Perspectives in Communication
Dr. S. PAL*
Distinguished Scientist, Programme Director, SATNAV ISRO Satellite Centre, BANGALORE - 560 017
13th May, 2008
For mankind to survive three things are essential:
♦ ♦ ♦
LOVE ENERGY COMMUNICATION
The last one becomes more important for present days.
• When it come to communication, now-adays there are two buzz words:
♦Communication ♦Information Technology
• The word `Communication' comes from Latin word `Communico' - meaning `share'. It is communication more than anything else which has been responsible for the shrinking of time and distance and with the development of space technology time and distance have lost their conventional meaning, permitting men and women all over the world to share their experiences, frustrations and successes. Present day the world has become a GLOBAL VILLAGE. Man is in a shrinking Globe and expanding Universe. Society is often described as essentially people in communication - Communication in simple terms is nothing but discriminating response to a stimulus. The "quickness of the response" is increasing in leaps and bounds day by day.
• There is another word `information' which is also closely related to communications means "contents" of message. Claude Shannon defined "information" as "Reduction of Uncertainty". Information is also described as "any difference that makes a difference". Information is a notch on the spectrum with raw data on low end and knowledge/wisdom on the high end. It suggests that the raw data when processed becomes information. Information minus noise is intelligence or understanding. Intelligence plus experience is knowledge; and knowledge when further processed, looked through scholastic eyes, gets philosophized and so becomes wisdom which is adored over ages. The present day society is often referred as information society.
In the past few decades, persons and institutions have been progressively unsettled by the rapid pace of social and technological changes brought about by Communications (telephony, TV etc.). In earlier times the world around us seemed more stable and major changes in values, institutions and technology evolved more slowly. It took centuries for the Middle Ages to become the Renaissance, yet many of us have experienced major technological revolution in one life time in the last century.
Many technological reversals have been seen like the telephone which should have been on the wired network has become wireless, while the TV which was wireless now works on cable. Many individual spheres of working have become almost universal, like education has come to the drawing room from school and colleges, sectors like banking, medicines, hospitals etc which were location specific are available on net. There is tremendous convergence and fusion of communications, computers and associated technology in the present era.
We are presently getting on the crest of the third wave which is INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION REVOLUTION more appropriately termed as `IT' -Information Technology, the first being agriculture & the second being ``Industrial Revolution'. As we become increasingly networked, our worlds will grow smaller and bigger simultaneously.
The conventional communication tools are: ♦ Telegraphy using copper wire line ♦ Telephony using copper wire line ♦ Television ♦ New papers, books, etc. ♦ Means of Transport • All these have undergone a tremendous changes. A few new names for the present day communication techniques are: ♦ Electronic/Voice Mail ♦ Space Communications ♦ Private Data Service using VAST ♦ Auto Text Service ♦ Video text service (Fascimile) ♦ Radio trunking/paging ♦ Cellular Mobile Telephone (PCS) ♦ Wireless in local loops ♦ Local National & International information exchange intelligent Networks & Integrated Services Networks
• New ones are:
♦ Mobile Satellite Telephone - Personal Communication Systems ♦ INFOSAT (information satellite) ♦ A major shift from analogue to digital domain ♦ An increase in the value of software as opposed to hardware content ♦ Extension of optical technology towards the local loop coupled with increasing use of optical switches and optical processing ♦ Use of wireless in access technology - New access & Modulation codes ♦ Ultra broad band services ♦ Extensive use of spread spectrum and code division multiple access techniques.
• Services planned / in existence are:
♦Virtual Private Networks. / PCS - Personal Communication Services ♦Call Collect Services / Desk top Video conferencing ♦Card Phone Services/ Tele-education/Telehealth/ Teleshopping ♦Video Telephone / Interactive Video & Video on demand ♦Multimedia transmission / reception /e-mail/eGovernance/e-commerce ♦Global positioning/timing system along with SATNAV ♦Digital TV, Direct TV to Home ♦MOST IMPORTANT - THE INTERNET & WORLD WIDE WEB
• All these need either terrestrial or satellite channels to serve the user. The present day scenario looks like:
Television Cable TV
Internet TV Video on Demand Space Internet Cellular Internet Telephony Home Banking
DVD Telephone Cellular Pager Fax
World Wide Web
Printer VideoCamera Desktop PC PDA Credit Card
Video conferencing Smart Card
A FUTURE COMMUNICATION SCENARIO
• Everyday we manage to bounce radio waves off “Artificial repeater” that we have put into space at around 36000 kms height over the Earth. It is no magic that all these “Artificial Radio Repeaters” termed as “Communication Satellites” are found at that altitude. For at that distance from Earth, these objects orbit this planet with an orbital period of ~24 hours, precisely matching the rotation of the Earth, these objects appear fixed over a single spot on the Equator. It is this aspect due to that we term these objects as geosynchronous or geostationary satellites.
