Ancient Italy

Gianan, Eleonor F. and Maglaqui, Ramon Joseph N.

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Facts about Ancient Italy
‡ Official Name ² Italia The name Italy comes from the Latin word Italia that referred to a territory owned by Rome. ‡ Capital ² Rome ‡ Official Language ² Italian ‡ Total Land Area - 301,338 km2 (71st) 116,346 sq mi ‡ Total Water Surface ² 2.4% ‡ Currency - Euro ( )2 (EUR)

Rome was established in 753 BC. The early inhabitants of ancient Italy were widely varied. 5. Clothing indicated social class in ancient Italy. 1. main . 6. 2. Engagement rings originated in ancient Italy. 9. Divination was popular in ancient Italy. 4. The Pantheon dome still stands. Architecture from ancient Italy still survives today.Facts about Ancient Italy In ancient Italy. the Roman gods and goddesses played as large a role as they did in Greece. 8. Education was important to the ancient Romans. 10. Farming is a long-held tradition in Italy. 7. 3.

People main . Etymology E. Location and Climate C.Historical Background of Ancient Italy A. Flags and symbols D. Map B.

Map of Italy .

Map of Ancient Italy Back .

‡ Italy is a peninsula extending into the Central Mediterranean Sea.Location ‡ Located in southern Europe. . Switzerland and Austria to the north. ‡ It is shaped like a high-heeled boot kicking a "triangle"³the island of Sicily. and Slovenia to the east. ‡ Italy borders France to the west.

dry summers ‡ Mountains have cold.Climate ‡ Temperate (mild) climate with regional differences ‡ Coastal areas have mild winters and warm. wet. and snowy winters and humid summers .

Back . Because the earliest Romans used cattle as a form of money.DID YOU KNOW? ‡ ´Italosµ was the Greek word for bull-calf. This ´Land of Calvesµ soon became known as Italy.

Flag of Italy Meaning of National Italian Flag Italy's flag is a tricolor featuring three equally sized vertical bands of green. . white and red. with the green at the hoist side.

white and red. is a vertical tricolour with from left to right the colours green. that of Amalfi being white on blue and Pisa being a white cross on red background. Genua is represented by a red cross on a white background. the white bar in the Italy flag should have added the combined weapons of four of the most important seafaring republics of Italy. ‡ The four most important seafaring republics in Italy are Venica. .Italy¶s Flag ‡ ´Il Tricoloreµ. When used for seafaring. Amalfi and Pisa. A lion represents Pisa. Genua. Amalfi and Pisa are also represented by a cross.

Italian Symbols War Flag Italian Emblem The emblem comprises a white five-pointed star. the branches in turn are bound by a red ribbon bearing the legend "REPVBBLICA ITALIANA" (Italian Republic) . superimposed on a five-spoked cogwheel which stands between an olive branch on its left and a branch of oak on its right. with a red border.

Italian National Anthem ‡ "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians). the song is often known as L'Inno di Mameli (Mameli's Hymn). one year after Italy was proclaimed a Republic. Subsequently. with lyrics by Goffredo Mameli. Back . the song was then known as the "March of the House of Savoy" and it became the official Anthem in 1947. was written in 1847. When Italy united as a nation in 1861.

Back . it defined the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula (modern Calabria). meaning "land of young cattle´. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region. ‡ The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy: according to Antiochus of Syracuse. ‡ The bull was a symbol of the southern Italian tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Samnite Wars. But by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous. but it was not until the time of the Roman conquests that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula. and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well.Etymology ‡ The term Italia was borrowed through greek from the oscan Víteliú.

Ancient People of Italy .

Iapygians The Iapygians dwelt in Calabria. clearly showing that the inhabitants belonged to a different race from those whom we have designated as the Italians. in the extreme southeast corner of Italy.Ancient People of Italy ‡ The Early Inhabitants 1. Inscriptions in a peculiar language have here been discovered. Italians The Italians proper inhabited the centre of the peninsula. They were doubtless the oldest inhabitants of Italy. . who were driven toward the extremity of the peninsula as the Latins and Sabellians pressed farther to the south. Two Branches: ‡ Latins ‡ Umbro-Sabellians 2.

Ancient People of Italy ‡ The Early Inhabitants 3. The Etruscans (Rasena) ² The Etruscans. Their origin is unknown. as they called themselves. form a striking contrast to the Latins and Sabellians as well as to the Greeks. Rasena. delighting in mysteries and in wild and horrible rites. ² Their language is radically different from the other languages of Italy. . or. and their manners and customs clearly prove them to be a people originally quite distinct from the Greek and Italian races. ² Their religion was of a gloomy character.

‡ The Gauls The Gauls. occupied the greater part of northern Italy. and Metapontum. They were of the same race with the Gauls who inhabited the country beyond the Alps. The most ancient. and. Most of the other Greek colonies were situated farther to the south. at the same time. some of the most distinguished were Tarentum. the most northerly Greek city in Italy. was Cumae in Campania. Of these. and were so numerous and important as to give to the whole basin of the Po the name of Gallia Cisalpina. . where many of them attained to great power and opulence. as we have already said. Croton. and their migration and settlement in Italy were referred by the Roman historian to the time of the Tarquins.Ancient People of Italy ‡ The Greeks The Greeks planted so many colonies upon the coasts of southern Italy that they gave to that district the name of Magna Graecia. Sybaris.

lying between Etruria. Picenum. They were one of the most ancient races of Italy. Latium. hardy. spread themselves to the east and south. Umbria. and even the Romans looked up to them with admiration on account of their proverbial honesty and temperance. under the names of Picentes. and the progenitors of the far more numerous tribes which. Modern writers have given the general name of Sabellians to all these tribes. like most other mountaineers. and frugal. The Sabines. . Peligni.Ancient People of Italy Ancient Races ‡ The Sabini aka Sabines The Sabini inhabited the rugged mountain-country in the central chain of the Apennines. were brave. and the country of the Marsi and Vestini. and Samnites.

