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with Respect to
Ehsan Naseri Soudeh Yektaee 81178607 81195404
What is Design? Design Process Design process For Automotive Design process For automotive with respect to Human Factors
Introduction to Design
A goal- directed problem solving activity (Archer 1965). Design is a interplay between what we want to achieve and how we want to satisfy them (Suh 1990). Design is a process of converting information that characterize the needs and requirements for a product into knowledge about the product (Mistree 1992).
Definition of Design
± An art, not a science Problem solving, Decision making, Applying science ± Creativity & imagination vs Heuristic search ± Directing, leading & organizing Dealing with people & team-building Negotiating to achieve a satisfactory solution & optimizing Foresight towards production, assembly, testing and other processes Considering the "bottom line" of costs and profit, Satisfying needs & satisfying the customer ± Ethical and professional conduct
New Design: New tasks and problems are solved by new solution
Revised Design: The embodiment design is customized/adapted to
fit new requirements. The employed solution principles are known and field-proven . Variant Design: Size and/or structure of parts and assemblies are varied within the limits of the already planned system. Repeat Design: A new start of the production run with an unchanged design. Robust design: A systematic engineering based methodology (which is part of quality engineering process) that developes and manufactures high reliability products at low cost with reduced delivery cycle.
leading & coordinating 6 .Over the Wall Engineering Product concept Product specs. information). Integration. System design. Manufacturing specs. Design specs. risk. process. Customers Marketing Design engineering Manufacturing engineering Production Roles of system engineer Need identification & customer linkage. Management (spec. R&D.
Integrate Product Design Integrate People ± Build concurrent engineering teams R&D ± Negotiation in engineering design Manufacturing Integrating Processes ± Process Modeling Design ± Process Reengineering Suppliers Integrating Information Finance ± Database Management Systems ± Information and data mining Building a Concurrent Engineering Design Process Marketing Customers 7 .
Design Process System. subsystem and component design Sequential & iterative process Starts and Ends with the customer Comparison and contrast to scientific method ± Need p Concepts p Feasibility p Produce p Sell ± Time and cost as key factors Process of converting information that characterizes the needs and requirements for a product into knowledge about the product and its implied processes. 8 .
Engineering Models of Design 9 .
audio) Design specification Selecting product ideas Compiling the requirement list Acquire & apply technical knowledge Identify resources Prioritize design goals & continue to refine Definition of a problem or Task 10 .Design process 1 Recognition of a customer¶s need ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Market research identifies customers and needs R&D creates ideas that are relevant to an organization¶s capabilities Needs arise from dissatisfaction Technology push (examples : computers.
Designs vs Needs 11 .
Design process 2 Product definition ± ± ± ± Function Preliminary requirements list Solution requirements Cost target and budget SOURCES CONSUMER COMPANY SITUATION ANALYSIS PROCEDURE FOR SEARCH DEFINE THE PRODUCT QUALITATIVE DESCRIPTION DESIGN 12 .
Design process 3 Conceptual design ± This phase looks at the function requirement of the Product. ± Determines the Principle of Solution. ± It is preceded by a Decision Procedure ± ± ± ± ± ± Abstract to identify essential problems Establish function structures Search for working principles to fulfill the sub-functions Combine working principles into working structures Select suitable combinations Evaluate against technical & cost criteria 13 .The function are listed & complex functions are broken into simpler subfunctions.
Recycling. Maintenance. Transport. Quality control 14 . Ergonomics. Safety. Layout. Costs. The checklist ± Function. This requires approach that is progressive as well as iterative. Production. Working Principle. Assembly.Design process 4 Design embodiment ± It starts from the concept and develops the definitive layout for the project ± Evaluate against Technical & Economic criteria ± Preliminary layout ± Optimize and complete form designs ± Check for errors and disturbing factors ± Prepare preliminary part list and production documents Embodiment design is characterized by repeated deliberation and verification.
transport and operating instructions ± Check all documents Design review ± Review and redesign focuses on achieving the performance. producibility.Design process 5 Prepare production documents : ± Elaborate detailed drawings and parts list ± Complete production. ± Competitive benchmarking ± Reverse Engineering of competitor¶s products ± Early bird gets the profit 15 . reliability and cost (As compared to what) objectives.assembly.
anyway! The floor of the car was badly rusted. because the car had been effected by some sewer gas in the garage. that I didn't dare creep under the car when it was lifted by this jack. I had to cut large sections out of the floor and cover them with new steel plate. but the original jack was so slender. There was no space for me.Example design process: Jack My car was not in very bad condition. 16 .
Information Space below of car Jack point & car size 17 .
Available Means 18 .
List of Demands 19 .
We must design a system. Functions 20 . which makes repair and service operations possible below a car. that repair and service operations below the lifted car are possible. which is able to lift a car. which has a weight of 1300 kg. The jack must be safe enough.Definition of Problem We must design a jack. a width of 1800 mm an a wheel base of 2700 mm.
