains
are are dependent dependent on on the the emulsion emulsion speed speed of of
the the film film and and the the type type of of developing developing
solution solution that that is is used used in in processing processing. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Granularity Granularity or or Graininess Graininess cont cont. .
RULLS RULLS to to remember remember: :
J. J. 1he 1he lower lower the the emulsion emulsion speed speed rating rating
of of the the film, film, the the finer finer is is the the grain grain. .
2. 2. 1he 1he higher higher the the emulsion emulsion speed speed rating rating
of of the the film, film, the the bigger bigger are are the the grains grains. .
3. 3. A A film film developer developer will will produce produce a a finer finer
grain grain that that a a paper paper developer developer when when
used used for for film film processing processing. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
B B. . COLOR COLOR IILMS IILMS
A A color color film film is is a a multi multi- -layer layer emulsion emulsion
coated coated on on the the same same support support or or base base. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Main Main types types of of color color film film in in current current use use
Color Color negative negative film film forms forms a a negative negative (color (color- -
reversed) reversed) image image when when exposed, exposed, which which is is
permanently permanently fixed fixed during during developing developing. . 1his 1his is is
then then exposed exposed onto onto photographic photographic paper paper to to
form form a a positive positive image image. . Lx Lx: : Kodacolor Kodacolor
Color Color reversal reversal film, film, also also known known as as slide slide film, film,
forms forms a a negative negative image image when when exposed, exposed, which which
is is reversed reversed to to a a positive positive image image during during
developing developing. . 1he 1he film film can can then then be be projected projected
onto onto a a screen screen. . Lx Lx: : Kodachrome Kodachrome
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
C C. . Photographic Photographic Papers Papers (Black (Black & & White) White)
Photographic Photographic paper paper is is exposed exposed to to light light in in a a
controlled controlled manner, manner, either either by by placing placing a a
negative negative in in contact contact with with the the paper paper directly directly to to
produce produce a a contact contact print, print, by by using using an an enlarger enlarger
in in order order to to create create a a latent latent image, image, by by exposing exposing
in in some some types types of of camera camera to to produce produce a a
photographic photographic negative, negative, or or by by placing placing objects objects
upon upon it it to to produce produce photograms photograms. . Photographic Photographic
papers papers are are subsequently subsequently developed developed using using the the
gelatin gelatin- -silver silver process process to to create create a a visible visible
image image. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Characteristics Characteristics of of a a Photographic Photographic Paper Paper
J. J. Chloride Chloride paper paper ÷÷ has has a a slow slow speed speed and and
is is suited suited for for contact contact printing printing. .
2. 2. Bromide Bromide paper paper ÷÷ has has a a fast fast speed speed and and
is is recommended recommended for for projection projection
printing printing or or enlarging enlarging. .
3. 3. Chloro Chloro- -bromide bromide paper paper ÷÷ is is a a multi multi- -
speed speed and and could could be be used used in in both both
contact contact printing printing and and enlarging enlarging. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Lxposure Lxposure and and development development latitude latitude
Latitude Latitude is is the the degree degree or or amount amount of of
which which you you can can deviate deviate from from the the ideal ideal
exposure exposure or or development development without without
appreciable appreciable loss loss of of print print quality quality. .
JJ. . Lxposure Lxposure latitude latitude
Generally, Generally, photographic photographic papers papers do do not not
have have a a wide wide exposure exposure latitude latitude so so exposure exposure
must must be be critical critical at at all all times times. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
22. . Development Development latitude latitude
Papers Papers that that do do not not change change appreciable appreciable
in in contrast contrast and and image image tone tone with with
reasonable reasonable variations variations in in development development has has
a a good good latitude latitude. . However, However, for for best best quality quality
the the developing developing time time should should be be as as near near as as
those those prescribed prescribed by by the the manufacturer manufacturer. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Contrast Contrast Range Range or or Grade Grade
In In most most photographic photographic papers, papers, the the
contrast contrast range range or or grade grade are are indicated indicated by by
numbers numbers ÷÷ 44 00 to to 55
JJ. . 44 00 & & JJ are are used used on on over over- -exposed exposed or or low low
contrast contrast negative negative. .
22. . 44 22 are are used used on on normal normal exposed exposed or or
normal normal contrast contrast negatives negatives. .