Vestini. which is about thirty miles in circumference. a distance of about six miles. The Vestini dwelt east of the Sabines. and Marrucini inhabited the valleys of the central Apennines. east of the Peligni. Peligni. Peligni. and were closely connected.Ancient People of Italy Ancient Races ‡ The Marsi. The Marrucini inhabited a narrow strip of country on the Adriatic. and Marrucini The Marsi. being probably all of Sabine origin. . and the only one of any extent in the central Apennines. The Peligni also occupied an inland district east of the Marsi. and were bounded on the north by the Vestini and on the south by the Frentani. The Marsi dwelt inland around the basin of the Lake Fucinus. and possessed on the coast of the Adriatic a narrow space between the mouth of the Matrinus and that of the Aternus. Vestini.

from whom they were originally descended. . their country is traversed throughout by the chain of the Apennines. They were bounded on the west by the Samnites. lying south of Lucania. like Lucania. ‡ The Brutti The Brutii inhabited the southern extremity of Italy. and. but they appear in Roman history as an independent people.Ancient People of Italy Ancient Races ‡ The Frentani The Frentani dwelt upon the coast of the Adriatic from the frontiers of the Marrucini to those of Apulia.

Hernici. bounded by the Tiber on the north. Back . by the Apennines on the east. It originally signified only the land of the Latini. by the sea on the west. AEquians. the name of Latium was extended to all the country which the latter had previously occupied.Ancient People of Italy Ancient Races ‡ The Latium The Latium was used in two senses. or from the Tiber to the Liris. It was thus applied to the whole region from the borders of Etruria to those of Campania. The original abode of the Latins is of volcanic origin. originally independent. and by the Alban Hills on the south. and was a country of small extent. and other tribes. But after the conquest of the Volscians.

Romulus is said to have killed Remus in a fight to construct their cities.Roman Civilization ‡ The Roman civilization is considered to be the most leading among all due to its wide spread popularity and acceptance around the world. language and architecture etc. ‡ Rome was born on the Palatine hill as a small community. battles. Gradually the community began to spread into the nearby hills and gave birth to the city of Rome. ‡ Rome derived its name from Romulus (who along with his twin brother Remus is regarded as the founder of Rome). art. . The influence of the Roman Civilization can be felt even in the modern times in the fields of law. Features of the Roman Civilization ‡ The Italian peninsula was the legendary base where the great civilization rose to power.

‡ The Romans enriched their culture with that of the Etruscans (people from ancient Tuscany and Umbria) like gladiator wars and chariot races etc. .Roman Civilization ‡ Latin language became popular world over in the times of the Roman civilization as the various facts about this culture were discovered in this language.

the kind of government in which all political decisions are made by a single leader.Roman Civilization It all started as a miniscule community and rose into a large empire. In this unlimited authorities are bestowed over the ruler. The acceptance of the Roman culture among people was either by force or own will.the kind of government in which the political powers are conferred upon a societal group on the basis of their family status and prosperity. Middle East and some parts of Africa. The remarkable civilization of ancient Rome has witnesses the following realms: ‡ Monarchy . ‡ Autocracy . ‡ The massive spread of the civilization was into Europe. ‡ Oligarchy . .this kind of government is more or less synonymous to monarchy.

The freedom was granted to the slave if he was highly educated or had delivered an exceptionally good service for long.These were slaves who were liberated and given Roman citizenship and were known as freedmen. The slave could also buy his freedom by paying the desired amount or possessions to the owner. ‡ Cives .These were the topmost class who were considered to be freeborn.These were the slaves who lived a hard life with laborious jobs. Main . They were the basic economy builders being ruled by the top classes.Roman Civilization The three classes were as below: ‡ Servi . There were divisions within this class as well like the patricians (having one of the 100 patriarchs as their ancestors who founded Rome) and the plebeians (who became politically strong with their wealth). ‡ Liberti .

Emperor Honorius moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire to Ravenna. ‡ With the founding of Constantinople. . ‡ At the beginning of the 5th century. but the city remained central to the Roman Empire. Main . but as the home to the head of the western church. not only historically and culturally (if no longer politically). the Pope.City of Rome ‡ Rome. in 285. the center of the Empire moved eastward.the capital city of Italy ‡ It was the capital of roman empire until it was replaced by Mediolanum (Milan) under the tetrarchy Emperor Maximian.

² He was also the head of the state religion. or may also have merely been the chief executive of the Senate and the people. who were elected from each of Rome's major tribes in turn.Officials and Magistrates ‡ Rome was ruled by kings. ² He may have held near-absolute power. .

Officials and Magistrates ‡ Aedile The aediles were Roman ministers with various duties. ‡ Excubitor Excubitor was a palace guard corps organized by the Emperor Justin. ‡ Praetors Praetors were Roman officials who were the original replacements for the king. . ‡ Argentarii Argentarii were Roman money changers. the curule aedile came to be responsible for the games.

.Officials and Magistrates ‡ Comitia Tributa ² Plebeian Assembly The supreme power in the Roman Republic was the assembly which was made up of all the citizens of Rome. but by the time of Caesar. the patrician Claudius chose to become a plebeian in order to hold an important political office. ‡ Magister Officiorum The Roman Magister Officiorum was a powerful imperial Roman bureaucrat ‡ Plebeian The term plebeian is synonymous with lower class.

