CENG577 Advanced Services in Communications

Pervasive Computing
Ahmet Volkan Gürel Project Mentor: Assoc.Prof.Halûk Gümü kaya
Department of Computer Engineering Fatih University Fall 2006

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Principles of Pervasive Computing Evolution & Related Fields Problem Space Example Projects Other Scenarios References

Principles of Pervasive Computing
‡ ´The most profound technologies are those that dissappear. They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.µ
² Creation of environments saturated with computing and communication capability, yet gracefully integrated with human users.
Mark Weiser

‡ Scientific American, Vol. 265 N.9, pp. 66-75, 1991

Weiser and John Seeley Brown) . invisible servant. Weiser outlined a set of principles describing pervasive computing (also called ubiquitous computing): ² The purpose of a computer is to help you do something else. ² Technology should create calm. the computer should extend your unconscious. ‡ Calm technology ² ´A technology that which informs but doesn't demand our focus or attentionµ.Principles of Pervasive Computing ‡ During one of his talks. ² The more you can do by intuition the smarter you are. ² The best computer is a quiet. (Designing Calm Technology.

‡ "Ubiquitous computing names the third wave in computing.Principles of Pervasive Computing Figure 1. person and machine staring uneasily at each other across the desktop. just now beginning. First were mainframes. when technology recedes into the background of our lives. Next comes ubiquitous computing." . each shared by lots of people. Now we are in the personal computing era. or the age of calm technology. The major trends in computing.

and in ways that suit whatever location or context they find themselves in.Principles of Pervasive Computing ‡ Promoters of this idea hope that embedding computation into the environment and everyday objects would enable people to interact with information-processing devices more naturally and casually than they currently do. .

Principles of Pervasive Computing ‡ Pervasive computing integrates computation into the environment. rather than having computers which are distinct objects. ‡ Other terms for pervasive computing: ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² Ubiquitous computing Calm technology Things that think Everyware Pervasive internet Ambient intelligence Proactive computing Augmented reality .

when you look at a street sign. . ² Similarly. effectively invisible" in the same way that a skilled carpenter engaged in his work might use a hammer without consciously planning each swing. you absorb its information without consciously performing the act of reading. ² Having learnt about its use sufficiently well. ² It is "literally visible.Principles of Pervasive Computing ‡ Central aim of pervasive computing: invisibility ² One does not need to continually rationalize one's use of a pervasive computing system. one ceases to be aware of it.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Principles of Pervasive Computing Evolution & Related Fields Problem Space Example Projects Other Scenarios References .

Evolution & Related Fields ‡ Pervasive computing represents a major evolutionary step in a line of work dating back to the mid-1970s. ‡ Two distinct earlier steps in this evolution: ² Distributed systems ² Mobile computing .

Taxonomy of computer systems research problems in pervasive computing. .Evolution & Related Fields Figure 2.

. wired or wireless. ² The research that followed from the mid-1970s through the early 1990s created a conceptual framework and algorithmic base that has proven to be of enduring value in all work involving two or more computers connected by a network ³ whether mobile or static.Evolution & Related Fields ‡ Distributed systems ² Arose at the intersection of personal computers and local area networks. sparse or pervasive. ² Spans many areas that are foundational to pervasive computing (Figure 2).

² Four key constraints of mobility forced the development of specialized techniques: ‡ Unpredictable variation in network quality ‡ Lowered trust and robustness of mobile elements ‡ Limitations on local resources imposed by weight and size constraints ‡ Concern for battery power consumption . ² Many basic principles of distributed system design continued to apply. The field of mobile computing was thus born.Evolution & Related Fields ‡ Mobile computing ² The appearance of full-function laptop computers and wireless LANs in the early 1990s led researchers to confront the problems that arise in building a distributed system with mobile clients.

