PDSA CYCLE 5S KAIZEN CONCEPT JIT QUALITY CIRCLES OTHER PROCESS AND IMPROVEMENTS SUBMITTED BY Aakash Bhardwaj /2009 Anubhav Tiwari 41/2009 Nima W Megeji 32/2009 Ruchi Sood 56/2009


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PHASE1:Identify the opportunity Customer surveys, employee surveys, Brainstorming by workgroups PHASE2:Analyse the current process Develop process flow diagram Define target performance measures Collect the available data and information using Pareto chart analysis, Flow chart, run charts, check sheets, cause and effect diagram, opportunity flow diagram, control charts PHASE3:Develop the optimal solution(s) Creativity plays a major role Create new processes Combine different processes Or Modify the existing processes Brainstorming is principle technique



PHASE4:Implement changes Contents of implementation plant report must fully describe WHY will it be done? HOW WHEN WHO WHERE Monitoring activities using measurement tools like pareto diagrams, run charts,questionaires,etc. PHASE5:Study the results Institutionalize meaningful change Ongoing Measurement Evaluation to achieve continuous improvement If the team is not satisfied then some of the phases will be repeated.

PHASE6:Standardise the solution Positive control (Positrol)of process Process certification Operator certification Prevents back sliding ´ PHASE7:Plan for the future Regardless of the how successful initial improvement efforts are, the improvement process continues.


Delivery and Safety. Quality. Cost. Continuous Improvement .5S PHILOSOPHY The Japanese 5S Philosophy An essential step for waste elimination and to achieve Productivity.

SOPs.Original Translation Description Seiri Sort Clearing Removal of all items that are not needed within the scope of current production Every tool and material to be used in production should have a place Ensuring everything in the place stays clean. Both prevention & cleaning routines apply Methods used to obtain profits/gains. Seiton Set in Order Shine Arranging Seiso Neatness Shitsuke Standardis e Sustain Discipline Seiketsu Ongoing Improvement s . Continuous removal of waste. Adherence to rules/guidelines Ensuring the gains are held & continue to be made.


it translates to: "good change.INTRODUCTION ´ The English usage of "kaizen" can be: "continuous improvement" or "continual improvement." Literally. the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity improvement. ´ ´ ." Kaizen is a daily activity. The philosophy can be defined as bringing back the thought process into the automated production environment dominated by repetitive tasks that traditionally required little mental participation from the employees.

eliminates overly hard work ("muri"). . and teaches people how to perform experiments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and eliminate waste in business processes. when done correctly. humanizes the workplace.PROCESS: ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ It is also a process that.

or large group. as well as external stakeholders when applicable.´ ´ People at all levels of an organization can participate in kaizen. from the CEO down. The format for kaizen can be individual. . suggestion system. small group.

and structure conducive to KAIZEN Middle Management and Staff Deploy and implement KAIZEN goals as directed by top management through policy deployment and cross-functional management Use KAIZEN in functional capabilities Establish.Figure 1. maintain. procedures. and upgrade standards Make employees KAIZENconscious through intensive training programs Help employees develop skills and tools for problem solving Supervisors Use KAIZEN in functional roles Formulate plans for KAIZEN and provide guidance to workers Improve communication with workers and sustain high morale Support small-group activities (such as quality circles) and the individual suggestion system Introduce discipline in the workshop Provide KAIZEN suggestions Workers Engage in KAIZEN through the suggestion system and small-group activities Practice discipline in the workshop Engage in continuous selfdevelopment to become better problem solvers Enhance skills and jobperformance expertise with cross-education .6 Hierarchy of KAIZEN involvement Top Management Be determined to introduce KAIZEN as a corporate strategy Provide support and direction for KAIZEN by allocating resources Establish policy for KAIZEN and crossfunctional goals Realize KAIZEN goals through policy deployment and audits Build systems.

