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Kinship Relations Diagrams Traditions Family forms in Industrial Cultures Goals of Kinship Systems Ideal versus Real Patterns of Kinship Marriage Rules Exogamy and Endogamy The Levirate and Sororate Marriage Forms and Function Monogamy Polyandry Marriage Finance and Arranged Marriage Residence Rules
Kinship Relations Diagrams
Shorthand for representing kin relations Ego- point of reference Mother = Mo Father = Fa Brother = Br Sister = Si Child = Ch Husband = Hu Wife = Wi Therefore, father¶s, brother¶s, son = FaBrSo In-laws: sister-in-law = BrWi
. village.parents and their offspring Consanguineal relatives (consanguine).two or more nuclear families who are related By blood.family we are born into (enculturation) Nuclear Family.the family in which you become or have the potential to become. or territory. Affinal relatives-relation by marriage This whole complex system is called a kinship system Extended Family.Traditional Family Form Most enduring relationship Family of orientation.Blood related this can become problematic in certain cultures like the Trobriand Islanders Family of procreation. a parent. living in the same household.
Kinship Diagram .
divorce and remarriage Matrifocal family.include person who are not kin Blended family.mother dominate with father present or absent Single-parent family Why? Increase in divorce rate possibly brought about by industrializing. .Family Forms in Industrialized Cultures Family Patterns Expanded family.
Goals of Kinship System Organize groups: family types residence groups descent groups Direct Behavior enculturation role.assigned behavior for a particular individual Example: mother-in-law avoidance taboos Persons status: ascribed achieved Group Security Example: Yanomamö .
marriage within a particular group work to maintain cultural identity .Marriage Rules Exogamy and Endogamy Exogamy.marriage outside of a designated group Some hypotheses: prevent incest Modern genetics extend territory Endogamy.
What are they? Discuss and compare your ideas with your Classmates. . religion. and socioeconomic level.How do American parents try to ensure that their children marry the right person? We have informal means to encourage endogamy with regards to ethnic group origin. and these means are usually effective.
. he should marry one of her sisters. Levirate.if a woman¶s husband dies. Sororate. Provide economic protection in the event of a spouse¶s death. Also ensures that the children are raised by the lineage group. she should marry one of his brothers.Levirate and Sororate Preferential marriage rules found in many cultures.if a man¶s wife dies.
The Levirate .
The Sororate .
Cultural Universal: 1) Marriage includes an exclusive sexual relationship between the partners. there are exceptions. Ex.Marriage Form and Function Marriage is an event that marks an important transition for both parties. 3) legitimizes the couple¶s offspring in the eyes of the group. Yanomamö . However. 2) usually involves some degree in economic interdependency± including property and labor.
found in Horticultural and Pastoral societies Polyandry. Tibet .Monogamy. economic advantage.more than one spouse Polygyny. only 3 out of 400 cultures practice this.woman has more than one husband very rare.man has more than one wife Functions: gain status and prestige. Ex. In fact.one women is married to one man Polygamy.
Marriage Finance and Arranged Marriage Bridewealth. Ex: India .gifts from the grooms family to the bride¶s family Ex: Dowry.wealth brought with the bride when she marries.
3%of cultures Bilocal residence. Muslim countries.newly married couple goes to live with the groom¶s mother¶s brother.newly married couple goes to live with the groom¶s father. Yanomamö .married couple sets up their own household away from both sets of parents (U. Ex.). Ex. Ex. Native American Groups (Chumash)15% of societies correlation with external warfare Matrifocal residence.choice 7% of cultures . Neolocal residence.woman and children residing without coresidence of husband.newly married couple goes to live with the bride¶s mother.S. 58% of cultures practice it.Residence Rules All of the world¶s cultures have customs dictating where one lives after marriage known as residence rules. correlation with internal warfare Matrilocal residence. Not a rule Avunculocal residence. Patrilocal residence.
Patrilocal residence .
Patrilocal Residence With Second Generation .
Group dimensions are limited by: ± the frequent segmentation and relocation of lineages because of internal conflicts.Yanomamö Lineage Organization The Yanomamö are organized into named localized lineage groupings on the basis of patrilineal descent. . Lineage groups are quite shallow. which plague larger units. seldom extending beyond two adult generations. seldom reaching as many as 100 members. usually over women. and small.
Yanomamö Lineage Organization: Continued Beside fostering mutual cooperation and support among their members. such as land ownership. that they frequently assume in other patrilineal societies. inhabiting a common settlement. They are exogamous and also consult jointly in the selection of marriage partners for their male and female members. lineages function as territorial units. . and as elements of a marriage exchange and alliance system. Yanomamö lineages do not take on substantial corporate functions.
Matrilocal Residence .
Matrilocal Residence With Second Generation .
Avunculocal Residence .
Avunculocal Residence With Second Generation .
Faces of Culture: Kinship and Descent 1) What are the first two cultures introduced in the movie? 2) How do these cultures organize their lineage groups? 3) What problems do descent groups solve? .