Chapter 1
Introduction to tourism marketing

marketing ‡ Destination mix: FAITH . travel.Tourism in the experience economy ‡ From service economy to experience economy ‡ Tourism experience ± core value of service delivery in tourism ‡ Tourism system: demand. destination.

Concepts related to customer experience ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Customer expectation Customer perception Customer satisfaction Customer value .

The evolution of marketing concepts ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Production orientation Sales orientation Marketing orientation Personal marketing orientation .

Production orientation ‡ Dominated business operation approaches until mid 1950s ‡ Concerned with product supply issues ‡ Supply shortage comparing to mass demand ‡ Common belief: supply creates its own demand .

Sales orientation ‡ Mid 1950s to early 1970s ‡ More business efforts on sales promotion strategies and advertisements ‡ Still lack of attention to customers¶ needs .

Marketing orientation ‡ Starting from early 1970s ‡ Competitive business environment ‡ Unprecedented attention to consumer needs and wants ‡ Customer centred and marketdriven business practices .

Personal marketing orientation ‡ Propelled by technology ‡ Tailor marketing programs to the individual ‡ Mass customisation ‡ Customer relationship management (CRM) ‡ Database marketing .

What is marketing? ‡ Definitions of marketing ‡ Marketing mix .

offering.Definitions of marketing (1) ‡ Philip Kotler (2003): a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating. and freely exchanging products and services of value with others .

goods. .Definitions of marketing (2) ‡ American Marketing Association (AMA) (1995): the process of planning and executing the conception. pricing. promotion and distribution of ideas. and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational goals.

. communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.Definitions of marketing (3) ‡ AMA (2004): an organizational function and a set of processes for creating.

promotion. people. price. and communication ‡ Seven Ps: Product. price. and physical evidence .Marketing mix ‡ Four Ps: Product. place. and promotion ‡ Four Cs: customer solution. place. convenience. process. customer cost.

Characteristics of tourism services ‡ Characteristics of services ‡ Special features of travel and tourism .

Characteristics of services ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Intangibility Inseparability Variability Perishability .

Special features of travel and tourism ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Seasonality Unclear ownership Interdependence Sensitivity to crises Fixed capacity Shorter exposure to services More emotional buying appeals .

travel and hospitality services .Special features of travel and tourism ‡ Greater emphasis on stature and imagery ‡ More variety and types of distribution channels ‡ Easier copying of services ‡ Difficulty of differentiating tourism.

The importance of tourism marketing ‡ World economic development ‡ Consumer movement patterns ‡ Limited destination information before trip ‡ Multiple service segments in tourism ‡ Marketing ± everybody¶s responsibility .

Destination marketing organisations ‡ National tourism organisations (NTOs)/ national tourism administrations NTAs) ‡ International tourism organisations ‡ Inter.and intra-organisational collaboration .

NTOs/NTAs ‡ Responsible for many aspects of a nation¶s tourism development ‡ Destination marketing as a major or sole function ‡ Branch offices in major source markets .

International tourism organisations ‡ World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) ‡ World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) ‡ Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) .

g.Inter.. UNWTO Silk Road Project ‡ Inter-organisational collaborations within a destination ‡ Departmental collaboration and cooperation within a tourism company .and intraorganisational collaboration ‡ International marketing collaboration: E.

Summary ‡ Nature of tourism in the experience economy ‡ Customer experience related concepts ‡ Evolution of marketing concepts ‡ Definitions of marketing ‡ Characteristics of tourism services ‡ Importance of tourism marketing ‡ Destination marketing organisations .