33. . 44 33 to to 55 used used in in under under- -exposed exposed or or high high
contrast contrast negatives negatives. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Which Which Iilm Iilm to to Use Use
Iilm Iilm is is available available in in variety variety of of 'speeds' 'speeds'. .
1he 1he faster faster the the film film the the more more sensitive sensitive it it is is
to to light, light, and and the the shorter shorter the the exposure exposure
needed needed. . Iast Iast film film produces produces a a grainier grainier
image image. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Which Which Iilm Iilm to to Use Use cont cont. .
Iilm Iilm speed speed is is measured measured on on the the ISO ISO
scale scale. . A A film film rated rated as as ISO ISO J00 J00 is is four four times times
slower slower than than an an ISO ISO 400 400 film, film, and and needs needs
four four times times more more light light for for the the same same shot shot. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Slow Slow Iilm Iilm and and Ultra Ultra- -Slow Slow Iilm Iilm ÷÷ Slow Slow films films are are not not
just just used used conditions conditions. . Ior Ior the the shot shot of of the the sculpture sculpture
(left) (left) a a tripod tripod was was used used and and ISO ISO 50 50 film film. . Ior Ior the the
nightscape nightscape (right) (right) ISO ISO J00 J00 film film was was used used as as the the
photographer photographer wanted wanted a a long long shutter shutter speed speed to to blur blur the the
moving moving lights lights. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Choosing the Right Speed of Iilm Choosing the Right Speed of Iilm
Speed Speed ISO Rating ISO Rating Quality Quality Uses Uses
|ttra |ttra· ·.tor .tor ISO 25 ISO 25- -50 50 'ery fine grain 'ery fine grain Where Where fine fine
detail detail is is part part
of of subject subject
matter matter ÷÷ ideal ideal
for for still still- -life life
photography photography. .
´tor ´tor ISO 64 ISO 64- -J00 J00 Iine Grain Iine Grain Ior Ior use use in in
good good light, light, or or
when when slow slow
shutter shutter speed speed
and and tripod tripod can can
be be used used. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Choosing the Right Speed of Iilm Choosing the Right Speed of Iilm
Speed Speed ISO Rating ISO Rating Quality Quality Uses Uses
Meaivv Meaivv ISO J25 ISO J25- -200 200 Medium Medium
Grain Grain
All All- -purpose purpose film, film,
providing providing
compromise compromise
between between grain grain and and
speed speed
ía.t ía.t ISO 400 ISO 400- -640 640 Noticeable Noticeable
Grain Grain
Ior Ior dull dull days, days, or or
when when fast fast shutter shutter
speed speed is is essential essential ÷÷
such such as as with with sport sport. .
´vper ´vper· ·ta.t ta.t ISO J000 ISO J000- -3200 3200 'ery 'ery
noticeable noticeable
grain grain
Ior Ior handheld handheld
photography photography in in low low
light light ÷÷ for for indoor indoor
sport, sport, for for example example. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Iast Iast Iilm Iilm ÷÷ Iaster Iaster films, films, with with a a higher higher ISO ISO rating, rating, are are
needed needed in in low low light light when when faster faster shutter shutter speeds speeds are are
required, required, either either to to avoid avoid camera camera shake shake or or to to freeze freeze the the
action action. . In In this this shot, shot, taken taken in in fading fading sunlight, sunlight, the the
photographer photographer needed needed a a shutter shutter speed speed of of JJ/ /250 250 sec sec to to
freeze freeze the the jogger jogger moving moving across across the the frame, frame, and and used used
ISO ISO 400 400 film film. .
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IILMS IILMS & & PAPLRS PAPLRS
Super Super- -Iast Iast Iilm Iilm ÷÷ 1he 1he fastest fastest films films are are designed designed for for
handheld handheld use use in in low low light light conditions conditions when when the the fastest fastest
shutter shutter speeds speeds may may be be required required. . Ior Ior this this motorcycle motorcycle race race
on on an an overcast overcast day day the the photographer photographer needed needed shutter shutter speeds speeds
of of JJ/ /J000 J000 sec sec or or over over to to freeze freeze the the action, action, and and chose chose to to use use
ISO ISO J000 J000 film film. . 1he 1he grain grain on on such such films films is is noticeable noticeable
particularly particularly in in shadow shadow areas areas and and at at bigger bigger enlargements enlargements ÷÷
but but this this is is far far preferable preferable to to blurred blurred photographs photographs. .
