PENGANTAR ILMU EKONOMI

(IIE-108) Kuliah Jurusan Teknik Industri, UNPAR

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MINGGU I II III IV V VI VII TANGGAL 18 ± 22 Jan 25 ± 29 Jan 1 ± 5 Feb 8 ± 12 Feb 15 ± 19 Feb 22 ± 26 Feb 1 ± 5 Maret MATERI CHAPTER 1-3

Dasar Ekonomi Konsep Penawaran dan Permintaan Biaya Produksi Perusahaan dalam Pasar Kompetitif dan Monopoli Oligopoli dan Persaingan Monopolistik Pasar Faktor Produksi

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Pengukuran Pendapatan Nasional dan Biaya Hidup Tabungan, Investasi dan Sistem Keuangan Tingkat Pengangguran Alamiah Sistem Moneter Inflasi : Penyebab dan Biayanya Konsep Dasar Makroekonomi Perekonomian Terbuka Permintaan dan Penawaran Agregat Presentasi

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Paul A. Principles of Economics.. Harcourt Brace & Company. Gregory. Samuelson. Inc. Mankiw. Economics. McGraw-Hill. Nordhaus.Silabus (3) BOBOT PENILAIAN : UTS UAS TUGAS & QUIZ : 35 % : 35 % : 30 % PUSTAKA UTAMA : 1. N. 1995 . 1998 2. and William D.

a pessimist expects his nightmares to.Peter) .Quote ³An optimist expects his dreams to come true.´ (Laurance J.

DASAR ± DASAR ILMU EKONOMI 1 .

Economy. . .(1)

. . . Kata economy berasal dari bahasa Yunani yang merujuk pada ³pihak yang mengelola rumah tangga (one who manages a household)´

Economy. . .(2)
Sebuah rumah tangga dan sebuah masyarakat akan membuat keputusan yang sama :
‡ Pekerjaan apa yang perlu dilakukan ? ‡ Siapa yang akan bekerja ? ‡ Sumber daya apa yang dibutuhkan untuk berproduksi ? ‡ Bagaimana mengalokasikan hasil produksi ? - dsb -

Economy. . .(3)
‡ Pengelolaan sumber daya tersebut penting karena keberadaan sumber daya tersebut terbatas atau langka (scarcity) ‡ Scarcity. . . Berarti sumber daya yang dapat ditawarkan selalu kurang atau tidak sebanyak yang diinginkan
Consider a world without scarcity ! Economic goods vs free goods

.Economy. . Tujuan studi dan aplikasi ilmu ekonomi meningkatkan kemakmuran dan kesejahteraan masyarakat dalam kehidupan sehari-hari .(4) Ekonomi adalah sebuah studi tentang bagaimana masyarakat mengelola sumber-sumber daya langkanya Economics is the study of how society manages its scarce resources.

Economy. . 1995) Two key ideas : 1. . that society must use its resources efficiently .(5) Economy is the study of how societies use scarce resources to produce valuable commodities and distribute them among different people (Samuelson. the goods are scarce and 2.

.(6) ‡ Eficiency means absence of waste. or using the economy¶s resources as effectively as possible to satisfy people¶s needs and desires ‡ The economy is producing efficiently when it cannot produce more of one good without producing less of something else . .Economy.

(7) The essence of economics is to acknowledge the reality of scarcity and then figure out how to organize society in a way which produces the most efficient use of resources Ilmu ekonomi sering disebut sebagai ilmu alokasi sumber daya (allocation of resources) 1. Pengambilan keputusan memilih yang terbaik dari alternatif yang ada (economic behaviour) . melakukan seleksi atau prioritas 3. . . Pemanfaatan maksimal sumber daya ekonomi yang tersedia 2. Dilakukan pilihan.Economy.

The 3 Problems of Economic Organization ‡ What commodities are produced and in what quantities ? ‡ How are goods produced ? ‡ For whom are goods produced ? .

Orang bereaksi terhadap insentif (People respond to incentives) . Orang rasional berpikir secara marginal (Rational people think at the margin) 4. Biaya adalah apa yang Anda korbankan untuk memperoleh sesuatu (The cost of something is what you give up to get it) 3.TEN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS (1) Bagaimana kita membuat keputusan 1. Kita harus selalu melakukan ³trade-off´ (People face tradeoffs) 2.

Pemerintah kadang kala dapat memperbaiki hasil-hasil ekonomi (Governments can sometimes improve economic outcomes) . Secara umum pasar adalah tempat yang baik untuk mengorganisasikan kegiatan ekonomi (Markets are usually a good way to organize economic activity) 7.TEN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS (2) Bagaimana orang berinteraksi dengan orang lain 5. Perdagangan dapat menguntungkan semua pihak (Trade can make everyone better off) 6.

