Sir Naseem Ahmed Khan Dow Vocational & Technical Training Centre Topic: .

marks obtained in the examination. Example Names of students. Even pictures. addresses. designation of employees. charts and maps can be treated as data. Data is any collection of facts of figures. rate. photographs. Computer processes the data and produces the output or result . It is plural of Datum (But Data is usually used as a singular term. drawings.Data Data The word data is derived from Latin language. quantity. sales figures or anything that is input to the computer is data. The data is the raw material to be processed by a computer.) Datum (singular) Data (plural).

This includes 0-9 digits. 2. /. +. a decimal point (. Character Data Character data falls into two groups. charts and maps can be treated as data. Character Data 1. Characters may be English alphabets. Graphical Data String Data String data consists of the sequence of characters. The scanner is normally used to enter this type of data. . 0sign and the letters E or D . The string data is further divided into two types. Alphabetic Data b. String Data ii. Numeric Data The data which is represented in the form of numbers is known as Numeric Data. The common use of this data is found in the National Identity Card. numbers or space.Types of Data Mainly Data is divided into two types: 1. i. The space. which separates two words. is also a character. Numeric Data 2. Alphanumeric Data Graphical Data It is possible that pictures. a.).

what. when. and how. why. When data is collated or organized into something meaningful. it gains significance. while analysis is done to obtain information . This meaningful organization is information or Observations and recordings are done to obtain data. which.Information A collection of data which conveys some meaningful idea is information. It may provide answers to questions like who. or The raw input is data and it has no significance when it exists in that form.

storage. recording. whether or not by automatic means. such as collection. . organization.Data Processing Data processing: Any operation or set of operations performed upon data. adaptation or alteration to convert it into useful information.

Input 2. The data processing is very important activity and involves very careful planning. achieved. data planning. processing activity involves three basic activities. it is processed to convert it into useful information. Output 1. . Usually. This is called data processing cycle.Data Processing Cycle Once data is collected. again and again until the accurate result is achieved. activities. Processing 3. cycle. The data is processed information.

students that appeared in final examination of the university is verified. following activities can be performed. i) Verification The collected data is verified to determine whether it is correct as required. iii) Storing The data is stored on the secondary storage into a file.Sc. For example. Input It is the process through which collected data is transformed into a form that computer can understand. If errors occur in collected data. It is very important step because correct output result totally depends on the input data. The stored data on the storage media will be given to the program as input for processing. In input step. the collected data of all B. .Data Processing Cycle StepStep-1 1. ii) Coding The verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so that it can be processed through computer. data is corrected or it is collected again.

comparing. For example. etc. calculating.Processing 2. subii) Storing The data is arranged into an order so that it can be accessed very quickly as and when required. summarizing. i) Classification The data is classified into different groups and subgroups. iv) Summarizing The data is processed to represent it in a summarized form. so that each group or sub-group of data can be handled separately. For example. that convert data into information. total marks of each student are calculated. the summary of the data of student is prepared to show the percentage of pass and fail student examination etc. ft means that the summary of data is prepared for top management. . iii) Calculations The arithmetic operations are performed on the numeric data to get the required results. sorting.Data Processing Cycle StepStep-2 2.Processing The term processing denotes the actual data manipulation techniques such as classifying.

the output is stored on the storage media for later user. In output step. The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. Mostly. it can be represented into graphical form. . weather forecast is prepared and. sent to different agencies and newspapers etc. This result can be retrieved when required for different purposes. ii) Conversion The generated output can be converted into different forms. For example. following activities can be performed. iii) Communication The generated output is sent to different places. For example. For example. Output After completing the processing step. output is generated. result of students is prepared and stored on the disk. i) Retrieval Output stored on the storage media can be retrieved at any time.Data Processing Cycle StepStep-3 3. where it is required.

such as delays in data capture. The manual process of data entry implies many opportunities for errors. etc.Types of Data Processing 1. as every single data field has to be keyed in manually. rent. Manual processing also implies higher labor expenses in regards to spending for equipment and supplies. high labor costs from the amount of manual labor required. a high amount of operator misprints or typos. Manual Data Processing: This method of data processing involves human intervention. .

a term that was created when most computing input was physically put into the computer in punched card form or in ATM cards form and output as punched cards or paper reports. an infrequently used term for what is today usually called "IS" (information services or systems) or "MIS" (management information services or systems). is the processing of data by a computer and its programs in an environment involving electronic communication.Types of Data Processing  EDP EDP (electronic data processing). EDP evolved from "DP" (data processing). .

Data has to be processed in a small stipulated time period (real time). process and output of data. there is a continual input. sum of money from his or her account it is vital that the transaction be processed and the account balance updated as soon as possible. otherwise it will create problems for the system. when a bank customer withdraws a example. . For example.Real time processing In a real time processing.Types of Data Processing 3. allowing both the bank and customer to keep track of funds.

entered.Batch processing In a batch processing group of transactions collected over a period of time is collected. . It is an efficient way of processing high volume of data. For example: Payroll system.Types of Data Processing 4. processed and then the batch results are produced. process and output. Batch processing requires seperate programs for input. Examination example: system and billing system.

These devices such as keyboards. display screens. . and printers make humanhumanmachine communication possible. (a) Input/Output operations A computer can accept data (input) from and supply processed data (output) to a wide range of input/output devices.Computer Processing Operations A computer can perform only the following four operations which enable computers to carry out the various data processing activities we have just discussed.

They are also capable of manipulating numerics and other symbols used in text with equal efficiency. .Computer Processing Operations (b) Calculation and text manipulation Operations Computer circuits perform calculations on numbers.

A is less than B (A<B). depending on the result. follow a predetermined path to complete its work. A is equal to B (A=B): or A is greater than B (A>B).Computer Processing Operations (c) Logic/Comparison Operations A computer also possesses the ability to perform logical operations. . computers. if we compare two items represented by the symbols A and B. there are only three possible outcomes. This ability to compare is an important property of computers. For example. A computer can perform such comparisons and the.

Once they are stored in the internal memory. they can be called up quickly or retrieved.Computer Processing Operations (d) Storage and Retrieval Operations Both data and program instructions are stored internally in a computer. for further use. .

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