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World Bank Study (Japanese Trust Funded) Conducted in: EAP, SAR, AFR, LAC and MENA Study by Consultants:
Nippon Koei Co Ltd and ProAnd Associates Australia Pty, Ltd
World Bank Study Manager:
The world¶s human population is urbanizing. As of this
year, there are more people in cities than in rural areas. Livestock populations are densifying«into intensive industrialized facilities. In developing countries, intensive livestock producers are locating near cities for the access to markets and infrastructure. Meat production in developing countries is growing 4 times faster than meat production in high-income countries.
y Production wastes from industrialized concentrated livestock facilities are more complex with a wide range of excreted contaminants, including excreted antibiotics, growth promoters, heavy metals, and antibiotic resistant pathogens. y Municipalities are being increasingly burdened by the need to provide livestock processing infrastructure to meet the growing local demand for meat, but without resources to expand or upgrade existing facilities, which leads to serious overcrowding. y Most of developing country production is for local demand, and affordability limits the revenue base for livestock processing.
Growth in Human and Animal Populations, and available GNP income base: 2000 -> 2030
y High Income Countries ($34,500/cap/yr)
y People 1.2 BB -> 1.3 BB y Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Goats 4.0 BB -> 5.2 BB y Poultry 15.0 BB -> 24.8 BB
y Low and Middle Income ($583 and $2,833/cap/yr)
4.9 BB -> 7.1 BB y Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Goats 3.0 BB -> 4.2 BB y Poultry 11.0 BB -> 19.2 BB
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Gather data on public livestock markets, slaughter facilities (abattoirs), meat processing, and related systems of waste management within 5 regions (LAC, MENA, SAR, EAP, and AFR) Examine the prevalence, handling, treatment, disposal, and recycling of wastes, including informal sector recycling from formal sector facilities. Identify and report on the problems and needs of the facilities, including the animal welfare, child labor, and worker safety issues observed. Collect and examine available data on related bio-security and food safety issues.
Municipal slaughterhouses are commonly old (many were 50 to 70 years old) and operating significantly over their intended capacity. The private sector owns modern and sanitary facilities, but they operate only for high-end markets (such as hotels, high end super markets, and export). The unregulated informal slaughter sector is extensive, and in some countries as much as 90% of slaughter is conducted informally. Local incomes limit meat prices and this limits municipal cost recovery from slaughterers. Regulatory framework and enforcement is poor. Religious and cultural traditions have a significant impact on operations, but often are not correctly followed to minimize animal distress.
Meat from freshly killed livestock is preferred, requiring night and early morning slaughtering conditions. Unsanitary working conditions and limited clean hot water. No orderly conveyance. Dark and slippery working conditions. Surface materials porous and hard to clean. Animal welfare is very poor. Child labor is extensive and exacerbates animal suffering. Occupational health and safety is very poor. Municipal management and capacity is poor and neglectful. Veterinary inspection is inadequate and ineffective. Most fifth quarter is recycled extensively, commonly by informal sector recyclers. Blood, stomach contents and excreta are discharged to waterways, or sent to municipal open dumps.
Only waste issues covered in this presentation:
y The following slides cover only the waste issues from the study. y Disease, worker conditions, child labor, animal welfare, veterinary inspection, municipal capacity and other issues are covered extensively in the report, but not in this presentation. y For the report see:
LIVESTOCK MARKETS: Transported Waste: Most countries minimise bedding used during transport, so quantities dumped at markets are low, but they accumulate. Animals are not generally given rest stops, water and food, which lowers waste upon arrival, but adversely affects animal welfare.
Bedding and truck waste dumped at the market.
Cattle waste dumping at the market with municipal waste also strewn across the site.
Manure: Manure from large ruminants often collected and dried into dung cakes which can be sold, or used for fuel. Manure not collected during the wet season discharges into drains and watercourses with the stormwater runoff. At unpaved markets manure is often left to be trodden-in by animals and people.
C ttl r i
Cattle and waste o er a a ed ground condition
Cattle and waste mixed with soil ground conditions.