The situation changed considerably in eighties and the communications requirements became really nerveracking. Imagine the transmission reception of signals to satellites from: ♦A ship pitching and rolling on the high seas ♦An aeroplane flying at a speed of >800 kms per hour ♦An orbiting space vehicle/satellite with speeds >7 to 8 kms per second ♦An aeroplane or a ship in distress ♦A mountaineer/A trekker/A forest guard/An elephant/A tiger/A bird/A turtle/a dolphin ♦A man always on move / A motor vehicle. If using satellites to communicate is a great marvel, doing the same without stopping or even slowing down is almost miracle.
Space Communication is provided by satellites in various orbits. Satellites have been put in to all these orbits and successful communication links have been established. It will be a matter of large discussion if one starts explaining the pros & cons of the orbits & their satellites.
20,000 KM MEO
10,000 KM MEO
800 KM MEO
• VARIOUS CONVENTIONAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SERVICES: ∗ Telephony/TV Broadcasting/Data reception and distribution/Direct Television broadcasting/Disaster warning/Continuous weather monitoring/Spacecraft Vehicle Tracking and Commanding/ Intersatellite links/ Mail /Internet/Data mining ∗ Position (GPS) and time determination / Moving motor vehicle tracking etc. * The commercial communication satellite services are rapidly becoming a large & global business increasing from $11 billion in 1992 to $20 billion in 1996 and $75 billion by year 2005. (Projections have come down to $$66.5 billion due to iridium failure and overall slump in the market)
Before one goes ahead with communication satellites, it will be quite important & relevant to talk about latest arrival on the communication technology scene : the INTERNET & THE WEB. Internet the new incarnation of mass communication is becoming quite popular. Internet the parasite which has almost eaten away the host - the telecom channels, is influencing our every sphere of life.
Internet which we know today has come to Asia a couple of years back and recently to India also will play an important role at least till 2005 AD. The internet provides a vast array of services and acts like a multimedia system, information resource and ways to perform work and engage in commerce. It has an estimated 200 million users which gets doubled every year. The internet version 1.0 backbone operates at 56 MBPS which enables the World Wide Web (WWW).
The next stage 3.0 has been denoted "The information Super High Way". Internet 3.0 could provide symmetrical, high bandwidth links that can simultaneously carry telephone, video (Television) and data. Ideally bandwidth could be at a maximum capacity of the copper wire that link central offices & homes at a minimum of 6-25 MBPS. • In assessing the societal implications of powerful historical forces, it is essential to take the long view. However, when events are developing as rapidly as they are on the internet, it is meaningless to look out further than 15 years. • The safest prediction is that by 2010 or 2015 the Internet, as we know it, will no longer exist. There will just be the Net a ubiquitous, broadband data dial-tone provided by a cable telephone, wireless or satellite operators.
• How big according to The Economist, a conservative and perceptive publication not normally known for exaggeration, the impact is likely to be `ahead of the telephone and television but behind the printing press and the motorcar". • The point is that the Net is a phenomenon that cannot be ignored. It is an agent of change in all sectors of society.
The changes won't occur in isolation, but they will be going on simultaneously, resulting in unpredictable, unanticipated synergy. In turn, this will lead to truly profound changes in society & the present technological paradigm. To help all these & to spread the net at a faster pace even to inaccessible & remote places Satellite Communication plays a major role, besides the conventional terrestrial links, optical links etc., which cater to cities and larger population bases owning to the economics.
Having talked about INTERNET let us come back to space communications. The most popular one is going to be :
MOBILE PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
• The ground stations which are becoming smaller and smaller day by day will be of pocket size calculator. The size of the ground station & that of satellites have gone a tremendous change over years.
