Desalination of water

Desalination desalination is a process that removes Salts and dissolved solids.   .

Types of desalination brackish water  seawater ‡ .

 Brackish water  Saltier than fresh water  High salt content (20 ppt)  Found in bays and estuaries  Aiso found in aquifers .

Sea water Contain high salt Concentation of salt greater than 20 ppt Also found in estuaries where fresh water Mixes with saltwater .

Brackish water better to desalinate than Seawater Brackish water is less salty .Desalination plant can be located on the coast or inland. .

Working Two types *thermal *membrane .

Thermal method Either heat or high pressure is applied to feedwater to bring it to a boil and produce steam. The steam condenses into freshwater .

This is one method. .Membrane method Uses electric current to attract the salt molecules through a Membrane.

Other method Employs high pressure is applied to the force the water through the membrane .

Places Several countries in the middle east and the caribbean heavily on desalination. .

.the solution with the lower concentration will move towards the higher concentration.if a semipermeable separate solutions with different concentrations of dissolved solids.Reverse osmosis  under natural conditions .

 Desalination water process produces two Streams of water Two types *product water *brine water .

Product water  To avoid of salts and minerals Brine water  High concentrations of salts and minerals .

suspended solids . . Does desalination only remove salt?  desalination removes much more than salt alone.such as algae and bacteria.viruses and organic Compound.  A RO plant can remove all minerals .

Energy Consumption Trends in RO  Seawater (SWRO) energy reduction history Early SWRO plants were built without energy recovery systems In the 1980 s Pelton Wheels were used to capture unused energy from the concentrate streams In 2000 isobaric energy recovery devices came into wide usage with 95% efficiency .

Desalination Environmentally Friendly  SWRO systems are environmentally friendly and global experience has shown no negative effects on flora and fauna near installations  Seawater is not heated like older thermal systems  Concentrate is returned to sea via dispersion headers to facilitate mixing  No (minimal) chemical usage  Plant buildings are low-profile and have pleasant visual impact  Intakes are designed to be non-lethal to fish and other sea life .

the ultimate source of sustainable potable water is DESALINATION .Desalination  Seawater covers over 75% of the Earth s surface  As global population grows to over 6 billion by 2050.

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