English- The Global Language

History Of English Language
It originated from England English is a living language It has developed across time and place in both its oral & written forms It has the largest vocabulary of all the world¶s Language It is still growing There are many variations in the oral & written form Written form is relatively stable for centuries It is identical throughout the world except some spellings

Language & Vocabulary

Oral Language develops naturally From Exposure to the languages of our parents, Communities, Friends & Neighbors It gets influenced from the local languages Its dialects & the mannerism its spoken

Approach for Pronunciation
Passage Reading:
An aviator was sent on a mission to a distant part of the globe when he returned to his base, he noticed that it was strangely quite Everything was in perfect order, but there wasn¶t a sign of life in the place. He wandered through the town very surprised. He could not fine even one living creature in the town. He drove back to the airport filled his plane with gas and flew terrified to New York, London and Moscow While he had and the earth. been on his mission every animal human being seemed to have disappeared from

What do you understand with the above Passage?
Pronouncing every word correctly leads to poor pronunciation! Good pronunciation comes from stressing the right words- this is because English is a time-stressed language.

Pronunciation plays a very important part when we speak, many times when we mispronounce the meaning of the sentence or the word changes.

Factors effecting the Pronunciation
Word Stress Mispronounce Sounds

Word Stress- Changes in Meaning
When speaking the words you stress can change the underlying meaning of a sentence. Even simple sentences have different meaning based on how you stress Communication of People is often judged by the way they pronounce the words and stress the words. It gives the first impression to the person

Mispronounce of words:
It creates lots of problems to the listeners or the people whom the message is conveyed Phonetics help the people in pronouncing the words in the proper way Need to remember the International Phonetic Alphabets

One should keep in mind certain words how they are pronounced & how it sounds when an Native English speaker speaks You need to learn how each word is pronounced specially the vowels and consonant sounds Mouth should be properly opened when pronouncing Need to do mouth exercises to get the proper pronunciations

Phonetic Symbols & Alphabet
Phonetic symbols provides great help when learning how to pronounce words Correct pronunciation is found in the dictionaries, where the correct pronunciation is known by looking the phonetic symbols In English many words can have the same pronunciation but written differently Example: to, two & too Sometimes the words can be written similarly but have different pronunciations Example: Thought, Though, Bough & Through Major factor in many instances is the word stress Understanding the Phonetic Alphabet can greatly simplify the learning process

Phonetic Alphabet
A as in Alpha B as in Bravo C as in Charlie D as in Delta E as in Echo F as in Foxtrot G as in Golf H as in Hotel I as in India J as in Juliet K as in Kilo L as in Lima M as in Mike N as in November O as in Oscar P as in Papa Q as in Quebec R as in Romeo S as in Sierra T as in Tango U as in Uniform V as in Victor W as in Whiskey X as in X-ray Y as in Yankee Z as in Zulu

Word Stress
When you are speaking in English the word stress can change the underlying meaning a sentence
Example : I don¶t think he should get the job This simple sentence can have many levels of meaning based on the word you stress

Read the each sentence aloud and give a strong stress on the Bold word
I don¶t think he should get that job I don¶t think he should get that job I don¶t think he should get that job I don¶t think he should get that job

I don¶t think he should get that job I don¶t think he should get that job I don¶t think he should get that job I don¶t think he should get that job As you can see there are many different ways this sentence can be understood The important point to remember is that the true meaning of the sentence is also expressed though the stressed word or words Another sentence I said she might consider a new haircut

Intonation & Stress
English is a stressed langue while many other languages are considered syllabic. What does that Mean? It means that, in English, we need to give stress to certain words while other words are quickly spoken. Where as in other languages as French and Italian each syllable is given equal importance. 1. 2. Many of the Indian speakers speak very fast & swallow number of words in an sentence. In syllable language each syllable has equal importance & therefore equal time is needed, However in English language we need to spend more time on specific stressed words while quickly gliding the other less important words.

Example: They can come on Friday (stressed words are Bold & colored) But on the other hand if the sentence is in Negative then we need to stress on Can¶t They can¶t come on Friday

Guidelines: Generally stressed words are considered as Content Words such as: Nouns e.g. Kitchen, Peter (most) Principal verbs e.g. visit, construct Adjectives e.g. beautiful, interesting Adverbs e.g. often, carefully

No stressed words are considered Function Words Such as
Determiners e.g. the ,a, some, a few Auxiliary verbs e.g. don¶t, am, can, were Prepositions e.g. before, next to, opposite Conjunction e.g. but, while, as Pronouns e.g. they, she, us Try listing to native English speakers , watch English news channels & movies channel to pick up how they stress the words. Stressed words are key to excellent pronunciation & Understanding of English

Idioms :
Idioms is a manner of speaking that is natural to native speakers of the language It is an expression whose meaning is not compositional i.e. whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of the individual words of which it is composed. It refers to a grammatical construction unique to a certain people, region or calls It cannot be translated laterally in to any other language Examples: Hammered meaning Drunk Grunt work meaning physically exhausting or repetitive work Big Bucks meaning lots of money Blown Away meaning surprised and amazed

Can I be more Blunt means do you mind if I tell you exactly what I think? Dropped the Ball meaning t fall when may people are expecting you to succeed Gave me the cold Shoulder meaning acted like he wasn¶t interested/like me Get a Grip meaning don¶t get so upset, don¶t worry so much Hit the Spot meaning to solve your problem exactly He/She has got a Big mouth meaning He/She cant keep a secret Cold Turkey meaning Completely eluded Itsy-Bitsy meaning very small Kinda Meaning Kind of or sort of Take a Hike meaning Go away, get out of my face

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