Quaestors served as paymasters in the military. ‡ Comes Emperor·s Companion. ‡ Prefect is a type of Roman military or civil official. an officer in the military whose rank is lower than that of a master (magister) of the soldiers. .Officials and Magistrates ‡ Quaestor were financial and administrative officials in charge of the treasury.

Roman Law
‡ The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae)
was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law and formed the center piece of the constitution of the Roman Republic. The extension of the Roman empire, the increase of riches, and consequently of crime, gave occasion to a great number of new laws, which were distinguished by the name of the person who proposed them, and by the subject to which they referred. The content of this article provides interesting history, facts and information about life in Ancient Rome including Roman Law.

Roman Law
‡ The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae)
² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Laws relating to debtors Laws relating to inheritance Laws relating to Marriage Laws relating to the Rights of a Father Laws relating to Property Laws relating to Will and Testaments Guardians Laws relating to a Women

Roman Law

Civil Law
Civil trials, or differences between private persons were tried in the forum by the praetor. If no adjustment could be made between the two parties, the plaintiff obtained a writ from the praetor, which required the defendant to give bail for his appearance on the third day, at which time, if either was not present when cited, he lost his cause, unless he had a valid excuse. Actions were either real, personal, or mixed. Real, was for obtaining a thing to which one had a real right, but was possessed by another. Personal, was against a person to bind him to the fulfilment of a contract, or to obtain redress for wrongs. Mixed, was when the actions had relation to persons and things.

and some of these were appointed to sit in judgment with him. or other citizens of respectability. was not known. or uncertain. as established with us. and returned their verdict. seems to have resembled it. but the mode of judging in criminal cases.Roman Law ‡ Criminal Law Trial by jury. A certain number of senators and knights. the culprit was discharged. in which latter instance the case was deferred. but if the votes for acquittal and condemnation were equal. were annually chosen by the praetor. Punishments in cases involving criminal law was in many instances more severe than it is at the present day. Main . They decided by a majority of voices. not guilty. either guilty. to act as his assessors.

Roman Empire .

. known as Augustus Caesar. the adoptive son of Julius Caesar. Asia Minor. Britain. ‡ The Roman Empire was established in 27 BC when Octavian. ‡ The most powerful the territories of the Roman Empire included lands in West and South Europe (the lands around the Mediterranean). North Africa including Egypt.Roman Empire ‡ The Roman Empire is the term used to refer the period in Ancient Roman history and civilization when Rome and its territories were ruled by autocratic Emperors. was given the title 'Augustus' by the Roman Senate and became the first emperor of Rome.

Theodosius I was the last emperor of both the Eastern and Western Roman Empire. The sacking of Rome signalled the disintegration of Roman authority and the ultimate Fall of the Roman Empire. ² The Western Roman Empire fell after the city of Rome was first sacked by the Visigoths in 410 and then by the Vandals in 455. Main . The Eastern Empire (Byzantium) continued for nearly 1000 more years. ² The Fall of the Roman Empire (the Western Empire) ended officially with the abdication of Romulus Augustus on 4 September 476.Roman Empire ² The Roman Empire became so vast that in 285 AD the Roman Empire was split in half by Diocletian .the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire (aka the Byzantine Empire). After his death in 395 AD the two parts of the Roman Empire were split permanently.

Rome Vs Greece Gods and Goddesses .

‡ Rome was inland. around Naples. but the Italic tribes (in the boot-shaped peninsula that is now Italy) did not have the natural hilly borders to keep them out of Rome. In Italy. Vesuvius produced fertile land by blanketing the soil with tephra which aged into rich soil. .Rome Vs Greece GEOGRAPHY ‡ The ancient Greek city-states were separated from each other by hilly countryside and all were near the water. There were also two nearby mountain ranges to the north (Alps) and east (Apennine). on one side of the Tiber River. Mt.

. archaic. where the goal of Roman artists was to produce realistic portraits for decoration. but the art we associate with Greece is the Venus de Milo.Rome Vs Greece ART ‡ Greek art is considered superior to (imitative) Roman art. in addition to the Classical. and Hellenistic periods. ‡ The goal of the classical Greek sculptors was to produce an ideal artistic form. geometric. especially when considering the division of Greek art into the Mycenaean. ‡ This is obvious oversimplification. and the Roman art is the mosaic or wall painting known as fresco.

Crushed chalk gave them white. charcoals gave them black and oxidized iron granules made red. .DID YOU KNOW? The Entruscans made colors for their arts from rocks and minerals.

Greeks ideally lived on small selfsufficient wheat-producing farms. ‡ Both Greece and Rome worked mines. but bad agricultural practices made many households incapable of feeding themselves.Rome Vs Greece ECONOMY ‡ The economy of both Greece and Rome was based on agriculture. . but they also engaged in trade. who imported their wheat and annexed provinces that could provide them with this allimportant staple. also farmed. ‡ The Romans.

Rome Vs Greece SOCIAL CLASSES ‡ Greece ²Slaves ²Freedmen ²Metics ²Citizens ²Women ‡ Rome ²Slaves ²Freedmen ²Plebeians ²Patricians .

The Athenian woman was subject to her father. for managing the household. but not sell property. women were valued for not gossiping. . according to the literature. and even after marriage. most of all. he could ask for her return.Rome Vs Greece WOMEN ‡ Dealing with Athens. and. She could own. The aristocratic woman was secluded in the women's quarter and had to be accompanied in public places. for producing legitimate children.