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IIL1LRS IIL1LRS
In In photography, photography, a a filter filter is is a a camera camera
accessory accessory consisting consisting of of an an optical optical filter filter
that that can can be be inserted inserted in in the the optical optical path path. .
1he 1he filter filter can can be be a a square square or or rectangle rectangle
shape shape mounted mounted in in a a holder holder accessory, accessory, or, or,
more more commonly, commonly, a a glass glass or or plastic plastic disk disk
with with a a metal metal or or plastic plastic ring ring frame, frame, which which
can can be be screwed screwed in in front front of of the the lens lens. .
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IIL1LRS IIL1LRS
vetcov .. tapiva. v.criv
IIL1LRS IIL1LRS
1YPLS OI IIL1LRS 1YPLS OI IIL1LRS
a. a. Light Balancing Iilter Light Balancing Iilter
b. b. Color Compensating Iilter Color Compensating Iilter
c. c. Neutral Density Iilter Neutral Density Iilter
d. d. Polarizing Iilter Polarizing Iilter
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IIL1LRS IIL1LRS
Light Balance Iilter Light Balance Iilter
A A filter filter used used to to change change the the color color quality quality
of of the the exposing exposing light light in in order order to to secure secure
proper proper color color balance balance for for artificial artificial light light
films films. .
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IIL1LRS IIL1LRS
Color Compensating Iilter Color Compensating Iilter
1his 1his is is used used to to change change the the over over- -all all
color color balance balance of of photographic photographic result result
obtained obtained with with color color films films and and to to
compensate compensate for for deficiencies deficiencies in in the the quality quality
of of exposing exposing energy energy. .
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IIL1LRS IIL1LRS
Neutral Density Iilter Neutral Density Iilter
1his 1his filter filter is is used used when when the the light light is is too too
bright bright to to allow allow the the use use of of desired desired f f- -
number number or or shutter shutter speed speed with with a a particular particular
film film. .
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IIL1LRS IIL1LRS
Polarizing Iilter Polarizing Iilter
It It is is used used to to reduce reduce or or minimize minimize
reflections reflections on on subjects subjects like like water water glass, glass,
and and highly highly polished polished surfaces surfaces. .
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LXPOSURL LXPOSURL
Lxposure Lxposure is is simply simply a a combination combination of of
the the aperture aperture and and shutter shutter speed speed. . 1hus, 1hus, it it
is is defined defined as as the the product product of of the the total total
light light intensity intensity and and the the length length of of time time it it
strikes strikes the the emulsion emulsion. .
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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LXPOSURL LXPOSURL cont cont. .
Lxposure Lxposure is is subjective subjective and and errors errors in in
calculation calculation will will result result to to ´overexposure¨ ´overexposure¨
or or ´underexposure¨ ´underexposure¨. .
Proper Proper exposure exposure is is dependent dependent on on: :
a a. . Iilm Iilm speed speed
b b. . Lighting Lighting condition condition
cc. . 1ype 1ype of of subject subject
Control Control of of Cameras Cameras
cont cont. .
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Light Light is is a a form form of of energy, energy, and and to to
understand understand light light we we begin begin with with the the
electromagnetic electromagnetic spectrum spectrum which which is is
basically basically a a grouping grouping of of all all
electromagnetic electromagnetic radiation radiation arranged arranged
according according to to the the amount amount of of energy energy
contained contained in in the the radiation radiation. .
Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
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'isible 'isible light light is is a a part part of of this this
electromagnetic electromagnetic spectrum spectrum that that creates creates
the the sensation sensation of of light light when when it it falls falls on on the the
human human eye eye. .
Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
vetcov .. tapiva. v.criv
Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
1he 1he properties properties of of all all electromagnetic electromagnetic
radiation radiation can can be be described described by by three three inter inter- -
related related terms terms. . 1hese 1hese are are wavelength wavelength, ,
frequency frequency and and energy energy. . Since Since light light is is a a part part
of of this this spectrum, spectrum, it it too too can can be be described described
by by these these terms terms. . Hence, Hence, it it is is important important to to
understand understand these these terms terms as as a a first first step step
towards towards understanding understanding light light. .
vetcov .. tapiva. v.criv
Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Wavelength Wavelength
Simplistically, Simplistically, we we can can think think of of light light
traveling traveling as as a a wave wave. . A A typical typical wave wave form form
(e (e. .gg. ., , ripples ripples on on the the surface surface of of water) water) has has
crests crests (or (or peaks) peaks) and and troughs troughs (or (or valleys) valleys). .
