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Reinforced Concrete

Composites
Cohesive
Springs
Contact
Modeling in ABAQUS

Weidong Wu

Department of Civil Engineering


The University of Mississippi
In order to use ABAQUS
• FEA background
• Know what you will model
Create your model correctly
• Always refer to the manual whenever you
are not sure
• Solve difficulties through .dat .msg .sta
files

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How to model composites
• Two ways:
-Composite shell sections
when your model is simple
-Composites layup
Real-world application, may handle large
number of plies

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Composites Modeling

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Composite shell sections
• Composed of layers made of different
materials in different orientations.

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Define composite shell in CAE

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Composites layup

Ply orientation

The orientation of each ply

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Define composite layup in CAE

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How to model RC
• In Preparation…

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Cohesive Modeling

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Applications
Modeling adhesives, bonded interfaces,
and gaskets

Constitutive response types


Continuum based
A traction-separation description of the interface
A uniaxial stress state-gasket /small adhesive patches

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Creating a cohesive layer

You should define the geometric region


that represents the cohesive layer as a
SOLID,
even if the thickness of the layer is close
to zero

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Creating a cohesive layer

If thickness is less than10–4 ,


specify it

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Cohesive Elements
• COH2D4
• COH3D6
• COH3D8
8-node three-dimensional
cohesive element

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Define Interaction
• Cohesive zone should have more refined
mesh

In most applications it is appropriate to have both faces of the cohesive elements


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tied to neighboring components
• If you want to model the cohesive layer
using a mesh that is finer than the
adjacent bulk material mesh, the cohesive
layer should be generated as a separate
mesh and tied to the bulk material using
tie constraints

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Continuum-based modeling
 A glue-like material has a finite thickness
 Using conventional material models
 When used with conventional material models, cohesive
elements use true stress and strain measures
 The cohesive layer is subjected to only through-
thickness strain, and two transverse shear strain
components
 All standard output variables in ABAQUS are available
for cohesive elements that are used with conventional
material models
 * COHESIVE SECTION, RESPONSE=CONTINUUM
 Modeling of damage with cohesive elements can be
carried out only in Abaqus/Explicit
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Modeling of damage with cohesive elements

Progressive damage and failure for


-Ductile metals
-Fiber-reinforced composites

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Traction-separation-based
modeling
 The intermediate glue material is very thin and may be
considered to be of zero thickness
 Model the delamination at interfaces in composites
 Cohesive behavior defined directly in terms of a traction-
separation law
PL S
 
AE K

t-The nominal traction stress vector k-is the stiffness that relates the nominal stress S to the displacement

 When used with a material model that is based on a traction-


separation description, cohesive elements use nominal stress and
strain measures
 *COHESIVE SECTION, RESPONSE=TRACTION SEPARATION

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A uniaxial stress state-gasket modeling

Fully nonlinear (can be used with finite strains


and rotations);
Can have mass in a dynamic analysis
Available in both ABAQUS/Standard and
ABAQUS/Explicit

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Contact Modeling
In Preparation…

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Introduction
Surface based or contact element based
Interaction between surfaces
-Normal
-Tangential: sliding friction
Contact Property: to define contact
interaction models:
-Normal hard
-Tangential: finite or small sliding

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Master and slave surface
• Only the master surface can penetrate the slave
surface
• the slave surface should be the more finely
meshed surface
• if the mesh densities are similar, the slave
surface should be the surface with the softer
underlying material
• Element selection
it is better, in general, to use first-order elements
for those parts of a model that will form a slave
surface

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• If you choose the Finite sliding
formulation and the Surface to surface
discretization method, the contact
interaction property that you select cannot
specify a “hard” contact pressure-
overclosure relationship

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What You May Always Need to Know

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Job Execution Control

• Abaqus Job suspend, resume, and terminate


• abaqus {suspend | resume | terminate}
job=job-name

abaqus terminate job=input_file

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Automatic stabilization of unstable
static problems
• Nonlinear static problems can be unstable
• Causes:
geometrical nature, such as buckling,
material nature, such as material softening
Rigid body motion
• Solution:
automatic addition of volume-proportional damping
to the model to obtain a smooth motion
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How to decide the damping factor
• Automatic stabilization of static problems with a
constant damping factor
1. Based on the dissipated energy fraction,default=0.0002
2. Directly specifying the damping factor
3. Propagating the damping factors from the immediately preceding
general step into the current step

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Common Difficulties
• Warning message: Zero pivot and numerical
singularity
Causes:
1. Nodes may be overconstrained in a model
2. The model might be insufficiently constrained, rigid body motion occurs.

• TOO MANY ATTEMPTS MADE FOR THIS


INCREMENT
• Causes: so many reasons
1.Cannot reach convergence

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