She could own and dispose of property and go about as she wished. maintenance of harmony. .Rome Vs Greece WOMEN ‡ The Roman woman was subject to the pater familias. we read that a Roman woman was valued for piety. From epigraphy. whether the dominant male in her household of birth or the household of her husband. and being a one-man woman. modesty. She could be a Roman citizen.

‡ Rome enjoyed a mixed Republican form of government. Kings originally governed Rome. then an oligarchy. Main . followed by emperors. and then democracy (voting by the citizens).Rome Vs Greece GOVERNMENT ‡ Originally kings ruled Athens.

753 B.C. and took up position of dictator to save Rome. resigned and returned to his fields 458 . 753 ² 509 509 494 Event Greeks. As soon as he won the battles he returned to Rome. Etruscans and others settle in Italy. put down his plow. Mythical founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus Time of the Kings Rome became a republic by overthrowing King Tarquin the Proud Revolt of Plebeians against Patricians ² Plebeians gave right to choose their own tribunes and have a voice in government.C. General Cincinnatus came out of retirement.Timeline of Roman History Date 800 ² 600 B.

Timeline of Roman History Date 451 390 312 275 264 .241 218 ² 201 202 200 Event Rome developed the first law code. the Twelve Tables Gauls invaded and sacked Rome Began construction of first aqueduct and first major road Rome controlled all of Italian Peninsula First War between Rome and Carthage (First Punic War) Second Punic War with Carthage with Hannibal leading the Carthage Army Romans defeated Hannibal at battle of Zama Romans used concrete for first time in Roman town of Palestrina .

Timeline of Roman History Date 149-146 89 85 Event Third Punic War Roman Citizenship extended to Latin and Italian Allies Invention of heating system known as the hypocaust used in villas spread to most public baths Slave revolt led by gladiator Spartacus Pompey rid the Mediterranean sea of pirates Pompey. Crassus and Julius Caesar formed alliance known as First Triumvirate Julius Caesar conquered all of Gaul current day France 73 ² 71 67 60 58 ² 51 .

Timeline of Roman History Date 55 ² 54 49 49 ² 45 44 44 ² 30 42 31 B. C. C. 30 B. Event Julius Caesar attacked Britain Julius Caesar ordered to disband army instead began civil war Civil war with Julius Caesar the winner Julius Caesar assassinated on the Ides of March (15th) Civil war between Marcus Antony and Octavian Hortensia argued that taxes on rich women were unfair Marcus Antony and Cleopatra defeated at battle of Actium Marcus Antony and Cleopatra escaped to Egypt and committed suicide .

D. Event Beginning of Empire age with Octavian claiming title of Augustus and assuming all the power of the magistrates in the Roman government-beginning of the Pax Romana (peace of Rome) Vigils developed to protect and fight fires in city of Rome under Augustus Pont du Guard aqueduct in Gaul ( France) built. 30 64 66 ² 73 . still stands today Jesus Christ Crucified in Jerusalem Great fire in Rome . C.Timeline of Roman History Date 27 B. 6 A. 19 A.Nero blamed Christians and began persecution Jewish Revolt A. D. D.

Timeline of Roman History Date 69 ² 96 79 80 121 ² 126 130 96 ² 138 Event Flavian period Vesuvius erupted burying towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum Colosseum finished Hadrian's wall built in Britain Hadrian ordered building of Pantheon in Rome Empire reached greatest extent under Emperors Trajan (96-117) and Hadrian (117138) Antonine Period of rulers Time of Anarchy. uncertainty who was legitimate Emperor for much of the time 138 ² 193 235 ² 285 .

Christianity became official religion of Empire Constantine I defeated Licinius and took over sole rule of Empire Capitol moved from Rome to Constantinople (current day Istanbul) by Constantine I 324 330 .Timeline of Roman History Date 197 293 303 312 313 Event Roman soldiers given permission to marry during tour of duty Diocletian split empire into four sections ruled by two co-emperors Persecution of Christians Constantine I invaded Italy and took over with Licinius Edict of Milan gave freedom of worship to Christian church.

stayed out of Rome as request of Pope Leo I Attila the Hun died Rome sacked by Vandals Fall of the Western Roman Empire by invasion of Goths Justinian began to recapture Western Roman Empire Eastern Empire survived as the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire defeated by Ottoman Turks Main .Timeline of Roman History Date 395 410 452 453 455 476 533 ² 554 554 ² 1453 1453 Event Empire divided into East and West Rome lost control of Britain Attila the Hun invaded Italy .

Cuisine C. Clothing F. Religion Main . Money E.Ancient Italy A. Culture B. Marriage and Home Life D.

Culture Identity . region. and finally the country. . province. . the village.But first and foremost Italians give priority to themselves. this is known as "Campanilismo" .The Italians identify first with their village. "Campanile" meaning bell tower.that area visible from the bell tower of the church in their village. then their families.

The family is the centre of the social structure and provides a stabilizing influence for its members.In the north.Culture Italian Family and Values . while in the south.The family provides both emotional and financial support to its members. the extended family often resides together in one house. . . generally only the nuclear family lives together. .

and your education level. The concept of 'bella figura' or good image is important to Italians. They unconsciously assess another person's age and social standing in the first few seconds of meeting them. .The way you dress can indicate your social status. your family's background. often before any words are exchanged.Appearances matter in Italy. .Culture Italian Style . .First impressions are lasting impressions in Italy.

e. . etc. . shoes.You will be judged on your clothes.Culture Italian Style . style. . accessories and the way you carry yourself.Clothes are important to Italians. confidence. It extends to the aura your project too . Bella figura is more than dressing well.i. demeanour.They are extremely fashion conscious and judge people on their appearance.

