What is a 3D IC? Could be Heterogeneous Stacked 2D (Conventional) ICs .

Motivation Interconnect structures increasingly consume more of the power and delay budgets in modern design Plausible solution: increase the number of ³nearest neighbors´ seen by each transistor by using 3D IC design Smaller wire cross-sections. 130 nm technology node. smaller wire pitch and longer lines to traverse larger chips increase RC delay. .RC delay is increasingly becoming the dominant factor At 250 nm Cu was introduced alleviate the adverse effect of increasing interconnect delay. substantial interconnect delays will result.

L. C can be minimized by stacking active Si layers ‡ Number of horizontal interconnects can be minimized by using vertical interconnects ‡ Disparate technology integration possible. L. C of interconnects ‡ Interconnect length and therefore R..g. memory & logic.1 0.3D ICs with Multiple Active Si Layers Motivation ‡ Performance of ICs is limited due to R. e. etc.5 Generation (µm) 1 Gate n+/p+ n+/p+ M¶1 Via T1 Logic . optical I/O. Gate n+/p+ n+/p+ Repeaters optical I/O devices VILIC Interconnect delay 2 1 active Si layer Gate delay M4 M3 M2 M1 Gate n+/p+ n+/p+ Delay 3 T2 M¶2 Memory Analog 0.

-Similar Electrical Properties on all devices -Independent of temp. -Offers Flexibilty of creating multiple layers -Compatible with current processing environments -Useful for Stacked SRAM and EEPROM cells . since all chips are fabricated then bonded -Good for applications where chips do independent processing -However Lack of Precision(alignemnt) restricts interchip communication to global metal lines.3D Fabrication Technologies ‡ Many options available for realization of 3D circuits ‡ Choice of Fabrication depends on requirements of Circuit System Beam Recrystallization Deposit polysillicon and fabricate TFTs -not practial for 3D circuits due to high temp of melting polysillicon -Suffers from Low carrier mobility -However high perfomance TFT¶s have been fabricated using low temp processing which can be used to implement 3D circuits Processed Wafer Bonding Bond two fully processed wafers together. Silicon Epitaxial Growth Epitaxially grow a single cystal Si -High temperatures cause siginificant cause significant degradation in quality of devices on lower layers -Process not yet manufacturable Solid Phase Crystallization Low Temp alternative to SE.

Performance Characteristics  Timing  Energy With shorter interconnects in 3D ICs. both switching energy and cycle time are expected to be reduced .

timing is interconnect driven. ‡ .Timing ‡ ‡ In current technologies. Reducing interconnect length in designs can dramatically reduce RC delays and increase chip performance. The graph below shows the results of a reduction in wire length due to 3D routing.

. Energy dissipation decreases with the number of layers used in the design.Energy performance Wire length reduction has an impact on the cycle time and the energy dissipation.

Energy performance graphs .

g. e. µ-Processors . DRAM ‡ Logic.Chip Size Device Size Limited PMOS Wire Pitch Limited 1 1 NMOS 1 ‡ Memory: SRAM..

10 0 s n i p O / I f o r e b m u 10 N Inte l D ata T = k NP T = # of I/O terminals N = # of gates k = avg. N .Rent s Rule 10 00 R e n t 's R u le f it N gates T .0 9 1 1E + 02 1E + 03 1E + 04 1E + 05 1E + 06 1E + 07 N u m b e r o f G a te s . I/O¶s per gate P = Rent¶s exponent T = 2 .

.  RELIABLITY ISSUES IN 3-D ICs.CHALLENGES FOR 3-D INTEGRATION:  THERMAL ISSUES IN 3-D ICs.

international business machines(IBM). The cost is so largely because the stacked chips contain the same amount of circuitry as flash cards but use a much smaller area of the extremely expensive silicon wafers that form the basis for all silicon chips. . First products will be memory chips called 3-Dmemory. current flash memory cards for such devices are rewritable but expensive .including groups at Massachusetts institute of technology (MIT).PRESENT SCENARIO OF THE 3-D IC INDUSTRY Many companies are working on the 3-D chips . for consumer electronics like digital cameras and audio players.

costs as little as a disk. battery efficient compact and require no bulky drive technologies. Flash and other non volatile memories are much more rugged. but they requires drives that are expensive bulky . and is as convenient as 35 mm film and audio tape. The ideal solution is a 3-D memory that leverages all the benefits of non volatile media.ADVANTAGES OF 3-D MEMORY Disks are inexpensive.fragile and consume a lot of battery power. .

smart cellular phones. easier to use products. digital audio players.APPLICATIONS Portable electronic digital cameras. . PDAs. and handheld gaming devices are among the fastest growing technology market for both business and consumers. Manufacturers of memory driven devices can now reach price points previously inaccessible and develop richer. Existing mask ROM and NAND flash non volatile technology force designers and product planners to make the difficult choice between low cost or field programmability and Flexibility.

the European electronic giant. and standard memory packages.FUTURE OF THE 3-D IC INDUSTRY Thomson electronics. The first 3-D chips will contain 64 MB. version with 128 MB and 192 MB will appear later. will begin to incorporate 3-D memory chips from matrix semiconductor in portable storage cards. a strong endorsement for the chip start up. for using embedded applications such as PDAs and set-top boxes . three product categories are planned: bland memory cards: cards sold preloaded with content. The first Technicolor cards will offer 64 MB of memory. such as software or music . Matrix is working with partners including Microsoft Corp. Thomas Multimedia. Eastman Kodak and Sony Corp. . Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. is producing the chips on behalf of matrix.

the world of chips may never look at the same again. The multilayer chip building technology opens up a whole new world of design like a city skyline transformed by skyscrapers. . inexpensive chips that promise to make digital recording media both cheap and convenient enough to replace the photographic film and audio tape.CONCLUSION The 3 D memory will just be the first of a new generation of dense.

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