An Introduction to BLUETOOTH TECHNOLOGY

CONTENT
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡
Overview of Bluetooth History The Bluetooth Specifications Typical Bluetooth Scenario Protocols Profiles Security Comparison with other technologies Future of Bluetooth Summary
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16 February, 2011

Example : The Networked Home

16 February, 2011

3

What is Bluetooth?
‡ ³Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a
low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and data anywhere in the world.´

One of the first modules (Ericsson)

A recent module

16 February, 2011

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2011 5 .Ultimate Headset 16 February.

Cordless Computer 16 February. 2011 6 .

2011 7 .Bluetooth Goals & Vision ‡ Originally conceived as a cable replacement technology ‡ Short-Range Wireless Solutions ‡ Open Specification ‡ Voice and Data Capability ‡ Worldwide Usability ‡ Other usage models began to develop: ² Personal Area Network (PAN) ² Ad-hoc networks ² Data/voice access points ² Wireless telematics 16 February.

‡ When does it appear? ² 1994 ± Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones & accessories. ‡ Why this name? ² It was taken from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand who unified Denmark and Norway.Overview of Bluetooth History ‡ What is Bluetooth? ² Bluetooth is a short-range wireless communications technology. 16 February. 2011 8 . ² 5 companies joined to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) in 1998. ² First specification released in July 1999.

2 ‡ 2005 : Bluetooth Specification 2. 2000+ adopters ‡ 2001 : First retail products released. Intel. Specification 1.1 ‡ 2003 : Bluetooth Specification 1. 2011 9 . Microsoft & Motorola ‡ 2000 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0 (?) 16 February. Nokia & Toshiba ‡ 1999 : Bluetooth Specification 1.0B. Lucent.0A SIG promoter group expanded: 3Com.Timeline ‡ 1994 : Ericsson study complete / vision ‡ 1995 : Engineering work begins ‡ 1997 : Intel agrees to collaborate ‡ 1998 : Bluetooth SIG formed: Ericsson. IBM.

Special Interest Group 16 February. 2011 10 .

4 GHz ISM Open Band (79 MHz of spectrum = 79 channels) Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying 1 mw ± 100 mw 1 Mbps 30 ft 8 devices 128 bit key 8-128 bits (configurable) 9 x 9 mm 11 .Technical features Connection Type Spectrum Modulation Transmission Power Data Rate Range Supported Stations Data Security ±Authentication Key Data Security ±Encryption Key Module size 16 February. 2011 Spread Spectrum (Frequency Hopping) & Time Division Duplex (1600 hops/sec) 2.

time slot is defined as 625 microseconds ‡ Packet 1-5 time slots long 16 February.Bluetooth FHSS ‡ Employs frequency hopping spread spectrum ‡ Reduce interference with other devices ‡ Pseudorandom hopping ‡ 1600 hops/sec. 2011 12 .

2011 13 .Time-Division Duplex Scheme ‡ Channel is divided into consecutive slots (each 625 Qs) ‡ One packet can be transmitted per slot ‡ Subsequent slots are alternatively used for transmitting and receiving ² Strict alternation of slots between the master and the slaves ² Master can send packets to a slave only in EVEN slots ² Slave can send packets to the master only in the ODD slots 16 February.

2011 14 .Classification ‡ Classification of devices on the basis of Power dissipated & corresponding maximum Range. POWER CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III 20 dBm 0-4 dBm 0 dBm RANGE 100 m 10 m 1m 16 February.

slave relationship ² Bluetooth devices can function as masters or slaves m s ‡ Piconet ² It is the network formed by a Master and one or more slaves (max 7) m ² Each piconet is defined by a different hopping channel to which users synchronize to ² Each piconet has max capacity (1 Mbps) 16 February. 2011 s s 15 s . ‡ Point to Point Link ² Master .Typical Bluetooth Scenario ‡ Bluetooth will support wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (broadcast) between devices in a piconet.

16 16 February. 2011 . Master¶s ID and master¶s clock determines frequency hopping sequence & phase.Piconet Structure Master Active Slave Parked Slave Standby ‡ ‡ All devices in piconet hop together.

2011 17 . peer to peer (P2P) network 16 February.Ad-hoc Network ± the Scatternet ‡ Inter-piconet communication ‡ Up to 10 piconets in a scatternet ‡ Multiple piconets can operate within same physical space ‡ This is an ad-hoc.

Bluetooth Protocol Stack 16 February. 2011 18 .

2011 19 .Baseband 16 February.

Baseband ‡ Addressing ² Bluetooth device address (BD_ADDR) ± 48 bit IEEE MAC address ² Active Member address (AM_ADDR) ± 3 bits active slave address ± all zero broadcast address ² Parked Member address (PM_ADDR) ± 8 bit parked slave address ‡ This MAC address is split into three parts ² The Non-significant Address Part (NAP) ± Used for encryption seed ² The Upper Address part (UAP) ± Used for error correction seed initialization & FH sequence generation ² The Lower Address Part (LAP) ± Used for FH sequence generation 16 February. 2011 20 .

2011 21 .2744 bits Access Code Header Payload Voice Data CRC No CRC FEC (optional) ARQ FEC (optional) 16 February.Packet Structure 72 bits 54 bits 0 .