• Before commenting on any technology or the market it is advisable to look on the s-curve
New technologies and markets are generally characterized by an S- Shaped growth curve
STAGE 1 -->Emerging having slow growth spurred by early adopters
STAGE 2 ----> Rapid growth driven by mass adoption
STAGE 3 ---> Failing off with the adoption by the most conservative population
– It will take time for the market to develop because MSS is the only solution for inaccessible areas & communication during disaster. – MSS operation as of today are planning to give two way broadband internet 200 kbps (for Global Star) 200 Kbps to 30 Mbps (fixed) by ACes. Even INMARSAT is planning to give 144-432 Kbps personal multimedia communication (PMC) using INMARSAT-4 Satellite. New ICO is planning to give `3G' telephony.
• In the foreseeable future new equipments and techniques will be used in satellite technology which will extend and improve the possibilities of satellite communications beyond our present imaginations. Some of these we discuss today: ♦The size of Geo satellite will continue to increase . Incremental improvements are foreseen in intelligent bus design which takes care of the spacecraft control traffic control and particularly the thermal control to allow the use of prime power beyond 10 to 15 KWS. ♦ Small GEOs for smaller capacity routes will also be used (one may seriously start thinking about I-2000 and even Met Sat bus for Indian conditions).
♦Greater Transmit power and more complex antennas on the satellites will make operations possible with a large number of very small Earth stations. ♦DBS/DTH services with 300 - 500 channels.The service may broadcast multimedia & internet .
• Phased array - orbit re-configurable antennas with digital beam forming capable of dynamically sharing RF power, controlling EIRPs and generating large number of spot beams will be used extensively. This may call for large deployable antennas (> 25 meter in diameter), complex feed systems. The similar systems may be even needed for ground networks.
♦Efficient signal processors and switching equipment will enable signal processing to be performed onboard right down to operations similar to switching in exchanges which will provide better mesh connectivity. ATM switches onboard space crafts may be used. Onboard multiplexing of digital TV transmission may be done. ♦Networking technology for the seamless integration of high data rate communication satellites & terrestrial facilities. ♦Direct connections between satellites (Inter satellite links) will shorten the transmission routes. The ISLs could be in millimeter waves or even in optical domain.
♦The use of higher frequency bands (Ka band and V band) & frequency reuse by multiple beams will enlarge the available bandwidths and thus the transmission capacity. Future even space laser communication technique may be employed to increase the data rates to giga bits. ♦Miniaturization of electronics will enhance the launch capabilities & reduce the cost. ♦High speed two way INTERNET - through VSAT. This avoids the installation of broad band access through terrestrial network. It can provide upto 40 MBPS links.
The new breed of satellites will be agile, flexible, intelligent & powerful. They will have digital bandwidth. This makes the services they carry an easy fit in the present digital networks with a specific provider ground equipment. They will: • Switch & route high data rates instantaneously among thousands of users. • Continuously change the antenna beam patterns/eirp as traffic demands • Buffer and multiplex data • Null interference, providing a strong, clear signal & use of adaptic arrays & processing. • Cross link to other satellites (ISL: Optical or V-band) • Use of Soft radio
• The future satellites will be :
• Small Geo - co-located at a single point. Suitable for small transponder demands even suitable for DTH-Ka Band • Large Geo - Suitable for multiple established services/Ku & Ka Band • Mini/micro/mono & pico satellites. • The satellite driven broadband system become more popular because it provides the last mile solution which is a great boon for developing countries.
♦Satellites have innate advantage that make them an attractive alternative or complement to terrestrial broadband circuits. First is speed they can be built , launched and put into service in as little as 12 to 24 months providing the last mile connection. It also provides bandwidth on demand. User pays for the time which he utilizes. ♦Although broad band satellites are considered to be poor cousins of OFC - No country requires more than what satellite cannot give. Europe requirement is 450 Mbits/s and US bound capacity is 3.5 Gbits/S. ♦Many times one feels that for the over capacity of the fibre one has to pay while for space based links you pay for the time you use.
In my opinion SPACE COMMUNICATION SCENARIO will be: • The future Telecommunication spacecraft will be developed from transmission in to Information Satellites (INFOSAT). They will be given many of the properties of terrestrial telephone exchanges and signal processing equipments and it will be possible to integrate them directly into future global networks. • They will thus permit immediate applications of many existing and future services. Because of their inherent built up flexibility, these satellites will be able to support and speed up the initial experimental phase of many new services before their trial on terrestrial networks. These type of satellites will enable new services to be tried out over a large area before being put in to the market and optimally adapted to suit the most appropriate transmission medium.