TEN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS (3) Kekuatan dan kecenderungan yang mempengaruhi bagaimana ekonomi bekerja secara keseluruhan 8. Masyarakat menghadapi trade-off jangka pendek antara inflasi dan pengangguran (Society faces a short-run tradeoff between inflation and unemployment) . Harga-harga naik ketika pemerintah mencetak uang terlalu banyak (Prices rise when the government prints too much money) 10. Standar hidup tergantung pada produksi suatu negara (The standard of living depends on a country¶s production) 9.

Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs (1) ³There is no such thing as a free lunch!´ .

Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs (2) To get one thing. . we usually have to give up another thing. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Guns vs butter (classic tradeoff) Food vs clothing Leisure time vs work Efficiency vs equity Making decisions requires trading off one goal against another.

Equity ‡ Efficiency means society gets the most that it can from its scarce resources (masyarakat dapat memperoleh hasil/manfaat maksimal dari sumber daya langkanya) ‡ Equity means the benefits of those resources are distributed fairly among the members of society (keuntungan dari sumber daya langka tersebut terbagi merata ke tiap anggota masyarakat) .Principle #1: People Face Tradeoffs (3) Efficiency v.

‡ Whether to go to college or to work? ‡ Whether to study or go out on a date? ‡ Whether to go to class or sleep in? ‡ The opportunity cost of an item is what you give up to obtain that item (apa saja yang harus dikorbankan untuk memperoleh sesuatu yang lain) .Principle #2: The Cost of Something Is What You Give Up to Get It (1) ‡ Decisions require comparing costs and benefits of alternatives.

.Principle #2: The Cost of Something Is What You Give Up to Get It (2) LA Laker basketball star Kobe Bryant chose to skip college and go straight from high school to the pros where he has earned millions of dollars.

incremental adjustments to an existing plan of action (Penyesuaian-penyesuaian kecil secara bertahap dalam pelaksanaan suatu rencana) People make decisions by comparing costs and benefits at the margin. .Principle #3: Rational People Think at the Margin ‡ Marginal changes are small.

‡ The decision to choose one alternative over another occurs when that alternative¶s marginal benefits exceed its marginal costs! .Principle #4: People Respond to Incentives ‡ Marginal changes in costs or benefits motivate people to respond.

Principle #5: Trade Can Make Everyone Better Off. ‡ People gain from their ability to trade with one another ‡ Competition results in gains from trading ‡ Trade allows people to specialize in what they do best .

Principle #6: Markets Are Usually a Good Way to Organize Economic Activity (1) ‡ Command Economies vs Market Economies vs Mixed Economies ‡ A market economy is an economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as they interact in markets for goods and services. . ‡ Firms decide who to hire and what to produce. (Suatu perekonomian yang mengalokasikan sumber-sumber dayanya melalui proses keputusan terdesentralisasi oleh sekian banyak perusahaan dan rumah tangga yang satu sama lain berinteraksi di pasar-pasar barang dan jasa) ‡ Households decide what to buy and who to work for.

prices guide decision makers to reach outcomes that tend to maximize the welfare of society as a whole. ‡ As a result. .Principle #6: Markets Are Usually a Good Way to Organize Economic Activity (2) ‡ Laissez-faire Economy : the extreme case of a market economy. in which the government keeps its hands off economic decisions ‡ Adam Smith made the observation that households and firms interacting in markets act as if guided by an ³invisible hand´ ‡ Because households and firms look at prices when deciding what to buy and sell. they unknowingly take into account the social costs of their actions.

Principle #7: Governments Can Sometimes Improve Market Outcomes ‡ Market failure occurs when the market fails to allocate resources efficiently (caused by externalities. imperfect competition. ‡ Salah satu tujuan belajar ilmu ekonomi adalah agar kita dapat menilai kelayakan kebijakan pemerintah dalam mempromosikan efisiensi dan keseimbangan . and public goods) ‡ When the market fails (breaks down) government can intervene to promote efficiency and equity.

Principle #8: The Standard of Living Depends on a Country¶s Production (1) ‡ Standard of living may be measured in different ways: ‡ By comparing personal incomes. ‡ By comparing the total market value of a nation¶s production. .

‡ Productivity is the amount of goods and services produced from each hour of a worker¶s time.Principle #8: The Standard of Living Depends on a Country¶s Production (2) ‡ Almost all variations in living standards are explained by differences in countries¶ productivities. .

‡ One cause of inflation is the growth in the quantity of money.Principle #9: Prices Rise When the Government Prints Too Much Money ‡ Inflation is an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy. ‡ When the government creates large quantities of money. the value of the money falls. .

