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Building type : Transport building, Airport facilities
Location : Changi
Changi,, Singapore
Completion : 2001
Owner : Land Transport Authority(LTA)
Public Works Department(PWD)
Design consultant : Skidmore Owings & Merril LLP

Structural consultant : Ove Arup & Partners

Ä Airport is operated by the Changi International
Group ʹ home base of Singapore Airlines,
Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir
SilkAir,, Tiger Airways,
Jetstar Asia Airways, Valuair and Jett8 Airlines
Ä 4340 weekly flights operated by 80 airlines to 130
cities in 59 countries.[as of APRIL 2008]
Ä In 2009
the airport handled 37, 203, 978 passengers
21st busiest airport in the world and the 5th busiest in Asia
by passenger traffic
airport is one of the busiest cargo airports in the world,
handling 1.66 million tons of cargo
Ä Singapore International Airport at Paya Lebar -
Opened in 1955 with a single runway and a small
passenger terminal
Ä Singapore͛s third main civilian airport after Seletar
Airport (main airport from 1930-
1930-37) and Kallang
Airport (1937-
Ä With growth in global aviation transport, the
airport was facing congestion problems ʹ inability
to cope with the rising traffic became critical by
the 1970s: annual passenger numbers rose
dramatically from 30,000 in 1955 to 1,700,000 in
1970 and 4,000,000 in 1975.
Ä In 1972, they decided to keep the airport at Paya Lebar
(recommendation of a British aviation consultant). Plans
were made for the building of a second runway and an
extensive redevelopmeny and expansion to the
passenger terminal building. After a year, the plans were
reviewed again as the pressure to expand the airport
eases due to the 1973 oil crisis.
Ä 1975 ʹ the government subsequently decided to build a
new airport at the eastern tip of the main island of
Changi,, at the existing base of Changi Air Base, where the
new airport would be easily expandable through land
Ä The airport in Paya Lebar was subsequently converted for
military use as the Paya Lebar Air Base
Ä one of the largest single development projects
in Singapore͛s history
Ä 1975--land reclamation works involving over
52,000,000 square meters of landfill and sea fill
[led by PSA chairman 6owe Yoon Chong]
Ä Canals were built to drain water from three
rivers, Sungei Tanah Merah Besar,
Besar, Sungei Ayer
Gemuroh and Sungei Mata Ikan Ikan..
Ä In total, 8.7 sq km were reclaimed, raising the
total site area to 13 sq km.
Ä 558 buildings, exhuming around 4,100 graves,
a 38.1 cm gun replacement at Changi and
diverting the three streams to the western side
of the former Royal Air Force runway, which
was to be used for the new 4,000 m runway
Ä Despite the airport opening in 1981, some
sections were not completed. The big aircraft
hangar was only completed in 1982; 1983 ʹ
first runway; 1989 ʹ Terminal 2, November
1990 ʹ opening; 1 June 1991 ʹ official opening
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Ä Configured in a 6-
6-shaped layout
to maximise the number of
aerobridges which may be built,
it underwent two major
upgrading works over its lifespan.
A major refurbishment was
completed in 1995 at a cost of
S$170 million and work to extend
two finger piers to add 14
aerobridges at a cost of S$420
million took place from 1996 to
1999. Today, the terminal spans
an area of 280,020 m² and can
accommodate a maximum
passenger capacity of 21 million
passengers a year.
Ä Terminal 2 opened on 22 November 1990
as part of Phase II in the original airport
masterplan.. Deploying a linear
configuration parallel to the runways, it is
located adjacent to Terminal 1 towards
the south, and heralded the opening of
the original skytrain system linking the
two terminals via the landside.
Ä Terminal 2 is split into four sections with
gate numbers carrying the letter of their
section. The terminal hosts a cinema and
a Burger King as well as countless number
of shops. The centrepiece is the indoor
garden. The terminal also has an outdoor
rooftop garden and a technology section
showcasing the world's largest plasma
screen. The carpets are green and the
gate information is displayed on LCD
screens. Security checks must be
completed prior to entering the gate
Ä Designed by CPG
Corporation, with Skidmore,
Owings and Merrill
designing the roof feature
and interior design by
Woodhead Wilson, Terminal
3 departs from the largely
utilitarian architecture in the
first two terminals. Like
other new airports in the
region, it has a structure
mainly made of glass, with
big transparent spaces
inside the terminal.
Ä The design of the terminal
building utilizes the consistent
equatorial sun to limit the
amount of energy required for
lighting and minimizes the
cooling load of the building. A
single flat roof spans the major
spaces of terminal 3. At 250
meters by 300 meters it covers
approximately 22 acres. Within
the structural framework of the
roof a pattern of 2000 skylight
openings has been established
that will allow the terminal to be
illuminated completely by natural
daylight for eight hours a day,
regardless of cloud cover.
Ä Daylight is modified by a
system of louvers both above
and below the roof to meet
the requirements of the zones
of the building. On cloudy
days they open to admit the
maximum amount of
illumination. If the electronic
sensors detect a cloudless sky
the louvers close to limit the
amount of light and heat
entering the building.
Ä In landscaped areas the
louvers are designed to reflect
additional daylight towards
the plants. More light is also
allowed into the circulation
and retail areas where
changing patterns on the floor
and walls help animate the
space. The louvers below the
roof are fixed at specific angles
that allow some to channel
daylight to the floor of the
terminal while other reflect
light up to the ceiling. By night,
artificial light from easily
accessible sources near the
floor is reflected off the
louvers to provide uniform
illumination within the
Ä The Singapore Ministry of Transport is
currently working on a masterplan on
Terminal 4. Aviation experts estimate the
terminal will be built in the next 10 to 15
years, although the government has not
released any further details on the project.
Ä Privately run terminal, located
next to T2.
Ä It was converted from the
former VIP terminal that used
to handle foreign dignitaries.
Ä It is an elite, dedicated CIP
(Commercially Important
People) terminal that can now
be used by any passenger
travelling in any class, on any
airline, through any of the
main terminals (T1, T2, or T3).
Ä JetQuay provides private
check--in, baggage handling,
and immigration clearance
Ä Opened as a dedicated terminal catering
to the budget traveller. The name of the
Budget Terminal was decided as a result of
a naming contest open to the public. The
terminal is not included in the numbering
scheme even though it is the third
terminal to be opened and Terminal 3 is
actually the fifth terminal opened at the
Ä A range of duty-free shops and Food and
Beverage outlets, and free internet
terminals are available. There is no
transfer facility at the Budget Terminal.
Passengers who need to make transfers
need to clear immigration (and get the
appropriate visas at their homecountry if
applicable), collect their luggage, clear
customs, make their way to the main
terminal by taking the zero-fare shuttle
buses and check-in again with the
respective airline.
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