1he 1he distance distance between between two two consecutive consecutive
peaks peaks (or (or troughs) troughs) is is called called the the
wavelength, wavelength, and and is is denoted denoted by by the the Greek Greek
letter letter : : (lambda) (lambda). .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
1he 1he wavelengths wavelengths of of visible visible light light are are
measured measured in in nanometers nanometers (nm) (nm) where where JJ
nm nm == JJ billionth billionth of of a a meter meter ( (J0 J0
- -99
meters) meters). .
1he 1he wavelength wavelength of of visible visible light light is is between between
400 400- -700 700nm nm. . 1he 1he combined combined effect effect of of the the
complete complete range range of of radiation radiation between between 400 400- -
700 700nm nm appears appears as as white white light light to to the the
human human eye eye. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Rainbow Rainbow Colors Colors: :
'iolet 'iolet - - 400 to 440nm 400 to 440nm
Blue Blue - - 440 to 490nm 440 to 490nm
Green Green - - 490 to 540nm 490 to 540nm
Yellow Yellow - - 540 to 590nm 540 to 590nm
Orange Orange - - 600 to 650nm 600 to 650nm
Red Red - - 650 to 700nm 650 to 700nm
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
44 PHO1OGRAPHIC PHO1OGRAPHIC RAYS RAYS OI OI
MODLRN MODLRN PHO1OGRAPHY PHO1OGRAPHY
XX- -rays rays ÷÷ JJ to to 30 30 nm nm
U' U' rays rays ÷÷ 30 30 to to 400 400 nm nm
'isible 'isible light light ÷÷ 400 400 to to 700 700 nm nm
Infrared Infrared rays rays ÷÷ 700 700 to to JJ, ,000 000++ nm nm. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
PRIMARY PRIMARY COLORS COLORS
OI OI LIGH1 LIGH1
Red Red
Green Green
Blue Blue
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
SLCONDARY SLCONDARY COLORS COLORS OI OI LIGH1 LIGH1
Yellow Yellow
Cyan Cyan
Magenta Magenta
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
NO1L NO1L: :
J. J. White White is is the the presence presence of of all all colors colors
2. 2. Black Black is is the the absence absence of of all all colors colors or or
the the absence absence of of light light. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
PRIMARY PRIMARY COLORS COLORS OI OI
COLORING COLORING MA11LRS MA11LRS
Red Red
Yellow Yellow
Blue Blue
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
BLNDING BLNDING OI OI LIGH1 LIGH1
When When traveling traveling in in open open space, space,
light light travels travels in in a a straight straight line line ( (J86 J86, ,000 000
miles/second) miles/second). . However, However, when when light light
comes comes in in contact contact with with an an object, object, it it
may may be be bended bended in in the the following following
manner manner: :
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Reflection Reflection of of Light Light
J. J. Specular Specular or or Regular Regular Reflection Reflection - - If If the the
reflecting reflecting surface surface is is very very smooth, smooth, the the
reflection reflection of of light light that that occurs occurs is is called called
specular specular or or regular regular reflection reflection. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Specular or Regular Reflection Specular or Regular Reflection
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Reflection Reflection of of Light Light cont cont. .
2. 2. Diffuse Diffuse or or Irregular Irregular Reflection Reflection ÷÷
When When light light strikes strikes a a rough rough or or granular granular
surface, surface, it it bounces bounces off off in in all all directions directions
due due to to the the microscopic microscopic irregularities irregularities
of of the the interface interface. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Diffuse Diffuse or or
Irregular Irregular
Reflection Reflection
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Refraction Refraction
It It is is the the change change in in direction direction of of a a wave wave
due due to to a a change change in in its its speed speed. . 1his 1his is is most most
commonly commonly observed observed when when a a wave wave passes passes
from from one one medium medium to to another another. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
1he 1he straw straw seems seems
to to be be broken, broken, due due to to
refraction refraction of of light light as as
it it emerges emerges into into the the
air air. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Diffraction Diffraction
It It is is described described as as the the apparent apparent
bending bending of of waves waves around around small small obstacles obstacles
and and the the spreading spreading out out of of waves waves past past
small small openings openings. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Diffraction cont. Diffraction cont.
