‡ involves teaching academic content in two languages, in a native and secondary language with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model.

‡ To assimilate individuals or groups into the mainstream of society ‡ To unify a multilingual society ‡ To enable people to communicate with the outside world ‡ To provide language skills aiding employment and status ‡ To reconcile and mediate between different linguistic and political communities ‡ To spread the use of a colonial language. socializing an entire people to a colonial existence ‡ To strengthen elite groups and preserve their priveleged position in society ‡ To give equal status in law to languages of unequal status in daily life ‡ To deepen an understanding of language and culture .


science. English-only classrooms as quickly as possible.‡ Transitional Bilingual Education This involves education in a child's native language to ensure that students do not fall behind in content areas like math. and social studies while they are learning English. The goal is to help students transition to mainstream. f Early exit two years maximum help using mother tongue f Late exit up to 40% classroom teaching in the mother tongue until the sixth grade . and the linguistic goal of such programs is English acquisition only.

.‡ Mainstream Education (with foreign language teaching) All Subjects are taught through the native language with the second language treated as a subject in the curriculum similar to Science or Math.

As a way of trying to protect a minority language from being over run by the language majority. religious or cultural reasons. or for political. .‡ Separatist Where a language minority aims to detach itself from the language majority to pursue an independent existence.

‡ Immersion 1)The Second Medium is the language of instruction 2)Immersion Curriculum is the same as the local first language curriculum 3)School supports first language development 4)Additive bilingualism occurs 5)Exposure to the second language is largely confined to the classroom 6)Students enter with similar (limited or non-existent) levels of second language proficiency 7)All teachers are bilingual .

‡ Language Maintenance Occurs where language minority children use their native. home or heritage language in school as a major medium of instruction May be established in areas where a language minority exists .

3)Both majority and minority speakers are integrated in all lessons . Designed to help both minority and majority speakers become bilingual.‡ Dual Language or Two-Way Immersion Involves having approximately equal numbers of language minority and language majority students in the same classroom. Language is learned primarily through content. Both Languages are used in the classroom and the aim is to produce relatively balanced bilinguals. only one language is normally used. 1)Minority language is used for at least 50% of instruction that lasts up to 6years 2)In each period of instruction.

‡ Mainstream Bilingual The use of two (or more) majority languages in a school In societies where much of the population is already bilingual fInternational Schools (except English-only schools fEuropean Schools .

1935 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES ARTICLE XIV General Provisions Section 3. The Congress shall take steps toward the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages. Until otherwise provided by law. . English and Spanish shall continue as official languages.

(2) The National Assembly shall take steps towards the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino.1973 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES ARTICLE XV General Provisions Section 3. English and Pilipino shall be the official languages. . (3) Until otherwise provided by law.

the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. For purposes of communication and instruction. Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate. the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and. As it evolves. English.ARTICLE XIV EDUCATION. it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. until otherwise provided by law. The national language of the Philippines is Filipino. Section 7. . The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. CULTURE AND SPORTS LANGUAGE Section 6. ARTS.

. 1974 "Implementing Guidelines for the Policy on Bilingual Education. 25. Order No. s.DECS issued Dept. Bilingual education in the Philippines is defined operationally as the separate use of Pilipino (changed to Filipino in 1987) and English as the media of instruction in specific subject areas.

Pilipino / Filipino ‡ Social studies / Social sciences ‡Music ‡Arts ‡Physical education ‡Home economics ‡Practical arts ‡Character education ‡Filipino English ‡Science. ‡Mathematics ‡Technology subjects ‡English .

the propagation of Filipino as a language of literacy. that is to say its continuing intellectualization. the maintenance of English as an international language for the Philippines and as a non-exclusive language of science and technology. enhanced learning through two languages to achieve quality education as called for by the 1987 Constitution. .The goals of the Bilingual Education Policy shall be: 1. the development of Filipino as a linguistic symbol of national unity and identity. the cultivation and elaboration of Filipino as a language of scholarly discourse. 4. 2. 3. and 5.