Principle #10: Society Faces a Short-run Tradeoff Between Inflation and Unemployment. 1861-1967'. Economica NS. vol. 283-99 . xxv (November. ‡ The Phillips Curve illustrates the tradeoff between inflation and unemployment: Inflation Unemployment It¶s a short-run tradeoff! A W H Phillips. "The Relationship Between Unemployment and the Rate of Change of Money Wage Rates in the United Kingdom. 1958).

Economic Models ‡ Economists use models to simplify reality in order to improve our understanding of the world ‡ Two of the most basic economic models include: 1. The Production Possibilities Frontier . The Circular Flow Diagram 2.

.Our First Model: The Circular-Flow Diagram (1) ‡ The circular-flow diagram is a visual model of the economy that shows how dollars flow through markets among households and firms.

and capital Income = Flow of inputs and outputs = Flow of dollars . rent. and profit MARKETS FOR FACTORS OF PRODUCTION ‡Households sell ‡Firms buy Labor. land.Figure 1 The Circular Flow MARKETS FOR GOODS AND SERVICES ‡Firms sell Goods ‡Households buy and services sold Revenue Spending Goods and services bought FIRMS ‡Produce and sell goods and services ‡Hire and use factors of production HOUSEHOLDS ‡Buy and consume goods and services ‡Own and sell factors of production Factors of production Wages.

.Our Second Model: The Production Possibilities Frontier (1) ‡ The production possibilities frontier is a graph that shows the combinations of output that the economy can possibly produce given the available factors of production and the available production technology.

000 C D 2.000 Quantity of Cars Produced .000 B 0 300 600 700 1.000 A Production possibilities frontier 1.200 2.Figure 2 The Production Possibilities Frontier Quantity of Computers Produced 3.

Our Second Model: The Production Possibilities Frontier (2) ‡ Concepts Illustrated by the Production Possibilities Frontier ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Efficiency Tradeoffs Opportunity Cost Economic Growth .

100 2.000 3.000 A E 0 700 750 1.000 Quantity of Cars Produced .Figure 3 A Shift in the Production Possibilities Frontier Quantity of Computers Produced 4.000 2.

The Study of Economics (1) .

‡ How households and firms make decisions and how they interact in specific markets (Mankiw.The Study of Economics (2) Microeconomics is concerned with the behaviour of individual entities such as markets. He is the founder of the field of microeconomics) Microeconomics focuses on the individual parts of the economy. An Inquiry into the Natures and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 1998) . and households (Adam Smith. 1776. firms.

1935) Macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole.The Study of Economics (3) Macroeconomics views the performance of the economy as a whole (John Maynard Keynes. ‡ Economy-wide phenomena. and economic growth (Mankiw. Interest and Money. 1998) . including inflation. General Theory of Employment. unemployment.

‡ watch the morning news broadcast from Ottawa on a TV made in Japan. Thailand. ‡ put on some clothes made of cotton grown in the Egypt and sewn in factories in the Dominican Republic.Interdependence and the Gains from Trade Consider a typical consumer in Canada who in a given morning might: ‡ wake up to an alarm clock made in Korea. ‡ and drive to class/work in a car made of parts manufactured in at least a half-dozen different countries (most likely Brazil. Mexico. ‡ drink orange juice made from Chilean oranges and coffee from beans grown in Vietnam. the United States) .

. . ‡ only two goods: potatoes and meat ‡ only two people: a potato farmer and a cattle rancher ‡ What should each produce? ‡ Why should they trade? .A PARABLE FOR THE MODERN ECONOMY ‡ Imagine .

Table 1 The Production Opportunities of the Farmer and Rancher .

‡ Without trade. economic gains are diminished.Production Possibilities ‡ Self-sufficiency (or in the case of nations. autarky) ‡ By ignoring each other: ‡ Each consumes what they each produce. . ‡ The production possibilities frontier is also the consumption possibilities frontier.

Figure 4 The Production Possibilities Curve (a) The Farmer¶s Production Possibilities Frontier ¶ Meat (oz) 8 If there is no trade. 4 A 0 16 32 Potatoes (oz) . the farmer chooses this production and consumption.

Figure 4 The Production Possibilities Curve (b) The Rancher¶s ¶Production Possibilities Frontier Meat (oz) 24 If there is no trade. the rancher chooses this production and consumption. 12 B 0 24 48 Potatoes (oz) .

Table 2 The Gains from Trade: A Summary .

Table 2 The Gains from Trade: A Summary .

Figure 5 How Trade Expands the Set of Consumption Opportunities (a) The Farmer¶s ¶Production and Consumption Meat (oz) 8 Farmer's consumption with trade 5 4 A* A Farmer's production and consumption without trade Farmer's production with trade 32 0 16 17 Potatoes (oz) .

