Steering System

Function of Steering System
‡Control of front wheel (sometimes rear wheel) direction. ‡Transmit road feel (slight steering wheel pull caused by the road surface) to the drivers hand. ‡Maintain correct amount of effort needed to turn the wheels. ‡Absorb most of the shock going to the steering wheel as the tire hits holes and bumps in the road. ‡Allow for suspension action.

Steering Systems
‡ Manual steering system ± relies solely on the driver to provide steering force ‡ Power assist ± (power steering) ± uses hydraulic or electric power to help the driver apply steering force

Steering System
Linkage Steering System (Worm Gear)

Steering Systems
‡ Both manual and power steering systems have common components. ‡ Input components:
± Steering wheel ± Steering column ± Steering shaft

Steering System Linkage Steering System (Worm Gear) Parts ‡Steering Wheel ± used by the driver to rotate a steering shaft that passes through the steering column. ‡Steering Column ± supports the steering column and steering shaft. . ‡Steering Shaft ± transfers turning motion from the steering wheel to the steering gearbox.

Steering System Linkage Steering System (Worm Gear) Parts ‡Steering Gearbox) ± changes turning motion into a straight-line motion to the left or right. ‡Steering linkage ± connects the steering gearbox to the steering knuckles and wheels. the worm gear turns 15 times to turn the selector shaft once). ‡Steering gear box ratios range from 15:1 to 24:1 (with 15:1. .

.Steering Components ‡ Pitman arm ± Connects the linkage to the steering gear. ‡ Centre link. drag link. or steering link ± Controls sideways linkage movement. ‡ Idler arm ± Supports the centre link to the frame. ‡ Tie-rods ± Connect linkage to the steering knuckles.

‡Rack. slides sideways as the pinion gear turns. it¶s teeth mesh with the teeth on the rack.Steering System Basic Rack-and-Pinion Steering ‡Pinion Gear.long steel bar with teeth along one section. .rotated by the steering wheel and steering shaft.

. power steering is used. A hydraulic power steering system consists of a double-action power cylinder. This is not always practical though. More mechanical advantage is desired to make some heavy vehicles easier to steer. reservoir. This task is accomplished by an auxiliary power network incorporated in the steering system. pump. and the connecting lines and fittings. The term "power steering" is well known because hydraulic power steering is widely used on passenger cars. The power steering system reduces the effort required to turn the steering wheel. To reduce the amount of effort required to turn the wheels without increasing the amount that the steering wheel is turned.DESCRIBE THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF POWER STEERING SYSTEMS Steering gears provide a mechanical advantage ratio of 11:1 or 12:1 for light cars and up to 18:1 or more for heavy trucks. because it requires an excessive amount of turning at the steering wheel to pivot the front wheels. valves.

.Steering System Power Steering normally use an engine driven pump and a hydraulic system to assist steering action. Integral Rack-and-pinion system is the most common. ‡External power piston. ‡External power steering system. Three major types of power steering systems: ‡Integral-piston linkage system. ‡Rack-and-pinion system ‡Integral power piston.

‡ Once the size of the tractor becomes too big for manual steering. ‡ Suitable for small to medium tractors where power steering can be an option to manual steering. (Wittren.Hydro-mechanical Power Steering (HMPS) ‡ Hydro-mechanical power steering was the first type to be used on agricultural tractors in the early 1950¶s. hydro-mechanical steering is usually not cost effective. 1975) .

but they all can be grouped into four basic groups. ‡ Steering linkage mounted integral valve and actuator ‡ Steering wheel mounted control valve.Hydro-mechanical Power Steering ‡ There are many different types of hydromechanical power steering. linkage mounted actuator ‡ Separate control valve and actuator mounted in best position ‡ Integral valve and actuator mounted at steering wheel .

In the 1950¶s tractors starting becoming too large to steer with man power alone. As tractors become larger and need full time power steering. It is best suited for small and medium tractors that only require part time power steering. . it is more economical to use hydrostatic steering. Generally the hydraulic components are less costly that complicated mechanical gears that would be necessary for a large machine. so hydraulic assist or hydro-mechanical power steering was added to make steering effort easier. Hydrostatic steering is also more space efficient than hydraulic assisted steering since the mechanical linkages can be eliminated by hoses and large mechanical parts can be replaced by smaller hydraulic compnents.

Only two hoses are needed. ‡ first system layout makes use of an integral valve and actuator coupled directly to the pitman arm and connected to the steering wheel mechanically. Unfortunately. It is very simple in that it only requires a supply and return line.. Easiest to adapt to an existing mechanical steering layout. it may not be very aesthetic and hoses can be easily exposed to the surrounding moving parts ‡ ‡ ‡ .HMPS Type 1 The integral valve and actuator coupled to steering linkage. This system type is the easiest to use when converting an existing mechanical steering linkage to hydraulic power assist.

and vibration which can interfere with driver comfort. especially when there are several other control elements at the steering wheel.HMPS Type 2 Steering column mounted control valve with separate. While it is convienent to have the valve at the wheel and the actuator at the linkage. heat. . Of course. remote actuator coupled to a linkage member. This can create a space problem. so it is favorable to mount the components farther from the driver¶s station. power steering systems create noise. it requires four hoses all near the steering wheel. ‡ The next type of steering mounts the valve directly at the steering wheel and the actuator at the steering linkage.