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. English should be used as medium of instruction at least 70% of the total time allotment for learning . 210 ESTABLISHING THE POLICY TO STRENGTHEN THE USE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM and DepED Order No. 36 s. 2006 Declared that by secondary level.

DepED Order No. 74 s. 2009 INSTITUTIONALIZING MOTHER TONGUE-BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION (MLE) 1. The lessons and findings of various local initiatives and international studies in basic education have validated the superiority of the use of the learner's mother tongue or first language in improving learning outcomes and promoting Education for All (EFA). .

Henceforth. . hereinafter referred to as MLE.2. Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education. is the effective use of more than two languages for literacy and instruction. it shall be institutionalized as a fundamental educational policy and program in this Department in the whole stretch of formal education including preschool and in the Alternative Learning System (ALS).

in terms of cognitive development and its effects in other academic areas. Second. First. Notable empirical studies like the Lingua Franca Project and Lubuagan First Language Component show that: a.3. b. Third. read. learners learn to read more quickly when in their first language (LI). and c. and write in a second language (L2) and third language (L3) more quickly than those who are taught in a second or third language first. . pupils taught to read and write in their first language acquire such competencies more quickly. pupils who have learned to read and write in their first language learn to speak. The preponderance of local and international research consistent with the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) recommendations affirms the benefits and relevance of MLE.

grade three. at least. ‡ The language of instruction shall also be the primary language for testing in all regular school-based and systemwide examinations and in all international benchmarking and assessment exercises. . ‡ Mother Tongue as a subject and as a language of teaching and learning will be introduced in grade one for conceptual understanding ‡ In the secondary level.‡ The use of the learner's First Language (L1) as the primary medium of instruction (MOI) from pre-school until. Filipino and English shall be the primary medium of instruction (MOI). The learner's first language (L1) shall still be utilized as an auxiliary medium of instruction.

Phases of a Three Language Education Program .

. such as English. the national language. and one or more languages of wider communication.· Multi-literate they can read and write competently in the local language. · Multi-cultural they can live and work harmoniously with people of culture backgrounds that are different from their own. · Multi-lingual they can use these languages in various situations.

Genesee F.5-3. lexical as well as syntactic [2. (1989. Journal of Child Language) . the bilingual child has only one lexical system comprising words from both languages [1.‡ A 3-stage model for early bilingual development proposed by Volterra & Taeschner. 1978: I.3] III. differentiation of two linguistic systems.1] II.6-2.9-311] ‡ It is normal for children growing up in bilingual communities to mix their languages extensively because they are simply learning the patterns of communication that are common in their community. development of two distinct lexical systems although the child applies the same syntactic rules to both languages [2.

out perform those taught to read exclusively in an L2.‡ Many studies indicate that students first taught to read in their L1. and then later in an L2. .

) ‡ Regional Lingua Franca Project . and others. Indonesians. French.‡ Most of the rest of the world that we have to compete with teach and educate their children in their NATIVE LANGUAGE (Japanese. British. Malaysians. Thai. Russians. Americans. German. South Koreans.

‡ Bilingual education that values the culture of both languages will have a positive effect on the child s self-concept and self-esteem ‡ s/he will not be confused instead s/he will learn to value her culture and that of others ‡ It gives a deeper knowledge of different ideas and traditions and promotes tolerance ‡ When done correctly it enhances a child's cultural identity .

y Ban on L1 and Filipino as MOI. y Strong teaching of English and Filipino. Strategy for learning: y Increase time for English by making it as primary MOI. from preschool to the tertiary level. Purpose: To strengthen English as the medium of instruction in all levels of education.Purpose: To promote literacy and learning by making the native tongue as MOI during the formative years of basic education. Strategy for Learning: y Develop literacy and learning in L1 first. y Transfer L1 skills to Filipino and English. .

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