Evolution & Related Fields ‡ Other related fields: ² Sensor networks ² Human-computer interaction ² Artificial intelligence .

a processor. wildlife) with unprecedented quality and scale. a wireless radio. . each equipped with sensors.. environmental pollutions.Evolution & Related Fields ‡ Other related fields: ² Sensor Networks ‡ A sensor network consist of a large number of tiny autonomous computing devices.g. seismic activity. ‡ Sensor networks are envisioned to be deployed unobtrusively in the physical environment in order to monitor a wide range of environmental phenomena (e. and a power source.

. ‡ A basic goal of HCI is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more user-friendly and receptive to the user's needs. ‡ A long term goal of HCI is to design systems that minimize the barrier between the human's cognitive model of what they want to accomplish and the computer's understanding of the user's task.Evolution & Related Fields ‡ Other related fields: ² Human Computer Interaction ‡ HCI is the study of interaction between people (users) and computers.

Evolution & Related Fields
‡ Other related fields:
² Artificial Intelligence
‡ AI can be defined as intelligence exhibited by an artificial (non-natural, manufactured) entity. ‡ AI is studied in overlapping fields of computer science, psychology and engineering, dealing with intelligent behavior, learning and adaptation in machines, generally assumed to be computers. ‡ Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Principles of Pervasive Computing Evolution & Related Fields Problem Space Example Projects Other Scenarios References

Problem Space
‡ Pervasive computing incorporates four additional research thrusts:
² ² ² ² Effective use of smart spaces Invisibility Localized scalability Masking uneven conditioning

.Problem Space ‡ Effective use of smart spaces ² By embedding computing infrastructure in building infrastructure. a smart space brings together two worlds that have been disjoint until now. cooling. ‡ Automatic adjustment of heating. and lighting levels in a room based on an occupant·s electronic profile. ² The fusion of these worlds enables sensing and control of one world by the other.

it allows him to interact almost at a subconscious level.Problem Space ‡ Invisibility ² The ideal expressed by Weiser is complete disappearance of pervasive computing technology from a user·s consciousness (minimal user distraction). . ² If a pervasive computing environment continuously meets user expectations and rarely presents him with surprises.

² Good system design has to achieve scalability by severely reducing interactions between distant entities. the intensity of interactions between a user·s personal computing space and his/her surroundings increases. and distraction implications for a wireless mobile user. energy. ² This has severe bandwidth. .Problem Space ‡ Localized scalability ² As smart spaces grow in sophistication. ² The presence of multiple users will further complicate this problem.

² This large dynamic range of ´smartnessµ can be jarring to a user. office. detracting from the goal of making pervasive computing technology invisible. or classroom may be more sophisticated than in other locations. ² One way to reduce the amount of variation seen by a user is to have his/her personal computing space compensate for ´dumbµ environments.Problem Space ‡ Masking uneven conditioning ² Huge differences in the ´smartnessµ of different environments ³ what is available in a well-equipped conference room. .

² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² ² User intent Cyber foraging Adaptation strategy High-level energy management Client thickness Context awareness Balancing proactivity and transparency Impact on layering Privacy and trust .Problem Space ‡ Design and implementation problems in pervasive comp.

it will be almost impossible to determine which system actions will help rather than hinder the user. ² For example.Problem Space ‡ User intent ² For proactivity to be effective. suppose a user is viewing video over a network connection whose bandwidth suddenly drops. Otherwise. it is crucial that a pervasive computing system track user intent. . Should the system: ‡ Reduce the fidelity of the video? ‡ Pause briefly to find another higher-bandwidth connection? ‡ Advise the user that the task can no longer be accomplished? ² The correct choice will depend on what the user is trying to accomplish.

it makes economic sense to ´wasteµ computing resources to improve user experience. (Today. many shopping centers and cafeterias offer their customers free wireless internet access. ² As computing becomes cheaper and more plentiful.Problem Space ‡ Cyber foraging (also called ´living off the landµ) ² The idea is to dynamically augment the computing resources of a wireless mobile computer by exploiting wired hardware infrastructure. much as table lamps are today. ² In the forseeable future. public spaces such as airport lounges and coffee shops will be equipped with compute servers or data staging servers for the benefit of customers.) .