While it still requires several hoses. It is possible to keep the valve. but both within the linkage. . It is possible that the valve and the actuator be mounted separately from each other. and pump close together so that the hose length can be kept relatively short. it is possible to get the hoses and other components away from the potentially crowded around the steering wheel.HMPS Type 3 Control Valve and actuator separately mounted in the steering linkage. actuator.

HMPS Type 4 The control valve and the actuator are mounted on the steering column. especially articulated tractors. so the financial benefits of replacing the mechanical gear must be considered carefully. Using this type of design makes converting mechanical steering to hydraulic assisted steering fairly easy. This design works well on small tractors and passenger vehicles. but it is not suitable for large tractors. It may require some modifications to create enough space for the hydraulic assembly an hoses. This can be a high priced investment. . This design replaces the entire steering gear on a manual system. ‡ ‡ The fourth type of system uses and integral valve and actuator mounted at the steering wheel. The actuator operates a rack and pinion or crank arm which drives the pitman arm. the actuator drives the pitman arm by rack and pinion or by crank arm means.

General Circuit Oil rv ir l i atin re t an all f t e il eat in il. u t e lar e en u t f rt e te . ul e ca a le f i H r li Li le i le e e ent . ue t t e teerin c nent .

A 3-micron filter is recommended. Air Breather Filter .General Circuit Filters Oil Filter ‡ Preferably installed in the return line. A 10-micron or smaller filter is recommended. The ³breather´ or vent in the reservoir.

If the fluid level is low. the pump is mounted in front of the engine and is driven directly by the crankshaft. or vane type. which usually is an integral part of the pump. Pressure and flow relief valves are always built into the pump. These valves limit the amount of pressure and flow the pump develops throughout different engine speeds. If the reservoir is full. Power steering fluid is added and checked at the reservoir. The fluid level should be kept at 3/4 full all the time. . On some models. there is no room for thermal expansion. The pump. usually is driven by the engine by a V-belt and is functional whenever the engine is operating.Pump All power steering systems contain a pump that supplies hydraulic fluid under pressure to the other components in the system. which may be of the gear teeth. Reservoir The pump receives its oil supply from the reservoir. rotor. condensation may form.

The control valve may be mounted either in the steering box or on the steering linkage. .Control al e The control valve is actuated by the steering wheel movements and directs the hydraulic fluid under pressure to the proper location in the steering system. depending on system configuration.

Power Steering ‡ Use hydraulic pressure to move a double acting cylinder. .

Hydrostatic Steering ‡ ‡ Uses two single acting cylinders The steering wheel actuates a swash plate or pivot lever. .

Recirculating-Ball Steering Gear .

‡ The upper internal port connects between the coaxial tubes of the cylinder to the cylinder rod end. (Vickers.Integral Steering Unit ‡ Steering Unit ± Consists of a power cylinder connected to a steering valve. 1967) . ‡ The lower internal port connects to the head end of the cylinder. ‡ The outlet port is the tank return. ± Two external and internal ports ‡ The inlet port is connected to the pressure line.

‡ View C ± The valve is in the extend position. The spool is pushed to the left and the oil is directed to the rod end of the cylinder.Integral Steering Unit ‡ View A ± The valve is in neutral position. thus moving the steering unit to the left. . The spool is moved to the right and the oil is directed to the head end of the cylinder. and the oil from the pump is directed back to the tank ‡ View B ± The valve is in retract position. The spool is centered. The steering unit is moved to the right.

‡ Ball Stud mounting ± The control valve ball stud can be mounted in any four positions relative to the port connections.Integral Steering Unit ‡ Check Valve ± Helps to avoid hydrostatic lock and allow for manual steering ‡ Relief Valve ± Optional. ± Can be incorporated if the flow control and relief valve is not used. .

. Power Cylinder Double-acting differential cylinder. Driven by the engine. Steering response to left and right turns is slightly different.Components in Power Steering Power Steering Pump Usually a vane-type pump or similar. Hardly noticeable.

Vane Type of Pump .

ROTARY VALVE .

Power Rack-and-pinion .

Advantages Preventing the wheels from transferring the load to the steering column  Reducing the driver¶s fatigue Low input torque and continuous steering function Oil output directly proportional to the steering speed .

Disadvantages Design is compications and increased in cost. Fluid leakage. .

pumping fluid around the system. it wastes aluable horsepower. ‡ One concept is the "steer-by-wire" or "drive-bywire" system.Drive by Wire ‡ As the majority of today¶s hydraulic power steering systems are designed to ha e the steering pump running constantly. These system would completely eliminate the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the steering. replacing it with a purely electronic control system. . which translates into wasted efficiency and therefore fuel.The Future of Steering .

and make him less fatigue. gives better comfort. Now a days we can see almost all cars having a power steering.Conclusion By studing all these we can conclude that the power stering is nesessory for the modern cars. . It provides good handling to the driver.