Many office buildings will have a cross or a religious statue in the lobby.Although church attendance is relatively low.There are more Catholic churches per capita in Italy than in any other country.Culture Catholicism . . .The primary religion in Italy is Roman Catholic.Each day of the year has at least one patron saint associated with it. . the influence of the church is still high. . .

.Children are named for a particular saint and celebrate their saint's day as if it were their own birthday.The church promulgates hierarchy.Culture Catholicism . those who have achieved a level of business success. . and those who come from well-connected families Back .They respect and defer to those who are older. . which can be seen in all Italian relationships.Each trade and profession has a patron saint.

Sometimes pizzas were seasoned with herbs and spices.Food and Beverages Pizza .It was popular food in ancient Rome. . In olden days. a pizza was baked on a hot stone. Many historical evidences reveal a pizza was relished by ancient historians Cato the Elder and Herodotus. Later it was consumed with vegetable or meat stew.

Food and Beverages
Magna Graecia
A few dishes belonging to Magna Graecia include sweet meats made from almonds and walnuts, honey sauces, soups and meat in vinegar.

Food and Beverages
Tuscan Roast Beef
This dish has some similarity to Canadian roast beef, but the preparation is very different. It is best prepared with rump roast, but you can use top sirloin as well. Serve as a main course with roasted root vegetables and fennel.

Food and Beverages
Mozzarella Cheese
is made of water buffalo·s milk.

Provolone Cheese
is made of cow·s milk.

Foods and Beverages Hard-boiled Spaghetti Hard-boiled egg with spaghetti sauce. Food in the old days of poor people. .

In a fragment of a book of the 1300s there is a recipe for gnocchi written in the Tuscan dialectal language. recorded as far back as cookbooks of the thirteenth century. .Foods and Beverages ‡ Gnocchi These small dumplings are one of the oldest preparations in the history of food.

Dry pasta began in Italy and embarked from there to conquer the world. .Foods and Beverages ‡ Pasta Fresh pasta is dough made of flour and water and is present in most cultures and on all continents.

Italy is the largest producer of wine. Back .Foods and Beverages ‡ Wine It is an alcoholic beverage. made of fermented fruit juice. usually from grapes. This makes sense because the Romans made the most contributions to the ancient art of viniculture.

Marriage and Home Life ‡ The father was head of the household and was called paterfamilias. ‡ Widow women had a big difference with women that are married. ‡ Parents arranged marriages for their children. Back . ‡ Women were not entirely without rights. but they never became full citizens.

Money ‡ The aureus a gold coin of ancient Rome valued at 25 silver denarii. ‡ the denarius was a small silver coin ‡ The sestertius was a bronze coin. ‡ The dupondius was a brass coin Back .

. The toga was wrapped around the body and was made of wool. This was a long sash like garment. This kind of ancient Roman clothing found its base in the formal dress robe that was used by the Etruscans.Clothing ‡ Toga The toga was the standard dress for all Romans. The classic toga was always worn over a tunic. which is about 6 meters in length.

Toga Virilis: The plain toga of a typical citizen.Clothing ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Different types of togas were worn by people of different social rank: Toga Praetexta: Characterized by a purple stripe. worn by people running for public office. donned by victorious generals in triumphal processions and the emperors. Toga Candida: A toga given a shiny. worn by curule magistrates as well as boys until the age of 15 or 16. Worn by boys after age 15 or 16. Toga Pulla: Made of natural black wool and worn in funerals. glossy look by rubbing it with chalk. . Toga Picta: A crimson toga embroidered with gold.

When draped around the body. it formed as a long garment that reached the ground. The toga was almost like a large blanket wrapped around the body and the stola was rectangular in shape. The stola also included pleats for the garment and was also worn over a tunic. .Clothing ‡ Stola The stola was only worn by the women in ancient Rome. The stola was created on similar lines of the toga.

which went all the way down to their knees. These were long and resembled the Tee shirts because they were loose and comfortable and also made generally of linen. Women also had to cover their head in the ancient days as per the customs and traditions. Little boys in Rome also wore tunics. These were often styled in white color and with a crimson border.Clothing ‡ Tunics/Tunica The Romans also wore garments that were known as the tunics or the tunica which were around knee length. . The unmarried women also wore the tunica but it was styled differently.

bracelets with the Roman clothing. Hairstyles were also elaborate and the use of false hair can be seen since the ancient days. the panenula (simple cloak). This was done to increase the thickness of the hair.Clothing ‡ Cloaks One can see that the Romans also used a variety of cloaks that formed an important part of their attire. Colors often dictated the social status of the people in Rome. the laena (double coat) and the lacerna (military cloak) were some of the varieties that were used by the Romans. ‡ Men wore a personalized signet ring. The Romans were quite particular about their dressing which included accessorizing and even styling their hair. Cloaks such as the palla (worn over the tunic or the toga). ‡ Women in particular loved to wear ornate necklaces. as other forms of jewelry were considered not really suitable for men. .

. In ancient Rome. the footwear also denoted the status of the person in the society.Clothing ‡ Cloaks Apart from the ancient Roman clothing. such a sandal had a leather sole and the lace was used to wind around the legs. The thickness of the sandals always indicated the quality of the shoes. The various strata of society wore various types of Roman sandals. One of the typical patterns of the Roman sandals that are used even today is the tie up fashion.