2011 Hold Sniff 22 .ecti tate ac i e Inquiry Page Standby Transmit data Connected Park 16 February.

Channel Establishment ‡ There are two managed situations ² A device knows the parameters of the other ± It follows paging process ² No knowledge about the other ± Then it follows inquiring & paging process ‡ Two main states and sub-states ² Standby (no interaction) ² Connection (working) ² Seven more sub-states for attaching slaves & connection establishment 16 February. 2011 Connection State Machine 23 .

Channel Establishment (contd.) ‡ Seven sub-states ² Inquiry ² Inquiry scan ² Inquiry response ² Page ² Page scan ² Master response ² Slave response 16 February. 2011 24 .

Link Manager Protocol 16 February. 2011 25 .

‡ Channel Control ² All the work related to the channel control is managed by the master ± The master uses polling process for this ² The master is the first device which starts the connection ± This roles can change (master-slave role switch) 16 February. 2011 26 . authentication & link configuration.Link Manager Protocol ‡ The Link Manager carries out link setup.

L2CAP ‡ Service provided to the higher layer: ² L2CAP provides connection-oriented and connectionless data services to upper layer protocols ² Protocol multiplexing and demultiplexing capabilities ² Segmentation & reassembly of large packets ² L2CAP permits higher level protocols and applications to transmit and receive L2CAP data packets up to 64 kilobytes in length. 2011 27 . 16 February.

Audio Middleware Protocol Group SDP Applications IP RFCOMM Data L2CAP Link Manager Baseband RF 28 16 February. ‡Also includes Service Discovery Protocol. ‡Packet based telephony control signaling protocol also present.Mi le are r t c l r u ‡Additional transport protocols to allow existing and new applications to operate over Bluetooth. 2011 .

) ‡ Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) ² Means for applications to discover device info. services and its characteristics. emulation of serial ports over wireless network. 2011 29 . ‡ TCP/IP ² Network Protocols for packet data communication. ‡ RFCOMM ² Cable replacement protocol. 16 February.Middleware Protocol Group (contd. routing.

0 16 February.IP Over Bluetooth ‡ IP over Bluetooth v 1. 2011 30 .

1 16 February. 2011 31 .IP Over Bluetooth ‡ IP over Bluetooth v 1.

push.browse. pull. delete files 16 February. transfer folders . create. 2011 32 .browse.File Transfer Profile ‡ Profile provides: ‡ Enhanced client-server interactions: .

‡ Volume can be controlled from either device.Headset Profile ‡ Profile provides: ‡ Both devices must provide capability to initiate connection & accept/terminate calls. ‡ Audio gateway can notify headset of an incoming call. 16 February. 2011 33 .

2011 34 .Core Bluetooth Products ‡ Notebook PCs & Desktop computers ‡ Printers ‡ PDAs ‡ Other handheld devices ‡ Cell phones ‡ Wireless peripherals: ‡ Headsets ‡ Cameras ‡ CD Player ‡ TV/VCR/DVD ‡ Access Points ‡ Telephone Answering Devices ‡ Cordless Phones ‡ Cars 16 February.

Other Products« ‡ 2004 Toyota Prius & Lexus LS 430 ² hands free calls ‡ Digital Pulse Oximetry System ‡ Toshiba Washer & Dryer ‡ Nokia N-gage 16 February. 2011 35 .

can generate the keys. ² Personal Identification Numbers (PIN) for device access. ² Further encryption can be done at the application layer. Other parameters are transmitted over wireless which in combination with certain information known to the device.Security ‡ Security Measures ² Link Level Encryption & Authentication. 16 February. ² Long encryption keys are used (128 bit keys). ² These keys are not transmitted over wireless. 2011 36 .

A Comparison WLAN 16 February. 2011 37 .

LOS communication ²Can not penetrate solid objects ²Both devices must be stationary. IrD ‡ Bluetooth ² Point to Multipoint ² Data & Voice ² Easier Synchronization due to omni-directional and no LOS requirement ² Devices can be mobile ² Range 10 m ‡IrD ²Point to point ²Intended for Data Communication ²Infrared.Bluetooth vs. 2011 38 . for synchronization ²Range 1 m 16 February.

2011 39 .Bluetooth: Today & Tomorrow 16 February.

Will Bluetooth become a household name? 16 February. 2011 40 .

Future of Bluetooth ‡ Success of Bluetooth depends on how well it is integrated into consumer products ² Consumers are more interested in applications than the technology ² Bluetooth must be successfully integrated into consumer products ² Must provide benefits for consumer ² Must not destroy current product benefits ‡ Key Success Factors ² Interoperability ² Mass Production at Low Cost ² Ease of Use ² End User Experience 16 February. 2011 41 .

Low Cost network devices ‡ Future Improvements ² Master-Slave relationship can be adjusted dynamically for optimal resource allocation and utilization. 2011 42 . ² Adaptive. Low range. closed loop transmit power control can be implemented to further reduce unnecessary power usage.Summary ‡ A new global standard for data and voice ‡ Eliminate Cables ‡ Low Power. 16 February.

2011 43 .Nicholas Negroponte. MIT Media Laboratory 16 February.´ .³Things that think« don¶t make sense unless they link.

2011 44 .Thank You 16 February.

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