• The satellite platform will have multiple reconfigurable antennas/transmitters with dynamic power sharing / Receivers in various frequency ranges / large reconfigurable switching matrices at baseband and at RF level / intersatellite links permitting signals to be exchanged between satellites according to changing requirements / complex and efficient analog / optical / digital signal processors / New modulation technique and multiple access techniques. • It will be sufficiently broadband systems & may have even optical space communication components.
The satellites besides their autonomous control and power generation equipment may have sensors to observe the earth’s atmosphere and pass the data to an appropriate station after processing. This will help to deal with the situation like Orissa Cyclone. Such a system will obviously have Geo synchronous spacecraft with some orbiting satellites to take care of North/South pole regions.
• Presently man is in a shrinking globe and also in expanding universe with lots of technological surprises for the technological pandits. We are becoming increasing networked thereby our world is growing smaller & bigger simultaneously. Space Communication in all its forms will complement the terrestrial technologies. Vision is always of one of hope for human betterment.
il -ma E
OBP, ISL,Phased Array
W A A o Br ba ad nd t In
Broad Band Satellite Links
eM m Ti k fe or Li etw N
e ptiv a Ad
DBS - 300 Channels
CONVERGENCE and FUSION of various Communication Technologies
T ble Ca
∇• A ≠ 0
INDIAN NATIONAL SPACE SYSTEMS LAUNCH VEHICLES
ROAD MAP – Satellites & Launch vehicles
AERIAL EXPTS ICC SITE STEP
OPERATIONAL APPLNS INSAT - 3 A,B,C,E 2000- 2003 INSAT-3D INSAT–4 A ,B ,C RISAT SRE TES 2001 KALPANA-1 2002 CARTOSAT 2/2A/2B CHANDRAYAAN-1 ASTROSAT GSAT 1- 4
IRS - 1 C , D 1988 & 90 INSAT - 2 A,B,C,D,E 1992-99 IRS HAMSAT P 2- 6
INSAT - 1 A,B,C,D IRS - 1A ,B 1982 & 83 ROHINI 1979-81
SROSS 1987- 94
MEGHA-TROPIQUE PSLV GSLV MK I, III LEOS IISU
BHASKARA -1 , 2 SLV-3 1979 & 81 ARYABHATTA 1975 1st ROCKET 1963 SSTC INCOSPAR ESCES VSSC SAC ISAC SDSC NRSA
LISS-3 (23/70M) STEERABLE PAN (5.8 M); WiFS (188M) (1KM RESOLUTION; EVERY 30 MINUTES)
LISS3 - 23 M; 4 XS LISS4 - 5.8 M; 3-XS AWIFS - 60 M; 4-XS
OCEANSAT OCM, MSMR LISS-1&2 (72/36M, 4 BANDS; VIS & NIR)
PAN - 2.5M, 30 KM, F/A
LUNAR TERRAIN MAPPING 5 M , 80 M
Satellites in operation at present
INDIAN IMAGING CAPABILITY
KALPANA IRS-P4 IRS-1C/1D IRS-P6 IRS-1C/1D IRS-P6
CLIMATE/ WEATHER OCEAN APPLICATION NATIONAL
CARTOSAT-1 2.5 M
SURVEYS NATURAL RESOURCE MAPPING
INSAT-1 (12C,6Ext-C,6KU) (12Ext-C,3KU,MSS)
(Meteorology) GSAT 1 (4C,2KU,MSS) (24C,6Ext-C)
APPLE (12C , 5Ext-C)
INSAT-3D (6 Ch.IMAGER,19 Sounder)
(6Ext-C,6KU) GSAT 4 , 5 (Ka Band,12C,6 Ext .C) INSAT 4 Series (12C,12KU) INSAT- 4B , 4C
INSAT-2 C,D INSAT-2 A ,B
Satellites in operation at present
Satellite Services ; and
(INSAT 2E,3A,3B,3C,3E,Kalpana,GSAT-2,GSAT-3,INSAT- 4A, HAMSAT)
• C-band Fixed Satellite Service ; Ku-band Fixed Satellite Services ; Broadcast Mobile Satellite Services
• One of the largest domestic satellite communication systems in ASIA Pacific Region (174 transponders & growing)
Uniquely tailored to develop innovative grass root level applications