Hence the English usage of "kaizen" can be: "continuous improvement" or "continual improvement. sometimes this is the line supervisor's key role." Literally. This group is often guided through the kaizen process by a line supervisor. it translates to: "good change. it is usually a local improvement within a workstation or local area and involves a small group in improving their own work environment and productivity. the culture of continual aligned small improvements and standardization yields large results in the form of compound productivity improvement. While kaizen (at Toyota) usually delivers small improvements." .EXAMPLE: ´ ´ At Toyota.

This philosophy differs from the "command-and-control" improvement programs. and issues that arise from them are typically used in later blitzes. a focused kaizen that is designed to address a particular issue over the course of a week is referred to as a "kaizen blitz" or "kaizen event".METHODOLOGY ± PHILOSOPHY ± USAGE : ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Kaizen methodology includes making changes and monitoring results. In modern usage. Large-scale pre-planning replaced by smaller experiments. . then adjusting. These are limited in scope. extensive project scheduling Aiding rapid adaption of new improvements are suggested.


TOYOTA : ´ The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen. . along with their supervisor. suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen. where all line personnel are expected to stop their moving production line in case of any abnormality and.

SHEWHART CYCLE /DEMING CYCLE / PDCA ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ The PDCA cycles The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as: standardize an operation measure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory) gauge measurements against requirements innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity standardize the new. or PDCA . Deming cycle. This is also known as the Shewhart cycle. improved operations continue cycle ad infinitum.

The Five Foundation Elements Of KAIZEN: 1) Team work 2) Personal Discipline 3) Improved morale 4) Quality circles 5) Suggestions for improvement . 2. 3. Quality. Willingness to change and 4. Involvment of all employees.KEY FEATURES: Key elements of Kaizen are: 1. Communication. effort .

´ Seiri.OUT OF THIS FOUNDATION: THREE KEY FACTORS ARISE: 1) Elimination of waste (muda) and efficiency 2) The Kaizen five .S framework for good housekeeping.Tidiness ´ Seition.Standardized clean up ´ Shiitsuke 3) Standardization .Orderliness ´ Seiso ± cleanliness ´ Seiketsu.

In Japanese ´ Kai (Change) ´ Zen ( become good) ´ Japanese companies distinguise between Innovation (Radical) and Kaizen (continuous) Resulting in: ´ Continuous Incremental Improvement .

2 Japanese perceptions of job functions (1) Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Workers Improvement Maintenance Figure 1.3 Japanese perceptions of job functions (2) Top Management Middle Management Supervisors Workers Innovation KAIZEN Maintenance .Figure 1.

4 Western perceptions of job functions Top Management Middle management Supervisors Workers Innovation Maintenance Figure 1.5 Innovation-centered job functions Innovation Maintenance .Figure 1.

new theories Requires large investment but little effort to maintain it Technology Results for profits Better suited to fast-growth economy . Advantage KAIZEN Long-term and long-lasting but undramatic Small steps Continuous and incremental Innovation Short-term but dramatic Gradual and constant Everybody Collectivism. Evaluation criteria 12. Pace 3. systems approach Maintenance and improvement Conventional know-how and state of the art Requires little investment but great effort to maintain it People Process and efforts for better results Works well in slow-growth economy Big steps Intermittent and nonincremental Abrupt and volatile Select few ³champions´ Rugged individualism. Approach 7. Effect 2. Involvement 6. group efforts. Practical requirements 10. Spark 9. new inventions. Change 5. Effort orientation 11. Mode 8. Timeframe 4. individual ideas and efforts Scrap and rebuild Technological break-throughs.Japan West KAIZEN Strong Weak Innovation Weak Strong FEATURES OF KAIZEN AND INNOVATION 1.

3 Actual pattern from innovation Time .Figure 2.2 Ideal pattern from innovation Time Figure 2.

5 Innovation plus KAIZEN KAIZEN Innovation KAIZEN Innovation Time .4 Innovation alone What should be (standard) What should be (standard) Innovatio n Maintenance What actually is Maintenance What actually is Time Figure 2.Figure 2.