It It is is also also described described as as the the bending bending of of
light light when when it it hits hits a a sharp sharp edge edge of of an an
opaque opaque object object. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Lxamples Lxamples of of Diffraction Diffraction
J. J. 1he 1he closely closely spaced spaced tracks tracks on on a a CD CD or or
D'D D'D act act as as a a diffraction diffraction grating grating to to
form form the the familiar familiar rainbow rainbow pattern pattern we we
see see when when looking looking at at a a disk disk, ,
2. 2. 1he 1he hologram hologram (a (a picture picture that that
changes changes when when looked looked at at from from
different different angles angles,, on on a a credit credit card card, ,
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Kinds Kinds of of Objects Objects
J. J. 1ransparent 1ransparent objects objects ÷÷ allows allows sufficient sufficient
visible visible light light to to pass pass through through them them that that the the
object object on on the the other other side side may may be be clearly clearly
seen seen. .
2. 2. 1ranslucent 1ranslucent objects objects ÷÷ allows allows light light to to pass, pass,
however however diffuse diffuse it it sufficiently sufficiently that that objects objects
on on the the other other side side may may not not be be clearly clearly
distinguished distinguished. . In In some some cases cases the the objects objects
on on the the other other side side may may be be recognizable recognizable but but
sharp sharp detail detail and and outline outline are are obscured obscured. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Kinds Kinds of of Objects Objects cont cont. .
3. 3. Opaque Opaque objects objects ÷÷ so so greatly greatly diffuse diffuse
the the light light that that recognizing recognizing the the object object
on on the the other other side side is is very very difficult difficult if if
not not impossible impossible. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Sources Sources of of Light Light
J. J. Natural Natural Light Light Source Source
2. 2. Artificial Artificial Light Light Source Source
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Natural Natural Light Light Source Source (Sunlight) (Sunlight)
J. J. Bright Bright sunlight sunlight ÷÷ a a lighting lighting condition condition
where where objects objects in in open open space space cast cast a a
deep deep and and uniform uniform or or distinct distinct shadow shadow. .
2. 2. Hazy Hazy Sunlight Sunlight ÷÷ objects objects in in open open
space space cast cast a a transparent transparent shadow shadow. .
3. 3. Dull Dull Sunlight Sunlight ÷÷ objects objects in in open open space space
cast cast no no shadow shadow. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Natural Natural Light Light Source Source (Sunlight) (Sunlight)
3. 3. Dull Dull Sunlight Sunlight
J. J. Cloudy Cloudy bright bright ÷÷ objects objects in in open open
space space cast cast no no shadow shadow but but objects objects
at at far far distance distance are are clearly clearly visible visible. .
2. 2. Cloudy Cloudy dull dull ÷÷ objects objects in in open open
space space cast cast not not shadow shadow and and
visibility visibility of of distant distant objects objects are are
already already limited limited. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Artificial Artificial Light Light Source Source
Light Light sources sources of of this this category category are are
man man- -made made and and is is divided divided into into the the
continuous continuous radiation radiation and and the the short short
duration duration. .
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Light Light: : Its Its Characteristics Characteristics & & Sources Sources
Iorensic Iorensic Light Light Sources Sources
J. J. U' U' Lamp Lamp
2. 2. LASLR LASLR ÷÷ Light Light Amplification Amplification
through through Simulated Simulated Lmission Lmission of of
Radiation Radiation. .
3. 3. Alternative Alternative Light Light Sources Sources
4. 4. Iorensic Iorensic Light Light Sources Sources
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
CHLMICAL CHLMICAL PROCLSSING PROCLSSING
J. J. Black Black & & White White Processing Processing ÷÷
development, development, stop stop- -bath, bath, and and
fixation fixation. .
2. 2. Color Color Processing Processing ÷÷ development, development,
stop stop- -fix, fix, and and stabilizer stabilizer. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Development Development
It It is is the the conversion conversion of of latent latent image image in in
an an emulsion emulsion into into visible visible image image. .