EDUSAT INSAT-3E GSAT-2 74 KALPANA-1 55 48 INSAT-3C INSAT-4A 83 93.5 INSAT-2E INSAT-3B INSAT-3A
C Band Ext C Band Ku Band BSS
SPEECH CIRCUITS ON TRUNK ROUTES TV BROADCASTING RADIO NETWORKING BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS VSAT CONNECTIVITY TELE-EDUCATION/TRAINING TELE-MEDICINE SEARCH AND RESCUE SERVICES METEOROLOGY IMAGING DISASTER WARNING SYSTEM DATA COLLECTION PLATFORMS
WEIGHT(t) PAYLOAD (kg) FLIGHTS
400 1800 GTO 3 ( 2001-04)
629 4000 GTO --
294 1200 SSO 8 (94 –03)
Chandrayaan-1 – Mission to Moon
Objective : Simultaneous Chemical and mineralogical mapping of the Moon Lunar polar 100Km Orbit, 2 years life ISRO Instruments: Terrain Mapping Camera Hyper Spectral Imager Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument High Energy X-ray spectrometer and Moon Impacter ? Opportunity Instruments : M3 , JPL/NASA miniSAR , APL/NASA SIR-2 , MPS/ESA CIXS, RAL/ESA SARA, Swedan/ESA & SPL ISRO RADOM – Bulgaria
1305 Kgs Liftoff, 505kgs Dry mass, 590kgs Lunar orbit BOL mass 3 – axis stabilised, 700w solar power Launcher PSLV – XL Schedule – 2007 - 2008
ASTROSAT - A Multi wavelength Space Observatory
ORBIT : 650 Km, 8 deg. Inclination WEIGHT : 1550 Kg LAUNCH : 2008 on PSLV from India
Canadian Space Agency University of Leicester, UK
Indian Space Research Organization Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Indian Institute of Astrophysics Inter University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics Raman Research Institute
GEO 34,83,132 GSO 55,111
GEO Satellites Technologies/Capabilities
The Country’s satellite based services from the operational INSAT system and to realise & demonstrate new space technologies in-orbit.
RECEIVERS- C, Ku Band
COMMUNICATION PAYLOAD ELEMENTS
HYBRID MICRO CIRCUITS
MINIATURISATION – HMC, MCMs
70 AH Battery INSAT 4A
POWER GENERATION & STORAGE
PHASED ARRAY ANTENNA SHAPED REFLECTOR ANTENNA – Ku Band
COMMUNICATION : ANTENNA ELEMENTS
Digital Sun Sensors & Sensor Electronics Static Earth Sensor
Fine Sun Sensor
Dual Cone Earth Sensor
ELECTRO OPTICAL ELEMENTS : SENSORS & OPTICS
Evolution of space technology in INDIA (1970-2006)
Al sheet structure Graphite & Titanium
SPACECRAFT STRUCTURE : I-2K BUS
• 100 Cm diameter Rocket 3.5 mtr Rocket • <50 Kg rocket 450 Tonnes • Solid propellent Liquid Cryo
400 Kg Space craft
4000kg Space craft
INDIAN IMAGING CAPABILITY - SATELLITES
• EVERY 30 MIN. IMAGING • 1:1M+ SCALES • CLIMATE/WEATHER
• EVERY 22 DAYS IMAGING • 1:50K SCALES
• EVERY 2 DAYS IMAGING • 1:250K SCALES • OCEAN APPLICATIONS
• DETAILED RESOURCES SURVEY
• EVERY 5 DAYS IMAGING • 1:12500 SCALES
IRS-1C/1D,P6 IRS-P4 LISS
• LARGE SCALE MAPPING • STEREO CAPABILITY
• EVERY 5 DAYS IMAGING • 1:250K SCALES • NATIONAL SURVEYS
• LOCAL AREA IMAGING • 1:2000/4000/1:8000 SCALES
• STEREO CAPABILITY • STEP AND STARE
400 KMS obit
To Lunar Orbit
Optical Remote Sensing
• CMOS / BIPOLAR
• PCB MLB • 1KBS(Memory) • Cold compressed gas bottle spin stabilization • VHF,UHF, L,S,C,X,Ku • Orbital Accuracy 1-5 Kms • 100 Kbps (BHASKARA) • AM (ARYABHATTA)
ASICS,FPGA,DSP,GaAsFET MMIC,MEMS MLHMCs 128 GB(SSR)
3 Axis Stabilization Ka & V Bands <10M – 20 Cm (Use of GPS) 620 Mbps(RISAT) QPSK, DATACOMPRESSION ENCRYPTION