it is likely (but not certain) that resource supply will become adequate to meet demand. energy. of an application. ‡ A client can ask the environment to guarantee a certain level of a resource (reservation-based QoS systems). or fidelity. ‡ A client can suggest a corrective action to the user. ² There are three alternative strategies for adaptation in pervasive computing: ‡ A client can guide applications in changing their behavior so that they use less of a scarce resource. This change usually reduces the user-perceived quality. From the viewpoint of the client. If the user acts on this suggestion. wireless network bandwidth.g. .Problem Space ‡ Adaptation strategy ± Adaptation is necessary when there is a significant mismatch between the supply and demand of a resource (e. this effectively increases the supply of a scarce resource to meet the client·s demand. computing cycles or memory).

² One example is energy-aware memory management. so the higher levels of the system must be involved in memory management. ² Another example is energy-aware adaptation. .Problem Space ‡ High-level energy management ² Sophisticated capabilities such as proactivity and self-tuning increase the energy demand of software on a mobile computer in one·s personal computing space. ² Making such computers lighter and more compact places severe restrictions on battery capacity. where individual applications switch to modes of operation with lower fidelity and energy demand under operating system control. where the operating system dynamically controls the amount of physical memory that has to be refreshed.

the client will have to be thick enough to compensate at that location. ² If there exists even a single location visited by a user where these assumptions do not hold. ² This is especially true for interactive applications where crisp response is important. and batteries can be recharged or replaced easily. the minimum acceptable thickness of a client is determined by the worst-case environmental conditions under which the application must run satisfactorily. ² A very thin client suffices if one can always count on highbandwidth low-latency wireless communication to nearby computing infrastructure. .Problem Space ‡ Client thickness (hardware capabilities of the client) ² For a given application.

and so on.. physiological state (e. body temperature and heart rate). daily behavioral patterns.. distraught.g.g. the assistant would typically not disturb the user at inopportune moments except in an emergency. or calm). ² A user·s context can be quite rich. . ² In making these decisions. anticipating user needs. emotional state (e. personal history. consisting of attributes such as physical location. ² A pervasive computing system should emulate such a human assistant. ² If a human assistant were given such context.Problem Space ‡ Context awareness ² A pervasive computing system must be cognizant of its user·s state and surroundings. and must modify its behavior based on this information. angry. he or she would make decisions in a proactive fashion.

² A system that can infer these factors by observing user behavior and context is better positioned to strike the right balance. . a user patience model can be implemented to predict whether the user will respond positively to a fetch request. ² For transparency. So the user interaction is suppressed and the fetch is handled transparently.Problem Space ‡ Balancing proactivity and transparency ² Unless carefully designed. ² A mobile user·s need and tolerance for proactivity are likely to be closely related to his/her level of expertise on a task and familiarity with his/her environment. a proactive system can annoy a user and thus defeat the goal of invisibility.

. ² Layering is also conducive to standardization since it encourages the creation of modular software components. ² Layering cleanly separates abstraction from implementation and is thus consistent with sound software engineering.Problem Space ‡ Impact on layering ² Proactivity and adaptation based on corrective actions seem to imply exposure of much more information across layers than is typical in systems today.

² User must trust the infrastructure to a considerable extent and the infrastructure needs to be confident of the user·s identity and authorization level before responding to his/her requests. ² Exploiting this information is critical to successful proactivity and self-tuning (invisibility). . but also may cause serious loss of privacy. ² It is a difficult challenge to establish this mutual trust in a manner that is minimally intrusive and thus preserves invisibility. behavior patterns and habits.Problem Space ‡ Privacy and trust ² As a user becomes more dependent on a pervasive computing system. it becomes more knowledgeable about that user·s movements.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Principles of Pervasive Computing Evolution & Related Fields Problem Space Example Projects Other Scenarios References .

Example Projects ‡ After a decade of hardware progress. ² Wireless LANs. ² Devices to sense and control appliances. ‡ We are now better positioned to begin the quest for Weiser·s vision. . many critical elements of pervasive computing that were exotic in 1991 are now viable commercial products: ² Handheld and wearable computers.

