# Activity on the node

By Dr. Mahdi Damghani

Precendance diagrams

Unlike Arrow Diagramming that uses the arrows for activities and nodes for the start and end of activities, Precedence Diagramming places the activity on the nodes and uses arrows between the nodes to show the sequence between each activity Diagramming is also called "activity-on-the-node"

 
 Precedence

 

Physically easier to produce and require far less draughtsman ship need for dummy activities is eliminated

 The

information can be inserted in the network without affecting the legibility of the finished plan allow a closer co-ordination between the network and the resultant linked bar chart delays can be introduced easier than with arrow networks

 They

 Time

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

Example 4

Example 5

Example 6

NOTE : You can say that activities A & B merge at D

Layout of activity boxes
EST Activity Ref No Duration EFT

LST

LFT

Analysis
Forward All

pass

• To obtain EST

projects may be assumed to start from day 1 unless specified otherwise (due to weather conditions …). Alternatively, you can assume the start as day 0

Example 7
1 A 5
6

6

B 3

9

9

C 10

19

Example 8
1 A 5
6

C 2

1

B 6

7

D 8

E 2

Example 8
We know that an activity cannot start until all the activities leading to it have completed Whenever there is more that one activity preceding a selected activity, the Early Start Time of the selected activity is the latest of the preceding Early Finish Times 1 A 5
6 6

C 2

8

1

B 6

7

7

D 8

15

Max {7,6}

7

E 2

9

Analysis
Backward

pass

• To obtain LST

Example 9
1 A 5
6

6

B 3

9

9

C 10

19

Example 9
1 A 5
6

6

B 3

9

9

C 10

19 19

Once the last activity’s Late Finish Time has been set, then you can calculate the activity’s Late Start Time by subtracting the activity duration from the Late Finish Date, i.e. for activity C, LST=19-10=9 As you proceed through the schedule the Late Finish Time of a preceding activity is the earliest of the prior Late Start Times

Example 9
1 1 A 5
6 6

6 6

B 3

9 9

9 9

C 10

19 19

6-5=1

9-3=6

19-10=9

Example 10
1 2 A 5
6 7 6

C 2

8 15

13

1 1

B 6

7 7

7 7

D 8

15 15

7-6=1

Min {13,7}

7 13

E 2

9 15

Start to start logic
The

standard sequence where one activity precedes another is called Finish-to-Start the Start-to-Start sequence when the start of the following activities is dependant upon the start of the following activity Start-to-Start sequence has it’s impact on the forward pass calculations

Use

 The

Note
 Notice

that the logic sequence between activities using the Start-to-Start sequence may include a time component. example, we cannot start the pipe installation at exactly the same as the start of the trenching operation. The first activity must get “ahead” a few days, before the piping activity can begin. Adding a time duration to the sequence between activities is a major innovation associated with the Precedence Diagram

 For

Example of start-to-start
 An

example use of the Start-to-Start sequence is that of laying underground pipe. In such a project a machine digs a trench in which the pipe is placed. Once the pipe is placed, then the same machine may be used to backfill the trench. An effective project manager may want to schedule this project such that the pipe installation can proceed before the whole trench has been cut. Similarly, the backfill could begin before the entire length of pipe has been installed. To show how the start of one activity can affect the start of another, use the Start-to-Start sequence.

Example of start-to-start
1 A 5
6

C 2

SS
3 B 6 D 8 E 2

2

Example of start-to-start
1 A 5
6 6

C 2

8

SS
3 B 6
9

2

9

D 8

17

9

E 2

11

Example of start-to-start
1 A 5
6 6

C 2

8 17

15

SS
3 B 6
9

2

9 9

D 8

17 17

9 15

E 2

11 17

Example of start-to-start
1 4 A 5
6 9 6

C 2

8 17

15

SS
3 3 B 6
9 9

2

9 9

D 8

17 17

9 15

E 2

11 17

Example of start-to-start
1 4 A 5
6 9 6

C 2

8 17

15

SS
3 3 B 6
9 9

NOTE: The critical path start of Activity A

2

9 9

D 8

17 17

9 begins with the 15

E 2

11 17

Finish to finish logic
Finish-to-Finish

can be thought of as linking the completion of two activities such that the completion of the prior activity takes place a few days before the completion of the second activity

Example of finish to finish
Completion

of the pipe installation cannot occur until some time after the completion of the trenching activity. pipe must all be installed prior to the completion of the backfill activity

 The

Example of finish to finish
1 A 5
6 6

C 2

8

FF

5

1

B 6

7

7

D 8

15

FF

2

7

E 2

9

Example of finish to finish
1 A 5
6 6

C 2

8 10

FF

5

1

B 6

7

7

D 8

15 15

FF

2

7

E 2

9 13

Example of finish to finish
1 A 5
6 6

C 2

8 10

8

FF

5

1

B 6

7

7 7

D 8

15 15

FF

2

7 11

E 2

9 13

Example of finish to finish
1 A 5
6 7 6

C 2

8 10

8

FF

5

1

B 6

7 7

7 7

D 8

15 15

FF

2

7 11

E 2

9 13

Example of finish to finish
1 2 A 5
6 7 6

C 2

8 10

8

FF

5

1 1

B 6

7 7

7 7

D 8

15 15

FF

2

7 11

E 2

9 13

Exercise 1
START A 1 B 3 C 2 F 5 END

D 2

E 4

G 1

H 1

J 3

Solution 1 (forward)
START 0 A 1
1

1

B 3

4

4

C 2

6

8

F 13 5

END

0

D 2

2

4

E 4

8

8

G 1

9

0

H 1

1

2

J 3

5

Solution 1 (backward)
START 0 0 A 1
1 1

1 1

B 3

4 4

4 6

C 2

6 8

8 8

F 13 5 13

END

0 2

D 2

2 4

4 4

E 4

8 8

8 G

9

12 1 13

0 9

H

1

2 10

J 3

5 13

1 10