Sub function 2 is used to transmit the combination of lift and lifting force directly or in transformed form into the connection points of the car. Sub functions 5 and 6 secure the lift and they make operations below the car safe. Sub function 4 keeps the system steady on the ground. Sub function 3 makes the connection with the car. 21 .Decomposing into subsystem Ones muscle power has to be transformed to lifting force with the sub function 1.
Alternative subsystems 22 .
Possible combinations 23 .
Decision Table 24 .
Embodiment design 25 .
Detail design 26 .
Review of Design 27 .
Results 28 .
Automotive Design 29 .
Aspects of Designing Car Occupant Packaging Computer-Aided Ergonomics Design Of car Visual Aspects in vehicle Design Automotive Seat Design for sitting comfort Physical Aspect of Car Design Design of symbols for automobile Control and Displays Informational aspect of vehicle Design 30 .
) 31 . standarized position) ± Functional Task Oriented Measurements Engineer Designer (are taken with the human body at work . in motion or in workspace attitude and typically are expressed as 3 dimensions.Occupant Packaging Workspace Anthropometry : ± Conventional Static Measurements anthropologist (are taken on the human body in rigid .
Occupant Packaging 32 .
Occupant Packaging 33 .
Occupant Packaging 34 .
Occupant Packaging 35 .
Occupant Packaging 36 .
weight and« .Driver workspace design and evaluation models Task Oriented Percentile Models .Uses anthropometric data to define 95 percent male and 5 percent female .Use anthropometric data to Define a user population startified across stature .Conduct test for specific task(reach.uses manikins or selected large (95%) male and small (5%) female to define spatial requirements 37 . eye location) to develop statistical models defining spatial requirements Manikin Oriented Models .
.assumes user needs are .Assume that a given percentile person is definable from the some of parts 38 expressed by a central tendency with exclusion at both ends .Assume that sample populations defined user requirements .5 percent excluded at each end.Driver workspace design and evaluation models .Assume that Specified large males and small female comprehend all user requirements .Assume that 2-D (or 3-D) manikins can predict or model human requirements . for example 95 percent accommodation with 2.
but only for the task studied .Result in questionably . but only for a defined small and large user .Results in well defined statistical model that defines accommodation levels for specific task defined geometric manikin models that predict accommodation for only two extreme percentile people 39 .Driver workspace design and evaluation models .Many task are measured and evaluated .many level of accommodation are described .
while respecting the overall aerodynamics of the racecar body. This analysis will enable the team to make driveroriented decisions about cockpit design. visibility. strength and anthropometrics. biomechanics. 40 . posture. comfort.Computer Aided Ergonomic Design of automobile engineers will simulate driver behavior and measure key criteria such as reach.
The resulting virtual models will be used to analyze and improve specific accommodation issues such as driver comfort and security. 41 .Simulation with computer To optimize cockpit ergonomics. engineers will first create a digital model of each driver using a combination of laser scanning and manual anthropometrical techniques. and accessibility and serviceability of components inside the cockpit during pit stops² without the need to involve the actual drivers.
improved communication. reduced timescale. The system offers the following advantages: 3D analysis of fit. reach. rapid interactive design. vision and posture. early input of ergonomics expertise. Its capabilities make it an invaluable tool to designers and design teams working on products that are used by people. cost effective ergonomics 42 .The SAMMIE System The SAMMIE system is a computer based Human Modeling tool.
Minivan and off-road vehicle 3.Automotive Seat Design For Sitting Comfort kind of motor vehicles: 1. Sport cars Three different occupants in the vehicle: 1)Driver 2) Front seat passenger 3) Rear set passengers 43 . Family and personal business sedan 2.
Automotive Seat Design For Sitting Comfort Criteria for a driver s seat : 1: the set should position the driver with unobstructed vision and within reach of all vehicle control 2: the seat must accommodate the driver s size and shape 3: the seat should be comfortable for extended period 4: the seat should provide a safe zone for the driver in a crash 44 .
Why should respect Ergonomics In Design? Safety Safety in a race car is the art of protecting the human occupant. So how do we protect the driver? Well first we need to consider the basic physiological weak points of the human body. at whatever cost to the car. Designing the car to be damaged minimally while hindering driver safety is definitely the wrong approach. 45 .
The brain inside unfortunately keeps on moving. legs and spine are designed to be stressed in tension and compression along their length. the skull. but still are to be prevented. Neck and spinal injuries also present a serious threat to life and career. and therefore snap relatively easily 46 . to a point. However. depending on angle of impact. because it is really just a soft tissue mass stored inside a very solid bone container. In the case of impacts they are often stressed in shear or bending. The brain is particularly succeptible to injury. they can break rather easily.Safety The diagram above shows that pretty much any part of the body exposed to the chassis of the race car is at risk. Injuries occur because the body sustains impacts beyond the G (gravities) level that it can sustain. and can sustain tremendous G loads before breaking. causing head trauma. These "Connector" type elements in our body are flexible and stretchable. Other bone injuries (breakages) are not as lifethreatening or career ending. The key to avoiding injury in the brain is to avoid instantaneous decelleration of the skull. it decellerates instantaneously. The bones in our arms. That is. when the skull strikes something hard.