JJ. . B B & & WW Lmulsion Lmulsion ÷÷ reducing reducing exposed exposed
silver silver halide halide crystals crystals (black (black silver) silver) into into
metallic metallic silver silver. . (Same (Same reaction reaction is is found found in in
photographic photographic papers papers. .) )
22. . Color Color Lmulsion Lmulsion ÷÷ Developed Developed silver silver is is
replaced replaced with with cyan, cyan, yellow, yellow, and and magenta magenta
dye dye. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Stop Stop- -Bath Bath
1he 1he purpose purpose of of the the stop stop bath bath is is to to halt halt
the the development development of of the the film, film, plate, plate, or or
paper paper by by either either washing washing off off the the
developing developing chemical chemical or or neutralizing neutralizing it it. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Iixation Iixation
1he 1he fixer fixer removes removes the the unexposed unexposed silver silver
halide halide remaining remaining on on the the Photographic Photographic film film or or
photographic photographic paper, paper, leaving leaving behind behind the the
reduced reduced metallic metallic silver silver that that forms forms the the image, image,
making making it it insensitive insensitive to to further further action action by by light light. .
Without Without fixing, fixing, the the remaining remaining silver silver halide halide
would would quickly quickly darken darken and and cause cause severe severe
fogging fogging of of the the image image. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Iixation Iixation cont cont. .
1he 1he most most common common salts salts used used are are
sodium sodium thiosulfate thiosulfate - - commonly commonly called called
hypo hypo - - and and ammonium ammonium thiosulfate, thiosulfate,
commonly commonly used used in in modern modern rapia rapia fixer fixer
formula formula. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
IILM IILM PROCLSSING PROCLSSING
It It can can be be carried carried out out in in trays, trays, tanks, tanks, or or
mechanized mechanized equipment equipment. .
NO1L NO1L: :
Panchromatic Panchromatic materials materials ÷÷ handled handled in in
total total darkness darkness. .
Blue Blue films, films, orthochromatic orthochromatic films films and and
printing printing papers papers ÷÷ handled handled under under a a
safelight safelight. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Lquipment Lquipment for for Iilm Iilm Processing Processing
a a. . 1ank 1ank or or tray tray
b b. . Developing Developing reel reel
cc. . Opener Opener for for film film cartridge cartridge (pliers) (pliers)
d d. . Scissors Scissors to to cut cut the the tongue tongue of of the the film film
ee. . 1hermometer 1hermometer
f f. . 1imer 1imer
gg. . Iunnel Iunnel
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Lquipment Lquipment for for Iilm Iilm Processing Processing cont cont. .
h h. . Photographic Photographic sponge sponge
i i. . Iilm Iilm clips clips for for drying drying
j j. . glass glass or or plastic plastic bottles bottles (gallon (gallon size) size)
for for storing storing mixed mixed solutions solutions. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
DL'LLOPLR DL'LLOPLR IORMULA1ION IORMULA1ION
1ypical 1ypical component component: :
JJ. . Solvent Solvent (water) (water)
22. . Developing Developing agent agent
33. . Preservative Preservative
44. . Accelerator Accelerator or or activator activator
55. . Restrainer Restrainer
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
D D- -76 76 Iilm Iilm Developer Developer formula formula
JJ. . Water Water 52 52
00
C C or or J25 J25
00
II - - 750 750 ml ml
22. . Llon Llon - - 22 gm gm
33. . Hydroquinone Hydroquinone - - 55 gm gm
44. . Sodium Sodium Sulfite Sulfite - - J00 J00 gm gm
55. . Borax Borax (granules) (granules) - - 22 gm gm
66. . Water Water to to make make - - JJ li li
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
DLK1OL DLK1OL ÷÷ Paper Paper Developer Developer
JJ. . Water Water 52 52
00
C C or or J25 J25
00
II - - 500 500 ml ml
22. . Llon Llon - - 3JJ 3JJ gm gm
33. . Hydroquinone Hydroquinone - - J2 J2 gm gm
44. . Sodium Sodium Sulfite Sulfite - - 44. .55 gm gm
55. . Sodium Sodium carbonate carbonate - - 67 67. .55 gm gm
66. . Potassium Potassium bromide bromide - - JJ gm gm
77. . Water Water to to make make - - JJ li li
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
S1OP S1OP- -BA1H BA1H
Stop Stop- -bath bath can can be be plain plain water water only only with with
28 28° ° glacial glacial acetic acetic acid acid. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