FIGURE :-TOTAL MANUFACTURING CHAIN Science Technology Design Production Market Innovatio n KAIZEN .

proprietary Functional (specialist) orientation Seek new technology Line + staff Limited feedback KAIZEN Adaptability Teamwork (systems approach) Generalist-oriented Attention to details people-oriented Information: open. shared Cross-functional orientation Build on existing technology Cross-functional organization Comprehensive feedback .Another comparison of Innovation and KAIZEN Innovation Creativity Individualism Specialist-oriented Attention to great leaps Technology-oriented Information: closed.


 . to discuss work-related issues and to offer suggestions and ideas for improvements. It is a participatory management technique that enlists the help of employees in solving problems related to their own jobs. A QC is a voluntary group of employees who perform similar duties and meet at periodic intervals. as in production methods or quality control. often with management.

 Joel E. The circle is a relatively autonomous unit (ideally about ten workers). analyze. usually led by a supervisor or a senior worker and organized as a work unit. Ross define a quality circle as "a small group of employees doing similar or related work who meet regularly to identify. and solve product-quality and production problems and to improve general operations. Ross and William C.³ .

 Quality Circles is a term used in human resources management that refers to the technique of motivating workers by allowing them input into decisions concerning the production process. thereby increasing productivity and profits. .

 Productivity will increase for two reasons: « because the person best able to decide the most efficient way to do a job is the person who does it for a living and « because employees who have greater control over the product will be more committed and effective workers .

and  Employees are motivated by their participation in making such improvements.   . increase productivity. and improve employee morale. They are based on two ideas:  Employees can often make better suggestions for improving work processes than management. implemented correctly. Most commonly found in manufacturing environments. quality circles can help a small business reduce costs. Thus. quality circles are applicable to a wide variety of business situations and problems.

Quality Circle is a form of participation management. Quality Circle is a problem solving technique .Concept The concept of QC is primarily based upon recognition of the value of the worker as a human being. b. his wisdom. as someone who willingly activises on his job. It is based upon the HRM considered as one of the key factors in the improvement of product quality & productivity. Quality Circle is a human resource development technique. attitude & feelings. c. intelligence. experience. QC concept has 3 major attributes: a.


motivation & development To improve management-employee relations To improve communications at all levels To develop team spirit among the employees To provide better working environment of employees. productivity & profitability To secure employee involvement. .OBJECTIVES       To improve quality.

BENEFITS OF FORMING QUALITY CIRCLES The benefits are that QCs:  Promote individual self-development Promote teamwork and fellowship Improve overall company performance and corporate image   .

´ . organisation to organisation. The structure of a Quality Circle consists of the following elements. It varies from industry to industry.ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE ´ A Quality Circle has an appropriate organisational structure for its effective and efficient performance. But it is useful to have a basic framework as a model.

plans and directs the program and meets usually once in a month. Co-coordinator: He may be a Personnel or Administrative officer who co-ordinates and supervises the work of the facilitators and administers the programme. It is headed by a senior executive and includes representatives from the top management personnel and human resources development people. A steering committee: This is at the top of the structure.i. Facilitator: He may be a senior supervisory officer. It establishes policy. ii. iii. . He coordinates the works of several quality circles through the Circle leaders.

Without circle members the programme cannot exist. The roles of Steering Committee. take training seriously with a receptive attitude. A Circle leader organizes and conducts Circle activities. They are the lifeblood of quality circles. Circle leader: Leaders may be from lowest level workers or Supervisors. v.iv. Facilitator. They should attend all meetings as far as possible. offer suggestions and ideas. participate actively in group process. . Circle leader and Circle members are well defined. Circle members : They may be staff workers. Co-0rdinator.