As stated previously. the human body does not like to be decellerated from 80 or 100 km/h to 0 instantly. we need to find a way that "quickly" decellerates the body. The only possibilities on a race car are the structures which surround the driver's safety cell. Most racing seats provide these three elements Secondly. and good lower and upper body lateral support. instead of ZERO distance 47 .Safety In Crash First. Thirdly. driving and crashing. a head rest. the driver needs to be supported. the problem of suspension wishbones breaking and piercing the driver's legs is solved by anti-intrusion panels that prevent pieces of the car from intruding into the driver's cockpit. This is of course accomplished with a chassis mount for the seat. so movement under normal driving is very limited. This means a seat with lateral head support. Designing these structures to collapse in an impact ensures that G levels are reduced because the car is literally decellerating over a small distance. On formula cars. measures must be taken to prevent intrusion into or the crushing of the driver's limbs and extremities. the car needs to absorb the energy via structures that are crushable. and not prone to collapsing onto the driver. in all situations. the car's chassis needs to hold the seat and driver in place. The "Safety cell" is the last piece of material between danger and the driver. Finally. Therefore. As well. and a 5 or 6 point harness. and so should be well constructed. the cockpit "Safety cell" needs to be very strong.
In lower cost racing cars. meaning energy absorption takes place over a longer period. instead of inward. For light weight. 48 .Safety/Ergonomics Design Tips Use energy absorbing materials in the collapsable crash structure . Triangulate the driver "safety cell" to prevent collapse The safety cell can be designed in such a way that a catastrophic impact which collapses the safety cell. will make the safety cell expand away from the driver. Using that same mild steel in areas such as wishbones means that impacts will bend the material long before it breaks the material. most of the car is usually built from mild steel. use a stressed skin over a lightweight core material .crushable zones such as the nose cone on a formula car can be made from balsa. In the case of a frontal impact. upward and downward. honeycomb or high density styrofoam covered with a stressed skin of composites. instead of collapsing it onto the driver. this would mean the sides of the cockpit would expand outward.
Safety/Ergonomics Design Tips Use a clear windscreen or bodywork to increase vision . Keeping dangerous items away from the driver is sometimes very difficult. Fuel cells (Sanctioning body certified). it does not cause a front/rear or side-to-side weight bias. and the normally opaque bodywork replaced with clear lexan. In some cases. Use only top quality certified suppliers of safety equipment. most drivers don't like to sit next to fuel. and driver safety wear (Nomex. designers will frequently put the fuel cell at the CG. 2 or more layers minimum! -. Keep the fuel cell and battery away from the driver and danger. However. so that no matter how empty or full it is. 49 . seat belts (5 or 6 point sanctioning body certified only!). and further.anything less is like wearing nothing). use the safety cell to protect the fuel cell from outside intrusions. Don't scrimp on safety. but consider how much you value your life. the driver can be lowered for better CG (center of gravity). Use secured. The cost is perhaps high. In order to reduce the weight balance change over a race. sealed firewalls between the fuel cell and driver compartment.using lexan or other non-shattering clear material can help increase visibility without compromising the function of the bodywork. to aid in re-establishing the vision field.
3) Centrally positioned audio panel A 2DIN opening for audio components is centrally positioned at the top of the instrument panel for easy access and visibility. 50 .Design Of Symbols For Automobile Control and Displays 1) Digital meters Discreet digital meters maximize forward visibility and help create a sense of uncluttered spaciousness. 2) Triangle-motif steering wheel The triangle-motif steering wheel helps harmonize exterior and interior design. for a feeling of unity throughout. 5) Sporty two-tone fascia The sporty two-tone fascia adds a touch of pizzazz to the Liana's interior. floor console. 4) Textured dashboard and console The dashboard centre. and front pillars are trimmed with a new textured material with a refined look and feel.
Displays 51 .
Displays 52 .
Displays 53 .
Displays 54 .
ibm.ca/DesignScience/1.com/ibm/easy/eou_ext.stanford.edu/PD/kbase/Aesthetics_and_Engineering_Design.ryerson.Reading assignment Aesthetics and Engineering Design ± http://design.pdf Introduction of design ± http://deed.com/ibm/easy/eou_ext.nsf/Publish/1996 Automotive Ergonomics Brayan Peacock & Waldemar Karowski Sitting posture E.ibm. Granjin 55 .nsf/Publish/6 user engineering in IT ± http://www-3.html design basics in IT ± http://www-3.