Example Projects ‡ Pervasive computing projects have emerged at major universities and in industry: ² ² ² ² ² Project Aura (Carnegie Mellon University) Oxygen (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Portalano (University of Washington) Endeavour (University of California at Berkeley) Place Lab (Intel Research Laboratory at Seattle) .

Example Projects : Project Aura (1) ‡ Aura (Carnegie Mellon University) ² Distraction-free (Invisible) Ubiquitous Computing. .

. Human Attention ‡ Glaring Exception ² Human Attention Adam & Eve 2000 AD ..Example Projects : Project Aura (2) ‡ Moore·s Law Reigns Supreme ² ² ² ² ² ² Processor density Processor speed Memory capacity Disk capacity Memory cost .

² Achieve this scalably for mobile users in a failure-prone. ‡ Aura Goals: ² Reduce user distraction.Example Projects : Project Aura (3) ‡ Aura Thesis: ² The most precious resource in computing is human attention. ² Trade-off plentiful resources of Moore·s law for human attention. variable-resource environment. .

‡ She has several large enclosures ‡ She is using a wireless interface ² She has many options.Example Projects : Project Aura (4) ‡ The Airport Scenario ² Jane wants to send e-mail from the airport before her flight leaves. ‡ Simply send the e-mail ² Is there enough bandwidth? ‡ Compress the data first ² Will that help enough? ‡ Pay extra to get reserved bandwidth ² Are reservations available? ‡ Send the ´diffµ relative to older file ² Are the old versions around? ‡ Walk to a gate with more bandwidth ² Where is there enough bandwidth? ² How do we choose automatically? .

Scott·s access changes to insecure. ² Aura logs Scott out when he leaves the room. ² Scott controls application by voice. ² Bradley gets weak authentication. ² Aura restores Scott·s task on desktop machine and uses a large display. ² Bradley enters room.Example Projects : Project Aura (5) ‡ The Mobile Task Scenario ² Aura saves Scott·s task. ² Aura denies voice access to sensitive email application. ² Scott has multi-modal control of PowerPoint application. ² Scott enters office and gets strong authentication and secure access. .

naturally into people's lives. ² Goal of Oxygen is bringing abundant computation and communication. as pervasive and free as air.Example Projects : Oxygen ‡ Oxygen (MIT) ² Pervasive human-centered computing. .

but Oxygen as a whole must be available all the time. "the nearest printer. in response to changes in user requirements and operating conditions. ² eternal³ it must never shut down or reboot. according to their needs." as opposed to by address. . ² adaptable³ it must provide flexibility and spontaneity. ² powerful.Example Projects : Oxygen (2) ‡ To support highly dynamic and varied human activities. ² nomadic³ it must allow users and computations to move around freely. errors. ² intentional³ it must enable people to name services and software objects by intent. and upgrades. sensing and affecting it. with every portal reaching into the same information base. ² embedded³ it must live in our world. for example. addressing instead system constraints imposed by user demands and available power or communication bandwidth. yet efficient³ it must free itself from constraints imposed by bounded hardware resources. components may come and go in response to demand. the Oxygen system must be ² pervasive³ it must be everywhere.

meaningful services . comm. trustworthy services ² High-productivity software development ² Self-organizing. ² Expedition goals: ‡ Connecting the physical world to the world-wide information fabric ² Instrument the environment: sensors.Related Projects: Portalano ‡ Portolano (University of Washington) ² An expedition into invisible computing. locators. active middleware. maintenance. ² Intermittent communication: new networking strategies ‡ Get computers out of the way ² Don·t interfere with user·s tasks ² Diverse task-specific devices with optimized form-factors ² Wide range of input/output modalities ‡ Robust. monitoring ² Higher-level. actuators ² Universal plug-and-play at all levels: devices to services ² Optimize for power: computation partitioning. opt.

she switches to reading the news on her handheld display. so Alice asks her address book to place the call. ² When her carpool arrives.Related Projects: Portalano (2) ‡ Scenario ² Alice begins the day with a cup of coffee and her personalized newspaper. where she notices an advertisement for a new 3-D digital camera. . ² It looks like something that would interest her shutterbugfriend Bob.