IIXING IIXING BA1H BA1H IORMULA IORMULA
JJ. . Water Water
22. . Dissolving Dissolving agent agent
33. . Preservative Preservative
44. . Neutralizers Neutralizers
55. . Hardeners Hardeners
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
1ypical 1ypical Iixing Iixing Iormula Iormula: :
JJ. . Water Water 52 52
00
C C or or J25 J25
00
II - - 600 600 ml ml
22. . Hypo Hypo - - 240 240 gm gm
33. . Sodium Sodium sulfite sulfite - - J5 J5 gm gm
(anhydrous) (anhydrous)
44. . Acetic Acetic Acid Acid ( (28 28° °) ) - - 480 480 ml ml
55. . Boric Boric Acid Acid (crystals) (crystals) - - 77. .55 gm gm
66. . Potassium Potassium alum alum - - J5 J5 gm gm
(fine (fine granular) granular)
77. . Water Water to to make make - - JJ li li
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
PHO1OGRAPHIC PHO1OGRAPHIC PRIN1ING PRIN1ING
J. J. Contact Contact Printing Printing
2. 2. Projection Projection Printing Printing or or Lnlarging Lnlarging
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Contact Contact Printing Printing
It It is is a a procedure procedure of of exposing exposing
photographic photographic print print materials materials while while it it is is
pressed pressed in in contact contact with with the the negative negative being being
reproduced reproduced. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
Projection Projection Printing Printing or or Lnlarging Lnlarging
It It is is a a type type of of printing printing where where the the image image
in in a a negative negative is is optically optically projected projected or or
enlarged enlarged onto onto a a print print material material for for
exposure exposure to to produce produce a a picture picture image image. . 1he 1he
main main equipment equipment is is Lnlarger, Lnlarger, tbe tbe .o .o· ·cattea cattea
cavera cavera iv iv rerer.e rerer.e. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
LQUIPMLN1 LQUIPMLN1 IOR IOR PAPLR PAPLR
DL'LLOPING DL'LLOPING
J. J. 1hree 1hree plastic plastic trays trays ÷÷ one one each each for for the the
developer, developer, stop stop- -bath, bath, and and the the fixer fixer. .
(1he (1he size size of of the the tray tray is is determined determined by by
the the largest largest prints prints size) size). .
2. 2. Metal, Metal, plastic, plastic, or or bamboo bamboo tong tong
preferably preferably with with rubber rubber ends ends to to hold hold
the the prints prints. .
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Developing, Developing, Printing Printing and and Lnlarging Lnlarging
LQUIPMLN1 LQUIPMLN1 IOR IOR PAPLR PAPLR
DL'LLOPING DL'LLOPING cont cont. .
3. 3. Rubber Rubber (surgical) (surgical) hand hand gloves gloves. .
4. 4. 1imers 1imers
5. 5. Paper Paper cutter cutter
6. 6. A A bigger bigger tray tray or or tank tank for for washing washing
prints prints. .
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APPLICA1ION APPLICA1ION 1O 1O POLICL POLICL WORK WORK
GLNLRAL GLNLRAL APPLICA1ION APPLICA1ION
Identification Identification purposes purposes
Recording Recording and and preserving preserving of of evidences evidences
Discovering Discovering and and proving proving of of evidences evidences
not not readily readily seen seen by by the the naked naked eye eye. .
Recording Recording action action of of offenders offenders
Ior Ior court court exhibits exhibits
Ior Ior crime crime prevention prevention
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APPLICA1ION APPLICA1ION 1O 1O POLICL POLICL WORK WORK
Public Public information information
Police Police training training
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APPLICA1ION APPLICA1ION 1O 1O POLICL POLICL WORK WORK
SPLCIIIC SPLCIIIC APPLICA1IONS APPLICA1IONS
J. J. Identification Identification Photographs Photographs
2. 2. Crime Crime- -Scene Scene Photography Photography
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References References
J. J. Iorensic Iorensic Photography Photography for for Criminology Criminology
Students Students and and Practitioners Practitioners by by
WAYNLIRLD WAYNLIRLD HH. . 'ILLARBA, 'ILLARBA, Ph Ph. .
D D. . Crim Crim
2. 2. 1he 1he Complete Complete Idiot's Idiot's Guide Guide to to: :
Photography Photography Like Like a a Pro Pro
3. 3. 1he 1he Lverything Lverything Photography Photography Book Book by by
Lliot Lliot Khuner Khuner with with Sonia Sonia Weiss Weiss
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References References
4. 4. John John Hedgecoe's Hedgecoe's 35 35mm mm Photography Photography
5. 5. Merriam Merriam- -Webster's Webster's Collegiate Collegiate
Dictionary Dictionary JJ JJ
th th
ed ed. .
6. 6. www www. .en en. .wikipedia wikipedia. .com com
7. 7. www www. .youtube youtube. .com com