LIVESTOCK MARKETS: Other wastes: Lack of sanitary facilities for workers, drivers, and traders results in extensive open defecation. Solid wastes from markets disposed to municipal landfill (normally open dumpsites), or illegally dumped. Occasionally organic waste is used to produce compost. Dead stock is minimal, but if it does occur the animal will typically be taken away for rendering. Amenities for workers and traders are poor, thus inorganic wastes are minimal.
SLAUGHTERHOUSES: Slaughter and processing areas overcrowded. Noisy, stressful operations. Many work barefoot. Children usually present to assist.
Animals waiting amidst the slaughter operations. Some animals left overnight for next day slaughter. No separation of clean and dirty lines. Slippery floor conditions
SLAUGHTERHOUSES: Where extensive fifth-quarter processing (offal, hides/skins, head, feet, horns, etc.) is practiced the quantity of solid waste disposed is low. Small-medium sized facilities typically have no market for fifth-quarter products, thus more waste sent to disposal. Solid wastes are typically collected by truck (municipal or private) for disposal with municipal waste. Occasionally the waste may be diverted for composting or rendering.
SLAUGHTERHOUSES: On-site burning occasionally used for condemned material and pathological waste. Incinerators are rudimentary. Often, dead stock and condemned material are burned in a pit and buried.
SLAUGHTERHOUSES: Quantity of liquid waste generated directly related to the quantity of process water used. Typically, water usage is less than 10% of that used in a modern slaughter facility. Process and hygiene improvements will increase the quantity of process water discharged. Process water normally disposed to local watercourses or public drains without screening or treatment. Concentration of organic contaminants in the process water directly related to whether or not blood and intestinal contents are collected.
Washat r and l d dischar ing t nsit drainage and t l cal drainage channel.
Discharge t the main drainage channel (same facility).
Slaughterhouse drainage, often not screened before discharge. Regular slaughter of pregnant animals.
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL: Municipal solid waste collection services satisfactory in all of the cities visited. Solid waste collection generally a municipal function but the private sector is expanding, often encouraged through tax incentives. Collection vehicles generally in good condition, adequate in number, and operate daily. Collected material is almost entirely disposed to land, typically open or controlled dumpsites. In some countries, sanitary landfills have been constructed and are often are being planned.
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL: Scavengers, both human and animal present at all sites Livestock and slaughter wastes were evident at most municipal disposal sites. Exposure to livestock waste is almost certain. Clinical wastes were also evident at many sites.
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL: Livestock scavenging on landfill site.
SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL: Dumping of putrefying waste from municipal slaughterhouse.
Waste-picker with scavenged leg from a cow.
WASTEWATER DISPOSAL: Contaminated runoff from livestock markets discharged to local drains and watercourses without treatment. In Asia, Fish ponds often used for the disposal of market and slaughter wastes. Wastewater treatment facilities observed at a few slaughterhouses -not in operation due to high O & M costs. In most cases, there are no treatment facilities - wastewater discharged to the public drainage system or directly to local watercourses. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities not commonplace. Where present, wastewater treatment plant generally do not accept slaughterhouse wastes.
Best practice guidelines. Stakeholder consultation and awareness. Slaughterer and veterinary capacity development. Investment in reconstruction of existing facilities. Plan and build new facilities in the long term. Municipal management capacity development. Improve private sector investment climate. Interagency program of analytical work to better define needs. Recognize that food safety, animal welfare, livestock disease control, and food security are public goods. Develop inter-governmental economic instruments to support municipal improvement.
On-going work: World Bank development of guidance to reconstruct/refurbish live markets, slaughterhouses, and meat processing plants in cities. FAO development of guidance to implement new rural slaughter facilities. FOA , OIE, and EC efforts to upgrade animal welfare considerations in all livestock production, processing, and trade.
For information, contact: Sandra Cointreau Global Solid Waste Management Advisor email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org mobile: 1-860-488-5910 Full study report available on: http://sandracointreau.com