Explain the concept to the employees and invite them to volunteer as members of Quality Circles.    . Nominate senior officers as facilitators.The launching of Quality Circles involves the following steps:  Expose middle level executives to the concept. Form a steering committee.

techniques and operation. facilitators in basics of Quality Circle approach. Arrange the necessary facilities for the Quality Circle meeting and its operation    . Formally inaugurate the Quality Circle. Later facilitator may provide training to Circle leaders and Circle members. A meeting should be fixed preferably one hour a week for the Quality Circle to meet. implementation. Arrange training of co-coordinators.

QUALITY CIRCLE PROCESS         List out problems Discussion over the list of problems Selected problem will be analyzed Arrive at solution Present it to management for action Management studies the recommendations Implementation QC members are recognised & rewarded. .

REASONS FOR FAILURE OF QUALITY CIRCLES ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Inadequate Training Unsure of Purpose Not truly Voluntary Lack of Management Interest Quality Circles are not really empowered to make decisions. .

REASONS FOR FAILURE OF QUALITY CIRCLES (CONTINUE) ´ ´ ´ They have not had enough training They have not been given sufficient autonomy The Quality Circles have been started in isolation and not part of a wider programme of Companywide Continuous Improvement .

Philosophy.JIT.The philosophy of JIT is simple .Just In Time (JIT) is an inventory strategy implemented to improve the return on investment of a business by reducing in-process inventory and its associated carrying costs. ´ . JIT inventory systems expose the hidden causes of inventory keeping and are therefore not a simple solution a company can adopt.JUST IN TIME ´ Definition . there is a whole new way of working the company must follow in order to manage its consequences.inventory is defined to be waste.

quality. Kanban are usually 'tickets' but can be simple visual signals. and efficiency.In short.The process is driven by a series of signals. such as the presence or absence of a part on a shelf. at the right time. When implemented correctly. JIT can lead to dramatic improvements in a manufacturing organization's return on investment. the implications of which are broad for the implementors. Principle. the just-in-time inventory system is all about having ³the right material. and in the exact amount´ without the safety net of Inventory. at the right place. which can be Kanban.CONTINUED Equation. that tell production processes when to make the next part. .

ADVANTAGES ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Lower stock holding means a reduction in storage space which saves rent and insurance costs As stock is only obtained when it is needed. less working capital is tied up in stock There is less likelihood of stock perishing. Less time is spent on checking and re-working the product of others as the emphasis is on getting the work right first time. becoming obsolete or out of date Avoids the build-up of unsold finished product that can occur with sudden changes in demand. .

because all product is made to meet actual orders ± however. JIT is a very responsive method of production. the whole production schedule can be delayed. There is no spare finished product available to meet unexpected orders. Production is very reliant on suppliers and if stock is not delivered on time. .DISADVANTAGES´ ´ ´ There is little room for mistakes as minimal stock is kept for re-working faulty product .

OTHER QUALITY TOOLSBenchmarking ± Benchmarking is the process of studying and adapting the best practices of other organizations to improve the firm's own performance and establish a point of reference by which other internal performance can be measured. .

STAGES IN BENCHMARKING ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Internal Study and Preliminary Competitive Analysis Developing long-term commitment to the Benchmarking Projects and Unite the Benchmarking Team Identifying Benchmarking Partners Information Gathering and Sharing Methods Taking action to meet or exceed the benchmark .

and implementation. Benchmarking database costs -Organizations find it is useful to create and maintain a database of best practices ´ ´ .COSTS INVOLVED IN BENCHMARKING ´ Visit costs . finding exceptional companies to study. visits.This includes hotel rooms. a token gift. meals. travel costs.Members of the benchmarking team will be investing time in researching problems. and lost labor time. Time costs .

with a Central Secretariat in Geneva.ISO ´ ´ Meaning .A series of International Standards emphasizes the importance of audits as a management tool for monitoring and verifying the effective implementation of an organization's quality or environmental policy.ISO is the acronym for the ³International Organization for Standardization´ based in Geneva. Switzerland. on the basis of one member per country. ISO Audit . ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 146 countries. Audits are also an essential part of conformity assessment activities such as external certification/registration and of supply chain evaluation and surveillance . that coordinates the system.

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