Figure 5 How Trade Expands the Set of Consumption Opportunities (b) The Rancher¶s Production and Consumption ¶ Meat (oz) 24 Rancher's production with trade 18 13 Rancher's consumption with trade B* 12 B Rancher's production and consumption without trade 0 12 24 27 48 Potatoes (oz) .

THE PRINCIPLE OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE ‡ Differences in the costs of production determine the following: ‡ Who should produce what? ‡ How much should be traded for each product? Who can produce potatoes at a lower cost²the farmer or the rancher? .

.The Principles of Absolute & Comparative Advantage ‡ Differences in Costs of Production ‡ Two ways to measure differences in costs of production: ‡ The number of hours required to produce a unit of output (for example. one kilogram of potatoes)²this corresponds to absolute advantage. ‡ The opportunity cost of sacrificing one good for another²this corresponds to comparative advantage.

firm.Absolute Advantage (1) ‡ Absolute advantage is a comparison among producers of a good according to their productivity ‡ Describes the productivity of one person. ‡ The producer that requires a smaller quantity of inputs to produce a good is said to have an absolute advantage in producing that good. or nation compared to that of another. .

. whereas the Farmer needs 60 minutes. ‡ The Rancher needs only 20 minutes to produce a kilogram of meat.Absolute Advantage (2) ‡ The Rancher needs only 10 minutes to produce a kilogram of potatoes. The Rancher has an absolute advantage in the production of both meat and potatoes. whereas the Farmer needs 15 minutes.

‡ So. ‡ Whatever must be given up to obtain an item. in our example. who has the comparative advantage in the two goods? . ‡ The producer who has the smaller opportunity cost of producing a good is said to have a comparative advantage in producing that good.Opportunity Cost and Comparative Advantage ‡ Compares producers of a good according to their opportunity cost.

Table 3 The Opportunity Cost of Meat and Potatoes .

.25 kg of meat. whereas the Farmer¶s opportunity cost of a kilogram of potatoes is 0..50 kg of meat. ‡ (Notice that the opportunity costs for each producer are reciprocals of one another«) . ‡ The Rancher¶s opportunity cost of a pound of meat is only 2 kg of potatoes.Comparative Advantage and Trade (1) ‡ The Rancher¶s opportunity cost of a kilogram of potatoes is 0. while the Farmer¶s opportunity cost of a kilogram of meat is only 4 kg of potatoes.

the Rancher has a comparative advantage in the production of meat but the Farmer has a comparative advantage in the production of potatoes. .Comparative Advantage and Trade (2) «so.

. ‡ Trade can benefit everyone in a society because it allows people to specialize in activities in which they have a comparative advantage. ‡ Whenever potential trading parties have differences in opportunity costs.Comparative Advantage and Trade (3) ‡ Comparative advantage and differences in opportunity costs are the basis for specialized production and trade. they can each benefit from trade.

QUESTION ??? .

‡ Everything has a PRICE (the value of the good in terms of money) ‡ Prices represent the terms on which people and firms voluntarily exchange different commodities ‡ Prices serve as signals to producers and consumers ‡ Prices are the balance wheel in the market mechanism .What is A Market ? A market is a mechanism by which buyers and sellers interact to determine the price and quantity of a good or service.

Market Equilibrium Market equilibrium represents a balance among all the different buyers and sellers Too high a price too much output Too low a price deficiency of goods Those prices for which buyers desire to buy exactly the quantity that sellers desire to sell yield an equilibrium of supply and demand. .

seolah-olah dikendalikan oleh tangan yang tidak nampak untuk mencapai apa yang terbaik bagi semua (Adam Smith. Pemerintah hanya bertugas sebagai pengawas dari semua pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh rakyatnya. maka pasar harus memiliki laissez-faire atau kebebasan dari intervensi pemerintah.Invisible Hand Hukum Invinsible hand menyatakan bahwa setiap orang dalam mengejar kepentingannya sendiri. . The Wealth of Nation) Adam Smith memandang bahwa ada sebuah kekuatan tersembunyi yang akan mengatur pasar (invisible hand).

Perfect Competition ‡ The invisible-hand doctrine applies to economies in which all the markets are perfectly competitive ‡ Perfect competition means that all goods and services have a price and are traded on markets. and no firm or consumer is large enough to affect the market price ‡ In such a circumstance. an economy is on its Production Possibilities Frontier (PPF) .

Imperfect competition (market power) : occurs when a buyer or seller can affect a good¶s price 2. Public Goods : commodities for which the cost of extending the service to an additional person is zero and which it is impossible to exclude individuals from enjoying positive externalities .Market Failure Market failure may be caused by : 1. An Externality (spillover effects) :occur when firms or people impose costs or benefits on others outside the marketplace 3.

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