This is not always practical though. To reduce the amount of effort required to turn the wheels without increasing the amount that the steering wheel is turned.DESCRIBE THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF POWER STEERING SYSTEMS Steering gears provide a mechanical advantage ratio of 11:1 or 12:1 for light cars and up to 18:1 or more for heavy trucks. This task is accomplished by an auxiliary power network incorporated in the steering system. More mechanical advantage is desired to make some heavy vehicles easier to steer. A hydraulic power steering system consists of a double-action power cylinder. power steering is used. . because it requires an excessive amount of turning at the steering wheel to pivot the front wheels. and the connecting lines and fittings. The power steering system reduces the effort required to turn the steering wheel. valves. reservoir. The term "power steering" is well known because hydraulic power steering is widely used on passenger cars. pump.

If the reservoir is full. Power steering fluid is added and checked at the reservoir. Reservoir The pump receives its oil supply from the reservoir. These valves limit the amount of pressure and flow the pump develops throughout different engine speeds. or vane type. The fluid level should be kept at 3/4 full all the time. the pump is mounted in front of the engine and is driven directly by the crankshaft.Pump All power steering systems contain a pump that supplies hydraulic fluid under pressure to the other components in the system. which usually is an integral part of the pump. rotor. If the fluid level is low. which may be of the gear teeth. The pump. On some models. . Pressure and flow relief valves are always built into the pump. there is no room for thermal expansion. condensation may form. usually is driven by the engine by a V-belt and is functional whenever the engine is operating.

. The control valve may be mounted either in the steering box or on the steering linkage.Control al e The control valve is actuated by the steering wheel movements and directs the hydraulic fluid under pressure to the proper location in the steering system. depending on system configuration.

which is offset from the worm and nut and attached to the rack.Gearbox The gearbox in an integral power steering system is basically a manual gearbox adapted to include a power assist package. This feature helps eliminate full hydraulic pressure from acting on the cylinder when the piston is bottomed by opening and allowing fluid to flow through the piston. The hydraulic hoses connect to the ports on each end of the single-wall cylinder. The in-line design uses the recirculating ball-nut assembly as a power piston. In this design. the ball nut is sealed inside a cylindrical portion of the steering gear housing. The power steering effect is produced by alternately pressurizing either side of the power piston. . The power assist is developed in the cylinder through the action of the pressurized hydraulic fluid. The offset type has a recirculating-ball gearbox with a rack meshed to the pitman sector gear above or on the opposite side of the ball nut. Some linkage cylinders have shuttle valves built into the piston. ydraulic cylinder The hydraulic cylinder used on the semi-integral and integral power steering systems is located on the steering linkage. Integral power steering gearboxes are of two types: offset and in-line. The cylinder may have single.or double-wall construction. This valve opens at the end of the piston stroke. The power steering force is developed in the power piston. The double-wall cylinder has connections on one end for both hoses and an internal passageway between the walls to pressurize the other end of the cylinder.

the spool in the control valve is centered by springs or hydraulic pressure or both. and a separate hydraulic cylinder is mounted to the linkage . the power steering system is activated. Semi-integral The control valve on the semi-integral system is mounted to the steering gear. the control valve and power cylinder may be separate parts mounted on different parts of the linkage. therefore. When there is no steering force required by the driver.Neutral In the neutral position. CONFIGURATIONS Linkage type In the linkage configuration. The return port is also opened. This opens the proper passageways for the pressurized oil. and the fluid being displaced by the piston in the cylinder returns to the reservoir. This usually is accomplished in the control valve. there is no force required of the power steering system to turn the wheels. Integral The integral system incorporates the control valve and power assist into the steering gear as a unit. the fluid under pressure must be bypassed through the system. Left and right turns As the driver starts to turn the steering wheel to make a left or right turn. The spool is moved off center position and forced to the left or right end of the control valve. This allows the oil to flow through the valve and back to the reservoir and allows the steering system to maintain position.

This is probably the most vital part of troubleshooting. then determine the cause of the trouble.Damaged or worn parts. . . Smooth operation depends on frequent inspections and proper servicing of hydraulic systems. rust.Oil leaks.Perform repairs. described as follows: S . sludge. taking time to do the job well . . using all equipment and means available.Study the hydraulic circuit diagrams. One set of procedures is called STOP. and valves are precision units. Know what each part in the system is supposed to do. P . T . water. cylinders.TROUBLES OOTING Hydraulic pumps. Troubleshooters should use procedures that will lead them directly to the cause of troubles. .Organize the knowledge gained from the circuit-diagram study and hydraulic system tests.Dirt. metal cuttings. or other foreign matter in the system. O . . Eliminate as much guesswork as possible. internal or external.Not enough liquid in the system. and the oil and filters must be changed as recommended in the technical manuals. You must know exactly what conditions exist in the system and how it reacts before you can make accurate decisions.Liquid of the wrong kind or of the wrong viscosity. motors. .Test.Operator error. They must be kept clean.Units and control linkage improperly adjusted. .Air in the hydraulic units or lines. Improper operation can generally be traced to one of the following causes: .