Clothing ‡ Trousers The Romans initially wore neither stockings nor breeches. . This later changed in the period of the Roman Empire when soldiers wore trousers or breeches. but used sometimes to wrap their legs and thighs with pieces of cloth called from the parts which they covered. tibialia and feminalia.

‡ A caliga. Shoes could also be made of wood.Footwear ‡ A carlatina was a sandal made from one piece of leather with a soft sole and openwork upper fastened by a lace. ‡ A solea was a simple sandal with a thong between the toes and a hobnailed sole. worn by soldiers. . ‡ A soccus has a sole without hobnails and a separate leather upper. was a heavy sandal with a hobnailed sole and separate leather upper fastened by thongs (the emperor Caligula's name means little boots). ‡ A calceus was a hobnailed shoe secured by laces.

Back . A mixture of bats· blood and hedgehog ashes was popular for getting rid of unwanted hair.DID YOU KNOW? ‡ Men went to special shops to have the hair on their arms removed.

Worshipping the Gods ‡ Romans worshipped the same gods as the Greeks. but with another name. . ‡ They use Animals to predict if there will be something good or bad that will happen.

Back . His death inspired the spread of the Christian Religion throughout the Empire.Religion ‡ Christianity Because of Jesus being executed under roman law.

specifically.Italian Deities Anteros Italian-Roman god of love and passion. He was. the god of mutual love and would punish those who did not return love. .

She came to earth to teach her mother Diana's magic. . the moon. Symbolizes the air element.Italian Deities Aradia Italian witch goddess.

Also known as Astria. .Italian Deities Astraea Italian goddess of truth and justice.

and fertility. ‡ Corvus Italian messenger god. . wildlife. and feasting. Symbolizes love. Also known as Pan [Greek]. ‡ Fauna Italian goddess of the earth. ‡ Faunus Roman and Italian god of woodlands.Italian Deities ‡ Carmen Italian goddess of spellcasting and enchantments. ‡ Comus Italian god of revelry. ‡ Cel Italian god of death and the underworld. drinking. Symbolizes prosperity as well. ‡ Copia Italian goddess of wealth plenty. forests.

or for divination. Brother and soulmate of Diana. ‡ Fortuna ‡ Italian goddess of fortune. initation. fate. . Lethns Italian earth and nature deity. Invoke during sky. Lucifer Italian god of sun and light. and fertility. father of Aradia. destiny. ‡ Jana Italian goddess of the moon. or element of earth. luck. Often invoked when one wants to receive money by chance. blessings.Italian Deities ‡ Frebruus Italian god of purification. and of the dead. like in a ‡ lottery or contest. ‡ Jove Italian-Roman sky god. water.

‡ Virbius Italian god of outlaws and outcasts. Main . ‡ Uni Italian goddess of witchcraft. ‡ Pertunda Italian goddess of sexual love.Italian Deities ‡ Lucina Italian goddess of childbirth. ‡ Nox Italian goddess of the night. the guardian of sanctuaries. ‡ Marica Italian goddess of agriculture. ‡ Lupercus Italian god of agriculture. ‡ Umbria Italian goddess of shadows and things which are hidden or secret. wolfgod. ‡ Vertumnus Roman-Italian god of fruits.

the first Roman emperor.Landmarks The Pantheon The Pantheon stands as the most complete Roman structure on earth. The original Pantheon was a rectangular temple built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. as part of a district renewal plan in 27-25 BC." . pillage and invasion. having survived 20 centuries of plunder. The Pantheon contains the tombs of Rafael and of several Italian Kings. son-in-law of Augustus. Pantheon is a Greek word meaning "to honor all Gods.

The Forum was the center of political. in Italian. religious. . or just the Forum) is one of the Top Ancient Sites in Rome as well as one of the Top Rome Attractions for visitors.Landmarks Roman Forum The Roman Forum (also known as the Foro Romano. and commercial life of ancient Rome and provides insight into the splendor that once was the Roman Empire.

Actually one museum spread out in two buildings ² the Palazzo dei Conservatori and the Palazzo Nuovo ² the Capitoline houses numerous artistic and archeological treasures that help to tell the story of Rome. making them the first museums in the world open to the public. . or Musei Capitolini. were established by Pope Clement XII in 1734.Landmarks The Capitoline Hill The Capitoline Museums in Rome.

.Landmarks Piazza Navona It built as a stadium in the first century for athletic contests and chariot races. It was laid out in the 15th century on the ruins of the stadium. Piazza Navona is lined with luxurious cafes and Baroque palaces and is the home to three lavish fountains.

except for the area nearest the Tiber. The residence of Augustus (and Tiberius. It is the central hill of the seven hills of Rome. the Temple of Apollo and temples of Victory and the Great Mother are there. . Much of the Palatine has not been excavated. The exact location on the Palatine of Romulus' home and the Lupercal cave are unknown. and Domitian). It was the first hill area to become a settlement.Landmarks The Palantine Hill The area of the Palatine is about 25 acres.

once covering 32 acres. a garden. the baths were used for more than 200 years and accommodated up to 3000 bathers. there were two libraries. and floor mosaics. Opened in 306 AD.Landmarks Baths of Diocletian The Baths of Diocletian. where Piazza della Repubblica is today. and an exedra. were the largest public baths or thermae in ancient Rome. sculptures. Besides baths and pools. The baths were richly decorated with marble. . probably used as a theater.

.Landmarks Baths of Carcalla At the foot of the Aventine hill are the monumental ruins of the Baths of Caracalla. and shops selling food and drinks. used from the Second to Sixth century AD. gardens. they held an array of facilities such as a gym. Taking a bath was a social event for the people of ancient Rome and the huge complex could hold up to 1600 bathers! Besides baths. art galleries.

