.Definisi .Ubat yang digunakan untuk merawat DM (Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus .untuk menurunkan paras gula yang tinggi di dalam darah (hiperglisemia) .NIDDM).

Indikasi . Sulfonylureas ii. Non-sulfonylureas / Dimethylbiguanide (Biguanide) .NIDDM -Diklasifikasikan kepada dua Kumpulan Ubat: i.

Medium acting .i.Glipizide .Glyburide c.Chlorpropamide . SULFONYLUREAS a.Acetohexamide . Long acting .Tolbutamide b.Tolazamide . Short acting .

BIGUANIDE -Metformin (Glucophage) -Phenformin .ii.

. SULFONYLUREAS . .memperkuatkan tindakan insulin di tisu-tisu (periferi).Digunakan apabila pengeluaran insulin tidak mencukupi oleh pankreas (pankreas masih berfungsi) Tindakan -merangsang sel-sel beta pankreas untuk merembes insulin.i.

i. SULFONYLUREAS Tindakan Sel-sel beta (Pankreas) Merangsang Sulfonylurea Mensintesis & merembes insulin Menurunkan paras gula .

Dos maksimum: 15mg/hari.5.GLIBENCLAMIDE (Daonil®) -Indikasi: Type 2 DM (NIDDM) -Kaedah pemberian: oral -Dos: 2. -S/E: hipersensitiviti .1.5mg (after food) .

P.2.NIDDM -Tak terkawal dgn bersenam dan diet Dos . TOLBUTAMIDE (Rastinon®) ± ubat jangka pendek Indikasi .Oral: 250 mg ± 3gm (1 or 2 divided doses) .

Hipersensitiviti (Sulfonylureas / Sulphonamide) .IDDM Kesan sampingan .Sejarah Diabetic Ketoacidosis ± berulang .hipoglisemia (Overdose) .mual / muntah Interaksi ubat -Thiazide (Diuretik) ± menerukkan hipoglisemia .Diabetic Coma .reaksi allergi .Kontraindikasi .anaemia aplastik .

Tambahan kepada pengawalan bersenam melalui diet & Dos .dos maksimum: 40 mg /hari Onset Kemuncak tindakan . GLIPIZIDE ± Jangka sederhana Indikasi . ± 2.3. 30 min sebelum makan .NIDDM .O.5mg ± 5mg .P.15 ± 30 min ± 1 ± 2 jam .

Anemia aplastik .Urticaria -Gangguan gastrousus .Kontraindikasi .Diabetic Ketoacidosis Kesan sampingan .

CHLOPROPAMIDE (Diabenese®) ± Jangka panjang Indikasi -NIDDM ±jika diet & bersenam tidak berjaya Dos .4.Oral: 250 -500mg ( 30 minit sebelum makan) S/E: -mual -sakit kepala -gatal-gatal -muntah -sakit epigastrium .

Menambah pengambilan glukosa di tisutisu pinggiran .Mengurangkan glukoneogenesis di hepar.Menggalak pengangkutan glukosa menyeberangi dinding sel.ii.Ubat agen hipoglisemik (bukan kumpulan sulfonylureas Tindakan ubat . BIGUANIDE . . .

Oral Dos: 500mg daily / BD .Contoh ubat Biguanide 1. Metformin (Glucophage) Indikasi .Diabetis Mellitus Kaedah Pemberian .

Kesan sampingan .loya .gangguan gastrousus .Cirit birit .muntah .

do not delay the mealtime. . weakness. cold sweating and dizziness. inform your doctor.± 1. In Advice on Medication case of frequent symptoms of low blood sugar such as hunger. take it as soon as possible unless it is almost time for the next scheduled dose. If you miss a dose. Do not take double doses. Once the drugs are taken. trembling. ± 3. ± 2. In that case. skip the missed dose and take the next dose as directed.

he/she should be rushed to the accident and emergency department by his/her family members. If the patient becomes unconsciousness or goes into coma. If you are taking other drugs as well. honey and glucose. inform your doctor to avoid medicinal interference which affects drug efficacy. ± 5.±4. . ± 5. the patient should immediately take some sugary food and drinks such as juice.As soon as symptoms of low blood sugar occur.

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