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Database ± logical group of related files. A DBMS is a complex set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMS are categorized according to their data structures or types, some time DBMS is also known as Data base Manager. It is a set of prewritten programs that are used to store, update and retrieve a Database. Data files can be centralized or distributed.
Disadvantages of older file system
Data redundancy and inconsistency Difficulty in accessing data Data isolation Integrity problems Atomicity problems Concurrent access anomalies Security problems
Benefits of DBMS
Improved strategic use of corporate data Reduced complexity of the organization¶s information systems environment Reduced data redundancy and inconsistency Enhanced data integrity Application-data independence Improved security Reduced application development and maintenance costs Improved flexibility of information systems Increased access and availability of data and information Logical & Physical data independence Concurrent access anomalies. facilate atomicity problem. Provides central control on the system through DBA.
Logical vs physical view
A database management system provides the ability for many different users to share data and process resources. But as there can be many different users, there are many different database needs. The question now is: How can a single, unified database meet the differing requirement of so many users?
A DBMS minimizes these problems by providing two views of the database data: a physical view and a logical view. The physical view deals with the actual, physical arrangement and location of data in the direct access storage devices (DASDs). Database specialists use the physical view to make efficient use of storage and processing resources. Users, however, may wish to see data differently from how they are stored, and they do not want to know all the technical details of physical storage. After all, a business user is primarily interested in using the information, not in how it is stored. The logical view/user¶s view, of a database program represents data in a format that is meaningful to a user and to the software programs that process those data. That is, the logical view tells the user, in user terms, what is in the database. One strength of a DBMS is that while there is only one physical view of the data, there can be an endless number of different logical views. This feature allows users to see database information in a more business-related way rather than from a technical, processing viewpoint. Thus the logical view refers to the way user views data, and the physical view to the way the data are physically stored and processed
Logical data independence -Logical data independence is the ability to modify the conceptual schema without having alteration in external schemas or application programs. Alterations in the conceptual schema may include addition or deletion of fresh entities, attributes or relationships and should be possible without having alteration to existing external schemas or having to rewrite application programs.
Physical data independence
Physical data independence is the ability to modify the inner schema without having alteration to the conceptual schemas or application programs. Alteration in the internal schema might include. * Using new storage devices. * Using different data structures. * Switching from one access method to another. * Using different file organizations or storage structures. * Modifying indexes
Function of database admin.
Schema definition Storage structure and access method definition Schema and physical organization modification Granting of authorization for data access Integrity-constraints specification
Data- it is referred to facts concerning objects and events that could be recorded and stored on computer media Information- data that have been processed in such a way as to increase the knowledge of the person who uses the data Meta data- data that describe the properties of end user data, and the context of that data
These words are used often in Access so you will want to become familiar with them before using the program and this tutorial. A database is a collection of related information. An object is a competition in the database such as a table, query, form, or macro. A table is a grouping of related data organized in fields (columns) and records (rows) on a datasheet. By using a common field in two tables, the data can be combined. Many tables can be stored in a single database. A field is a column on a datasheet and defines a data type for a set of values in a table. For a mailing list table might include fields for first name, last name, address, city, state, zip code, and telephone number. A record in a row on a datasheet and is a set of values defined by fields. In a mailing list table, each record would contain the data for one person as specified by the intersecting fields. Design View provides the tools for creating fields in a table. Datasheet View allows you to update, edit, and delete in formation from a table
It is something that can be identified in the users work environment Employee, student , course, stock , automobile, chair, table e.t.c. are all real world objects and are treated as entity.
E-R model-a logical representation of the data for an organization or for a business area A graphical representation of an entityrelationship model Strong entity- that exists independently of other entity types Weak entity- whose existence depends on some other entity type
E-R model diagram
Student id no. Student name address
Permit no. Student name Student id no. Car type Course no. Course name Course time Course place
A property or characteristic of an entity or relationship type that is of interest to the organization Simple or atomic attribute- that cannot be broken down into smaller components that are meaningful to the organization Composite attribute-that has meaningful component parts
A meaningful association between (or among) entity types E.g. students and course offered
Data model DDL DML Data dictionary
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. How data is conceptually structured Hierarchical Network Relational Object-oriented Hypermedia multidimensional
DDL - DML
DDL-it defines what type of data there are in the database and how they will be structured. DBMS user defines views and schemas using ddl. DML- it is used with 3rd generation,4th gen. or objected oriented languages to query the contents of database Data dictionary- it stores definition of data elements and data characteristics such as individuals, business functions, programs and reports that use the data elements, as well as the physical representation, responsible parties in the organization and security.
Emerging data models
Object oriented-it provides users view, useful for companies with widely distributed offices. Hypermedia ± It stores information as nodes connected by hyperlinks established by the user. Multimedia ± It can store data on many media :sounds, video, images, graphic animation and text.
Useful in identifying, accessing, and retrieving the required information It is a relational or multidimensional database management system to support management decision making It contain current detailed data, historical detailed data, highly summarized data and meta data. A data warehouse is a repository of an organization's electronically stored data. Data warehouses are designed to facilitate reporting and analysis.
Some of the benefits that a data warehouse provides are as follows: A data warehouse provides a common data model for all data of interest regardless of the data's source. This makes it easier to report and analyze information than it would be if multiple data models were used to retrieve information such as sales invoices, order receipts, general ledger charges, etc. Prior to loading data into the data warehouse, inconsistencies are identified and resolved. This greatly simplifies reporting and analysis. Information in the data warehouse is under the control of data warehouse users so that, even if the source system data is purged over time, the information in the warehouse can be stored safely for extended periods of time. Because they are separate from operational systems, data warehouses provide retrieval of data without slowing down operational systems. Data warehouses facilitate decision support system applications such as trend reports (e.g., the items with the most sales in a particular area within the last two years), exception reports, and reports that show actual performance versus goals. Data warehouses can work in conjunction with and, hence, enhance the value of operational business applications, notably customer relationship management (CRM) systems
Data mining is the process of sorting through large amounts of data and picking out relevant information. It is usually used by business intelligence organizations, and financial analysts, but is increasingly being used in the sciences to extract information from the enormous data sets generated by modern experimental and observational methods. It has been described as "the nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data and the science of extracting useful information from large data sets or databases. Data mining in relation to enterprise resource planning is the statistical and logical analysis of large sets of transaction data, looking for patterns that can aid decision making.
Data mining has been cited as the method by which the U.S. Army unit Able Danger had identified the September 11, 2001 attacks leader, Mohamed Atta, and three other 9/11 hijackers as possible members of an Al Qaeda cell operating in the U.S. more than a year before the attack.
It is a scale down version of a data warehouse that focuses on a particular subject. Reasons for creating a data mart Easy access to frequently needed data Creates collective view by a group of users Improves end-user response time Ease of creation Lower cost than implementing a full Data warehouse Potential users are more clearly defined than in a full Data warehouse
Oracle DB2 Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise FileMaker Firebird Ingres Informix Microsoft Access Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft Visual FoxPro MySQL PostgreSQL Progress SQLite Teradata CSQL OpenLink Virtuoso