The shops and apartments were built in a multi-level structure and you can visit several of the levels. closed on Mondays.Landmarks Trajan·s Market ‡ Trajan's Market are now believed by many to be administrative offices for Emperor Trajan. . Highlights inlcude delicate marble floors and the remains of a library. Trajan's Market is at Via Quattro Novembre 94. The new Museum of the Imperial Forums houses a wealth of artifacts from all of ancient Rome's forums.

This massive structure also served as Roman fortress. . What·s more. as it contains a passageway going to the Vatican.Landmarks Castel Sant· Angelo It is known to be one of the most marvelous monuments over the entire Rome. as well as Roman emperors. Castel Sant· Angelo has become the haven of numerous popes. it can give you the most fantastic panoramic views of Tiber.

Landmarks Catacombs Catacombs are interesting burial places in Italy and some of the best are in Rome. Mazes of underground tunnels were used to bury thousands of bodies and some of them are open to the public for tours. . Here are the best places to visit catacombs in Rome.

was built between 70 and 82 AD in the heart of Rome.000 spectators.000. but more likely it was around 50. sometimes spelled "Coliseum". Some say is was able to hold 87. It was called the Amphitheatrum Flavium or Flavian Amphitheater because it was built by the the Flavian emperors. still monumental for the time. Main .Landmarks The Colosseum of Rome ‡ The Colosseum. Vespasian and Titus.

‡ The Roman army has 2 forms:
² Infantry (on foot) ² Cavalry (on horseback) The Roman Legion A roman legion consisted of about 5,000 footsoldiers. Before going to war, this legion was divided into groups and called a century with 100 men was led by a commander called centurion. Besides the weapon that they carry food for 3 days and tools for making camps.

‡ The conquest of ancient Rome depended on its well-trained army, a powerful fighting force that marched across much of the known world pushing out the Empire·s frontiers.


Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Julian-Claudian Dynasty 27 BC to AD 68 ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Julius Caesar ² The Dictator Augustus Caesar ² ´The first Roman Emperor" Tiberius ."The mad tyrant who blamed the Christians for the burning of Rome" Main ."The bumbling Emperor who married the infamous Messalina´ Nero ."The Emperor who trusted Sejanus and lived in Capri" Caligula ."The Evil Emperor who proclaimed himself a god" Claudius .

"The Emperor who built the Colosseum´ Main ."The old man the first in the Year of the four Emperors" Otho .69 AD Beginning of the Flavian Dynasty ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Galba ."The greedy ruler who lasted just three months´ Vitellius .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY The Year of the Four Emperors 68 ."The man who killed his dissolute son´ Vespasian .

Vespasian 96AD Titus ."The evil emperor who murdered thousands of Christians" List of Five Good Emperors and the Nervan / Antonine Dynasty (96²192) Nerva ."The Excellent Emperor" Marcus Aurelius ."The Emperor who left the legacy of Trajan's market and Column" Hadrian .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Flavian Dynasty 69AD ."The first of the Five Good Emperors" Trajan . last of the Five Good Emperors" Main ."The Emperor who built Hadrian's Wall" Antoninus Pius ."The Emperor who destroyed the temple in Jerusalem" Domitian ."The Philosopher.

Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Antonine Dynasty ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Lucius Verus ."Emperor who increased the Praetorian Guards to 50."The Emperor who was murdered by the Praetorian guard" Didius Julianus .ruled jointly with Marcus Aurelius Commodus .000" Year of the Five Emperors (192 ."The man who paid to become Emperor" Pescennius Niger ."The Black Emperor" Claudius Albinus .193) Main ."More savage than Domitian."The Emperor who made a bad deal" Septimius Severus . more foul than Nero". Pertinax .

" Alexander Severus ."The Praetorian guard who killed Caracalla." Geta "The hated brother of Caracalla." Diadumenian (son of Macrinus) .."The common enemy of mankind.."He married a Vestal Virgin and then took a husband."Boy-Caesar killed when he was 10 years old" Elagabalus .235) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Septimius Severus Caracalla ." Macrinus ."He who revoked all former edicts against the Christians" Main .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Severan dynasty (193 .

"Co-Emperor with his father´ Balbinus ."One of the most cruel persecutors of the Christians" Main ."The boy emperor who died in his mother's arms" Pacatian .268) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Maximinus Thrax .´ Trajan Decius .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Crisis of the Third Century Year of the Six Emperors (238) Start of the Barracks Emperors (238 ." Gordian I ."The Orator and Poet.´ Jotapian ."The Thug.´ Gordian III ."The Octogenarian."The Usurper from Syria.´ Pupienus .the first Christian imperial couple" Philip II ."The Usurper from Bulgaria.268) Barracks Emperors (238 ."The Disciplinarian." Gordian II ."Grandson Of Gordian I and Nephew Of Gordian II" Philip the Arab "Philip and Severa .

"The Emperor."The son who was raised to the position of Joint Emperor" Aemilian ."Famine."Killed by a Goth's arrow" Hostilian ."Three months as Emperor. the Plague.268) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Herennius Etruscus . then death´ Valerian . Plague and the 'Thirty Tyrants" Main ."The Emperor who was skinned and stuffed with manure" Gallienus .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Barracks Emperors (238 . the Persians and the mutiny" Volusian ."The Emperor who died from the Plague´ Trebonianus Gallus .

Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Gallic Emperors (260 .273) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Salonina Augusta (Empress) Valerian II Saloninus Macrianus Quietus Regalianus Postumus Laelianus Marius Victorinus Tetricus I Tetricus II Main .

" Numerian .285) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Claudius II (Gothicus) ."The Emperor who believed that idle hands make mischief." Tacitus ."The Emperor who ruled for 88 days."Champion of the Senate" Aurelian .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Illyrian Dynasty (268 ."The Emperor who followed the Interregnum.µ Quintillus ."The Emperor whose body was left to rot."He fought the Goths." Probus ." Main ." Florianus ."The Frugal emperor. the Vandals and Traitors."The Warrior Queen." Carus ."The illiterate military genius." Zenobia (Empress) .

Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Illyrian Dynasty (268 ." Carausius ."The debauched Emperor suspected of incest.364) ."Was this infant the product of incest?" Julian of Pannonia ."The last usurper before the Roman Empire was split..."The Usurper Emperor of the Britannic Empire." Diocletian ." Domitius Domitianus ."The Usurper Emperor of Egypt..285) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Carinus ."The Emperor who split the Roman Empire.." Maximianus Main Roman Empire split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empire in 285AD Constantinian dynasty (285 ."The second Usurper Emperor of the Britannic Empire." Nigrian ." Allectus .

" Galerius .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Roman Empire split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empire in 285AD Constantinian dynasty (285 ."The usurper Emperor of Africa."The Emperor who recovered Brittania."The Emperor who was murdered at Tres Tabernae." Main .364) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Constantius I ." Licinius I ."The Emperor who fought against Constantine the Great."Emperor who persecuted Christians and then begged for their prayers" Severus II ."Killed in Tarsus with his wife and children ." Maxentius (usurper) Valerius Romulus Domitius Alexander (usurper) ." Maximinus .

Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Roman Empire split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empire in 285AD Constantinian dynasty (285 ."Executed on orders from Constantine" Constantine the Great ." Crispus ." Sextus Martinianus ."The Emperor whose death formed part of a peace treaty."Killed fighting over territory with his brother."The Emperor who was put to death by an ambitious soldier."The Caesar who was falsely accused of treason."The Christian Emperor who united the Empire." Valerian Valens ." Constans ."The Son of the Emperor who plotted with the Goths.364) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Licinius II ." Main ." Constantine II .

" Nepotian "The Emperor who had his head paraded on a spear." Constantius Gallus "His pardon failed to reach the executioner." Vetranio "The Emperor who was stripped of the purple." Julian the Apostate "The Last non-Christian Roman Emperor.364) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Constantius II "The second and worst of the sons of Constantine the Great" Delmatius Hannibalianus Magnentius Decentius (usurper) "The Usurper Emperor who hung himself." Jovian "The Emperor who re-established Christianity" Main .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Roman Empire split into the Western and Eastern Roman Empire in 285AD Constantinian dynasty (285 .

.394) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Valentinian I "The Emperor given to fits of rage." Theodosius I "The Emperor who resisted the Barbarians." Gratian "The Emperor who was deserted and murdered by his soldiers.Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Valentinian dynasty (364 ." Valens "The Emperor who allowed the Goths to settle on Roman territory." Procopius (usurper) "The last of the Constantinian dynasty dies.." Valentinian II "The Emperor who was strangled to death." Magnus (usurper) "Was this Emperor the nephew of Old King Cole?" Flavius Victor "The Usurper whose mother was a Queen of the Britons" Eugenius "Executed by beheading" Arcadius "The Emperor who hired Alaric the Goth" Main .

" Jovinus "The Emperor who defeated at the siege of Valence" Sebastianus "The Usurper Emperor whose head was sent to the imperial court" Constantius III "Emperor who retrieved the western empire from disaster" Main .Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Emperors of the Western Empire (394 .476) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Honorius "The End of the Gladiators and the Sack of Rome" Constantine III "The Usurper Emperor who was ordained a priest" Constans II "The Usurper Emperor who was betrayed by his general" Priscus Attalus "The Usurper Emperor who was banished.

mutilated and killed in the Roman Circus. 'the Butcher' by his enemiesµ Majorian "The Emperor who gained victories over the Franks & Vandals" Libius Severus "The Puppet Emperor who was probably poisoned" Main .476) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Ioannes "Captured.Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Emperors of the Western Empire (394 ." Theodosius II Valentinian III "The Vandals were coming and so was Attila the Hun" Marcian "The Emperor who refused to recognize the emperors of the West" Petronius Maximus "The Assassin Emperor" Avitus "The Emperor who was backed by the Visigoths" Leo I "Known as 'the great Thracian' by friends.

who died of dropsy" Glycerius "The Exiled Emperor" Julius Nepos "The Emperor who was killed by the man he had deposed" Romulus Augustus "The Last Roman Emperor" Main .476) ROMAN EMPERORS NAMES Anthemius "The Emperor who believed that he was a victim of sorcery´ Olybrius "Pawn of Ricimer.Great Leaders LIST OF ROMAN EMPERORS DYNASTY Emperors of the Western Empire (394 .

Contributions to the Society ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Christianity Rights of Women Architecture Art Political System Military Force Latin Optical lasses Mechanical clock Barometer and Thermometer ‡ Piano. Cello ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Screws Columns Shampoo Public pool/bath Sewer system Modern wedding tradition Concrete Pizza Modern calendar Literature Classical music ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Wine Roman Numerals Census Aqueduct Main . Violin.

DID YOU KNOW? ‡ That roman emperors did not wear crowns like kings. Instead. they wore laurel wreaths on their heads. Main . These had once been given to generals to celebrate victories in battles.

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