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2 Observation is not enough
2 A process to answer questions
2 Scientific Method
2 Make an observation
2 Ask a question
2 Form a hypothesis
2 Experiments to gather data
2 Test the hypothesis
2 Draw a conclusion
2 Ôan have more than one (alternative
2 Must be testable
2 States a relationship between variables
2 Are very specific
2 Null hypothesis
2 States that there is no difference
2 Design a controlled experiment
2 Must be repeatable
2 Tests only one thing at a time
2 Ôan be quantitative (numerical) or qualitative
(nonnumerical) data
2 Includes a control
2 Provides the data that determines if a
hypothesis is accepted or rejected
2 Data collected is called raw data
2 Statistics allow us to describe data from a
sample and make a broader statement about
the population from which the sample came
2 Mean, Standard Deviation, Range, Standard
Error, Ôonfidence intervals, etc
2 There is no difference between two or more
2 There is no difference between results
obtained and those expected
2 If statistics are significantly different (more
than natural variation), then null hypothesis is
2 Significantly means more than 5% difference
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2 Taxis ± movement toward or away from a
2 Stimuli ± light, food, predator
2 Hypothesis is written before the
2 Are there any alternative
2 ]orking In groups of 4
2 Ôhoose a stimuli to test
2 Plan your experiment
2 Observe before adding a stimuli
2 Use about 20 ¦  per test
2 Run multiple tests (min of 3, more is better)
Sc c
2 Due Sept 23
2 Paper worth 100pts or about 20% of lab
2 Submit through Safe Assignment on
2 ]ritten about your experiments V  research
on ¦   
2 No direct quotes
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2 Typed!
2 12 pt Arial or Times New Roman
2 2.54cm margins
2 Label each section
2 Do not leave blank spaces
2 Do not write in first person
2 Short label (not too wordy)
2 Helps readers determine to read it or not
2 Fewest words that adequately express the
2 1/3 way down the paper
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2 One paragraph
2 Summarizes the objectives and hypothesis,
method (brief), results summarized, and
2 Does not include references
2 ]ritten below the title

2 First paragraph introduces topic, a description

of the nature and background of the problem
and how it relates to the larger subject of
2 ]hat do we already know
2 Developed by citing sources
2 Point out any gaps in our knowledge
2 Paragraphs 2-3 further develops the topic in
regards to your specific area of interest
2 States the objective of the study
2 ]hy are you writing the paper?

2 Final paragraph specifically states the
objective and how it ties to the preceding
2 States hypothesis and how it will be tested
2 States the predicted outcome based on what
is known
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2 Describes how, when, where, and what you
2 Enough information it can be repeated
2 Use scientific names
2 How was data collected? How many times?
2 How was the data analyzed and
summarized? Ôommonly used statistics do
not need to be described, just stated how you
used them
2 Ôlearly summarize your findings with no
interpretations but indicates important trends
or patterns
2 Tables and graphs are excellent ways to
present results but does not replace a written
summary (must have at least 1)
2 How is the best way to present data?
2 Tables and graphs need a title, labeled axes,
and scaled units
2 Lists the results of any statistical tests
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2 Discuss what your findings mean

2 Interpret your results supporting your
conclusions with evidence
2 First paragraph should refer to your
2 Next part should state whether others in the
field support the findings from your study (do
not repeat information from the introduction)
2 Describe any problems you encountered
2 End with an overall summary of your findings
and conclusions
2 Need at least 3 primary sources
2 List all references cited in your paper
2 Library Lab next week (Room 101)
2 List alphabetically