Related Projects: Portalano (3) ‡ Scenario (2) ² Bob's home entertainment system softens the volume of his custom music file as his phone rings. he asks his electronic shopping agent to check his favorite photography stores for the lowest price and make the purchase. . and after hanging up with her. ² Alice begins telling Bob about the camera. and forwards him a copy of the advertisement which pops up on his home display. ² Bob is sold on the product.

Bob snaps some photos of his neighbor's collection of antique Portuguese navigation instruments. .Related Projects: Portalano (4) ‡ Scenario (3) ² When the camera arrives. ² He also sends a pointer to the photo album to Alice and instructs his scheduling agent to set up a lunch date so that he can thank her for the suggestion. Bob directs a copy of his favorite image to the art display in his foyer. ² After reviewing the photo album generated automatically by a web-based service.

Example Projects : Endeavour ‡ The Endeavour Expedition (UC Berkeley) ² Charting the Fluid Information Utility ‡ Endeavour Goal: ² Enhancing human understanding through the use of information technology. .

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Principles of Pervasive Computing Evolution & Related Fields Example Projects Other Scenarios References .

which adds soda to your shopping list ² Make a note that you need soda for the guests you are having over this weekend .Other Scenarios ‡ Buy drinks by Friday (1) ² Take out the last can of soda ² Swipe the can·s UPC label.

Other Scenarios ‡ Buy drinks by Friday (2) ² Approach a local supermarket ² AutoPC informs you that you are near a supermarket ² Opportunistic reminder: ´If it is convenient. stop by to buy drinks.µ .

Other Scenarios ‡ Buy drinks by Friday (3) .Friday rolls around and you have not bought drinks .Deadline-based reminder sent to your pager .

Other Scenarios ‡ Screen Fridge ² Provides: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Email Video messages Web surfing Food management TV Radio Virtual keyboard Digital cook book Surveillance camera .

Other Scenarios ‡ The Active Badge ² This harbinger of inch-scale computers contains a small microprocessor and an infrared transmitter. ² The badge broadcasts the identity of its wearer and so can trigger automatic doors. automatic telephone forwarding and computer displays customized to each person reading them. ² The active badge and other networked tiny computers are called tabs. .

Other Scenarios ‡ The Active Badge .

Other Scenarios ‡ Edible computers: The pill-cam ² Miniature camera ² Diagnostic device ² It is swallowed ‡ Try this with an ENIAC computer! .

Other Scenarios ‡ Artificial Retina ² Direct interface with nervous system ² Whole new computational paradigm (who·s the computer?) .

Other Scenarios ‡ Smart Dust ² Nano computers that couple: ‡ Sensors ‡ Computing ‡ Communication ² Grids of motes (´nano computersµ) .

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Principles of Pervasive Computing Evolution & Related Fields Problem Space Example Projects Other Scenarios References .

mit. Wikipedia ² Mark Weiser. IEEE Computer Society. Presentation of ´Pervasive Computing: What is it good for?µ. HCI. March 2003. http://oxygen. Huang. December 2004 Andrew C.Saha.berkeley. September 1991. 94-10." Scientific American.References ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Mark Weiser. AI M. http://endeavour. http://portolano.washington. pp. August 1999 CMU Project Aura Web Site. ´Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challengesµ.Satyanarayanan. ´Pervasive Computing: A Paradigm for the 21st Centuryµ. High-Performance Systems".edu/ UW Project Portalano Web Site. Ubiquitous Computing.edu/ . Roberto Siagri.edu/ UC Berkeley Project Endeavour.cs. D.cmu. Eurotech Spa. http://www. Presentation of "Computer you can eat or Portable.cs.cs.csail. "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century.edu/~aura/ MIT Project Oxygen Web Site.Mukherjee. IEEE Personal Communications. August 2001. A.

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